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Berne Union Files Maintained by Development Finance Services, Economic Program Department

The International Union of Credit and Investment Insurers (Berne Union) was formed in 1934 with members from France, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom. Its purpose was to foster international acceptance of sound principles of export credit insurance; to establish and maintain discipline in terms of credit for international trade; to maintain sound principles of foreign investment insurance; to encourage a favorable investment climate; and to exchange information, assistance, expertise, and advice in relation to the commercial and political risks associated with export credit and investment insurance.

The January 1965 to January 1970 files cover the period when Andr Nespoulous-Neuville served as a World Bank observer to Berne Union Extraordinary General Meetings held in January and Annual General Meetings usually held in May of the same year. Most meeting files for the period include correspondence regarding meeting arrangements, provisional and final programs and lists of participants, lists of countries to be reviewed at the meetings, press releases (press notices), minutes of the meetings provided by the Berne Union Secretary-General, and the observer's Back-to-Office reports. Some of Nespoulous-Neuville's reports and other correspondence regarding Berne Union are addressed to the President of the Bank, the Director and Associate Director of the Development Services Department, and the Director, Development Finance Services where he was on staff.

The file for the 20 - 25 May 1967 Annual General Meeting in Wiesbaden contains a copy of a statement made by Nespoulous-Neuville at the meeting on the World Bank's Staff Study of Supplier' Credits from Industrialized to Developing Countries. The file for the 16 - 20 January 1967 meeting in Meg?ve includes a copy of a January 26, 1967 letter from Nespoulous-Neuville to the Secretary-General of Berne Union informing him that the Berne Union President had agreed at the meeting to send the World Bank all documents of general interest to the Bank. Most of the files dated after this letter usually include statistical data and other Berne Union documents not previously distributed to the Bank. The file for the London meeting, June 4-9, 1968 is the first to include a letter of invitation to the observer to participate in country review discussions at the meetings.

Nespoulous-Neuville left Development Finances Services before the May 1970 Annual General Meeting and was succeeded as a Bank observer at that meeting by Ugo Sachetti, the Director, Development Finance Services, which became the International Finance Division in the January 15, 1971 Bank reorganization. Sachetti served as observer through the May 1971 Annual General Meeting held in Washington, DC. Among topics discussed at that meeting were the responses to a questionnaire regarding the availability of export credit insurance to Ghana. Some responses are part of the file for that meeting.

Correspondence and Files Created for Research Projects in Support of Operations (Operations Policy Files)

The series consists of correspondence of Departments and of other organizational units of the Development Policy Staff (DPS), Central Projects Staff (CPS), and the Regional Offices primarily with the Vice President, Development Policy (VPD), the Director, Development Policy, and the DPS Research Adviser concerning research projects in support of operations. Most of these projects were funded through the Bank's External Research Budget beginning in 1972, but the series also includes correspondence relatingto research funded through Department resources. The remainder of the series consists of: research project files, 1972 - 1974 and sector research files, 1975 - 1977.

The research correspondence for the 1972 - 1974 period includes: research proposals forwarded by DPS, CPS, and Regional Office departments to the Research Committee; reports of reviews of research proposals by Research Committee review panels; memos concerning funding estimates for approved research projects; lists of projects requiring funding submitted by the Departments; research project status reports; correspondence of VPD, Bank Departments, and Regional Offices with outside consultants conducting research for approved projects; Terms of Reference (TOR); Back - to - Office Reports (BTOs) for missions associated with research projects; and research proposals from outside researchers and multi-national organizations and responses to these proposals. Also with the 1972 - 1974 correspondence is a copy of the pamphlet World Bank Research Program - Policies and Procedures.

Found with the 1972 - 1974 correspondence are reports prepared in 1973 at the request of Ernest Stern, (Director, Development Policy), which provided information for the first comprehensive report on the Bank's external research program in 1973. Among these reports is a 28 September 1973 status report prepared by the Director, Policy Planning and Program Review Department, DPS of 58 policy papers underway and planned for FY 1974 - FY 1975 and policy papers added, completed, and dropped. A November 30, 1973 update of this report is also in the files. Also among the 1972 - 1974 correspondence are copies of letters and other correspondence concerning the Task Force on Education and Development (ECIEL) and other research issues coming out of the conference on social research held at Bellagio, Italy in February 1974 and co-sponsored by the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations, the Bank, the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), and the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). Filed at the end of the correspondence for 1972 - 1974 are project files relating to various topics including anthropology, export promotion and preference, growth potential of iron ore from developing countries, and urban transport and the automobile.

The research correspondence for 1975 - 1977, while similar in content to the earlier 1972 - 1974 correspondence, includes for the first time copies of mostly administrative correspondence of the Secretary to the Research Committee, Orville F. Grimes, Jr., including copies of Research Committee review panel announcements and minutes of Research Committee meetings. The 1975 - 1977 correspondence also includes Grimes' memos to supervisors of external research projects requesting input for the Abstracts of Current Studies booklet issued annually; copies of revisions of procedures for preparation and submissions of research proposals and informal guidelines for panel review of proposals issued by the Research Adviser; a copy of a bibliography on foreign aid prepared in VPD and furnished to the Executive Directors (EDS) on 19 March 1976 covering publications dated from 1968 to 1975; drafts of sections of the Annual Report on Research forwarded for comment by VPD; correspondence concerning the formation in 1977 of the Research Advisory Panel on Income Distribution and Employment (RAPIDE), including an informal history of the origins of the Research Committee prepared by Grimes (10 October 1972); and a report prepared at VPD's request by the Chief Economist, Latin America and the Caribbean Regional Office, concerning prospective research in country analysis and identification of areas justifying increased external funding or internal staff time.

Immediately following the research correspondence, 1975 - 1977 are three folders, apparently created by Grimes, which contain copies of grey cover annual reports of the World Bank Research Program for 30 December 1975, 8 January 1975, and 13 January 1977, and an annotated draft of the annual report for 1978. A folder on cotton research precedes the 1975-1977 sector research project files which are similar in content to the earlier (1972 - 1974) research project files. The kinds of documents found in the three 1975-1977 research study files at the end of the series (Kenya Socio-Economic Impact, Private Sector Development Study, Socio-Economic Impact Study) are similar to those found in the earlier research project files.

Correspondence Concerning the World Bank's Research Program

This series contains primarily letters and memoranda sent and received by the staff of the Vice President, Development Policy (VPD) and by members of the Development Policy Staff and departments. The series consists of two parts: general correspondence and correspondence concerning research on specific subjects (sectors). Much of the general correspondence is from the secretary of the Research Committee (RC) forwarding to committee members meeting agenda, packets of materials to be reviewed in meetings, and minutes of meetings; establishing informal review panels to evaluate research proposals; requesting or commenting on project narratives, status reports, project abstracts, or completion reports from project managers; responding to requests for research funds from non-Bank economists; and transmitting ideas for the World Development Report (WDR) to the WDR staff.

Other correspondence includes letters from VPD Chenery inviting Bank staff to be members of the Research Committee; memoranda from the chairsof review panels reporting the results of the panels' reviews; memoranda from the RC secretary and from other VPD staff outlining procedures for submission and review of research proposals and explaining why a research proposal was not approved by the RC or what changes were required before approval would be granted; letters from Regional economists or from sector staff transmitting research proposals to the RC; and memoranda from the Director, Development Policy, responding to questions from the Executive Directors regarding the Bank's research program. Beginning in May 1978, much of the correspondence consists of copies of letters sent by President McNamara and by VPD staff to members of the General Research Advisory Panel and the Special Research Advisory Panels. Also included is correspondence regarding implementation of the Panels' recommendations. At the end of the general correspondence, there is a folder containing copies of the FY 1977 annual report: World Bank Research Program, January 23, 1978, and a June 19, 1979 Updating Report on the World Bank Research Program.

The second part of the series, which primarily concerns sector research, includes comments on research proposals, review panels' decisions on proposals, Back-to-Office reports from research-related missions, and correspondence responding to GRAP recommendations for research in a sector.

Subject Files of the Research Advisers

This series contains the subject files of Research Advisers Ernest Stern (originally titled Senior Adviser) and, beginning in April 1974, Benjamin B. King. After King left the position in March 1977, Ian M.D. Little and Bela Belassa served as acting Research Adviser until the appointment of Shankar Acharya in July 1979. The files include the advisers' correspondence with President McNamara, the Vice President of Development Policy, the directors and staff of the Development Policy departments, members ofthe Research Committee, and non-Bank research professionals. This series also includes some correspondence of the Research Committee secretary. A file on the early administration of the World Bank's research program, 1971 - 1974, includes a history and description of the research program, outlines of research priorities, and memoranda on the policy of long-term consultant appointments funded from the External Research Budget.

Other files contain: tables and correspondence regarding the research budget and the funding of specific projects, July 1971-June 1973; correspondence on rejected proposals, October 1971 - May 1974, including comments on the project proposals and memoranda explaining why specific research proposals were rejected; agenda (May 1971 - June 1979) and minutes ( April 1971 - October 1974; January 1975 - March 1979) of Research Committee meetings; minutes of Review Panel meetings, 1972 - 1978; correspondence regarding the size and membership of the Research Committee, 1971 - 1979; correspondence regarding research proposals (instructions and deadlines for submitting proposals, memoranda conveying the decisions of the Research Committee, lists of proposals each department planned to submit in the coming fiscal year), 1972 - 1974; comments on drafts of the annual report to the Executive Directors on the research program and memoranda summarizing the response of the Directors to the report, 1973 - 1974; correspondence regarding the evaluation of urban development projects and the financing of these evaluations, 1972 - 1975; correspondence with non-Bank personnel, 1971 - 1974 (filed under Outside Correspondence); excerpts from Research Committee minutes and memoranda on funding the sector research program, 1973 - 1977; and information regarding the Development Policy staff's participation and attendance at the International Meetings of the Directors of Development Research and Training Institutes, OECD [Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development] in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, August 1972, and in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, August 1974.

Records of the General Research Advisory Panel and the Special Research Advisory Panels

This series contains the records of the General Research Advisory Panel (GRAP), reports of most of the Special Research Advisory Panels, and detailed records of two of the Special Panels: the Research Advisory Panel on Industrial Development and Trade (ID and T) and the Research Advisory Panel on Income Distribution and Employment (RAPIDE). The GRAP was a panel of outside experts chaired by Sir Arthur Lewis and established by the Bank in 1978 to review the entire research program of the Bank. GRAP was assisted in its work by eight Special Research Advisory Panels which examined and made recommendations on Bank research in specific sectors: Agriculture and Rural Development; Industrial Development and Trade; Commodities; Energy, Water and Telecommunications; Transport; Income Distribution and Employment; Education; and Population. For administrative purposes, the panels were assigned to the Office of the Vice President, Development Policy (VPD), and Suman Bery in VPD served as secretary.

The GRAP records include: biographical notes on and Terms of Reference for panel members; a letter of appointment for each panel member; extensive background documents on the World Bank, the World Bank research program, and the Research Committee; lists of assignments for individual panel members; schedules for the October 26 - 28, 1978, March 5 - 7, 1979, and June 6 - 8, 1979 meetings and handwritten notes from the October and June meetings; various drafts of the panel's report and comments on the drafts from Bank staff; drafts and the final printed copy of President McNamara's November 6, 1979 memorandum to the Executive Directors regarding the GRAP report; the final printed GRAP report dated August 13, 1979 (R79-221); a Summary of Discussion at the Meeting of Executive Directors of the Bank and IDA, December 4, 1979 at which the GRAP report was discussed; memoranda to VPD Chenery regarding the responses of individual Executive Directors to the GRAP report and to President McNamara's memorandum on the report; and Bank staff memoranda regarding the GRAP recommendation for a Research Subsidiary in the Bank. Also included are 1979 - 1980 Bank memoranda regarding: planned follow-up to the GRAP report; funding and guidelines for research; and the Development Policy Staff (DPS) work program and budget for FY 81.

The records of the Research Advisory Panel on Income Distribution and Employment (RAPIDE) include: biographical notes on and Terms of Reference for panel members; individual panel members' letter of appointment and correspondence with other panel members and with Michael Beenstock in the Policy Planning Division who served as coordinator for RAPIDE; copies of Bank documents Beenstock provided the panel members as background material, including a number of memoranda concerning the Bank's research on Income Distribution and Employment; a list of specific assignments for individual members; the schedule for the panel meeting held October 10 - 12, 1977; correspondence with the chair of GRAP regarding the work of the RAPIDE members; various drafts of portions of the panel's report; a copy of the final draft, dated April 10, 1978; and comments from Bank staff on that draft.

The records of the Research Advisory Panel on Industrial Development and Trade (ID and T) include: biographical notes on and Terms of Reference for panel members; letters of appointment; background materials including memoranda and reports from Bank staff regarding research on industry and trade; schedules for the July 17 - 1, 1978, October 10 - 12, 1978, November 30 - December 2, 1978, and February 8 - 9, 1979 meetings and handwritten notes from the July and October meetings; various drafts of the panel's report and comments on the drafts from Bank staff; and copies of first and second Interim Reports of the Industry and Trade Research Steering Committee.

Included in this series are draft final reports for all the special panels except the ones on Population and on Education which are filed separately in (see folder numbers 30135058 and 30135060). Also included are copies of the Terms of Reference and the background reports for the Panel on Energy, Water and Telecommunications and a July 13, 1978 memorandum outlining plans for future work for the Panel on Transport.

Director, Development Policy Ernest Stern's Correspondence with President McNamara

This series contains the memoranda that Ernest Stern exchanged with President McNamara while he was Senior Adviser (later Research Adviser) and, beginning in April 1974, Director of Development Policy in the Office of the Vice President, Development Policy. The records consist of copies of Stern's memoranda to McNamara or to his immediate staff; copies of memoranda to McNamara from other Bank staff, especially VPD Hollis Chenery, that were copied to Stern; Stern's memoranda to Bank staff that were copied to McNamara; and memoranda and notes from McNamara or members of his staff to Stern. In many cases, Stern's original memoranda to McNamara were returned to him marked with the President's annotations or with a red stamp indicating President has seen. Stern's correspondence in this file predates his official appointment in VPD on November 1, 1972. Stern's memoranda transmit comments on papers prepared by Bank staff, suggestions for topics to be covered in briefing books prepared for the President, drafts of Presidential speeches, drafts of letters for the President's signature, and comments on correspondence received by McNamara.

The correspondence covers a wide-range of subjects: cooperation with the IMF; the establishment of the Development Committee and the Interim Committee; the Bank's response to the energy crisis; and the establishment of the Intermediate Financing Facility or Third Window. Filed at the end of the series are three items belonging to Stern's successor, Attila Karaosmanoglu: two October memoranda Chenery sent McNamara and copied to Karaosmanoglu and Karaosmanoglu's December 31 draft outlines for McNamara's annual speech.

Policy Review Committee Files of the Director, Development Policy

These Policy Review Committee (PRC) records were maintained by the Senior Adviser whose title became in April 1974 Director, Development Policy, positions held by Ernest Stern from 1971 to September 1975; by Attila Karaosmanoglu from October 1975 to June 1979; and by E. Bevin Waide from July 1979 to 1982. A file typically contains a copy of a policy document or issues paper; minutes of the PRC staff review meeting and/or the PRC meeting at which the paper was discussed; and often background materials documenting the development of a policy paper before it reached the PRC including: comments on the draft paper from Development Policy staff and staff throughout the Bank, copies of memoranda between the Director, Development Policy and President McNamara and VPD Chenery, intra Development Policy Staff correspondence, and copies of Back-to-Office Reports forwarded to Stern or Karaosmanoglu.

Commodity Files of the Director, Development Policy

These files were compiled by the Senior Adviser whose title became in April 1974 Director, Development Policy. That position was held by Ernest Stern from 1972 to September 1975 and by Attila Karaosmanoglu from October 1975 to June 1979. The files include correspondence, reports, studies, publications and policy papers regarding commodities and Bank policy towards specific commodities. Topics covered include Bank policy for financing the production of a specific commodity, Bank policy on publication of information on commodities, commodity price forecasts and stabilization, and analysis of world production and demand for a commodity.

Files of the Director, Development Policy, Regarding the Development Committee and Related Committees

These records were compiled by the Director of Development Policy in the Office of the Vice President of Development Policy. That position was held by Ernest Stern from April 1974 to September 1975, Attila Karaosmanoglu from October 1975 to June 1979, and E. Bevan Waide from June 1979 to 1982.

The Joint Ministerial Committee of the Boards of Governors of the Bank and the Fund on the Transfer of Real Resources to Developing Countries, better known as the Development Committee, was established in 1974 to advise the Boards on development issues and to coordinate international efforts to finance development. The Interim Committee of the Board of Governors of the International Monetary System, known since 1999 as the International Monetary and Finance Committee, was established by the International Monetary Fund in 1974 to advise the Board on the management of the international monetary system. The Group of Twenty-Four on International Monetary Affairs, now officially the Intergovernmental Group of Twenty-Four on International Monetary Affairs and Development, was established in 1971 to coordinate the positions of developing countries on international monetary and development finance issues to ensure that their interests were adequately represented in negotiations on international monetary matters. The chairman of the Group of Twenty-Four customarily addresses Development Committee meetings, and the Development Committee, the Interim Committee, and the Group of 24 normally meet at the same times during the year.

The series consists of four groups of records:

    1. A general chronological file, 1977 - 1982, contains: a) correspondence between the Director, Development Policy and the Executive Secretary of the Development Committee, the Bank's liaison (Ernest Stern, Vice President of Operations) with the Development Committee, and other Bank managers, including President McNamara; b) copies of draft and final versions of Development Committee documents (agenda, press communiqu?s, reviews of Development Committeeperformance, annual reports, and work programs) forwarded to the Director of Development Policy or to the Executive Directors of IBRD.
    1. Chronological files on meetings of the Development Committee, 1977 - 1980, contain agenda of meetings, copies of Development Committee documents to be discussed at the meetings, copies of President McNamara's statements delivered at Development Committee meetings, and memoranda from the Director, Development Policy or the Bank's liaison with the Development Committeesummarizing meetings. These files include some agenda for and documents considered at meetings of the Working Group on Development Finance and Policy, the Working Group on Access to Capital Markets, the Group of Twenty-four, and the Senior Officials of the Development Committee.
    1. Files on committees and working groups generally contain agendas with copies of the documents to be discussed at the meeting attached, intra-Bank memoranda regarding the committee or working group, and reports and papers prepared by the committee, working group, or task force. Included are records for the Capital Markets Coordinating Committee, 1972 - 1977; the Working Group on Capital Market Access, 1975 - 1978; the Working Group on Development Finance and Policy, 1978; the Senior Officials' Meeting, September 1978; the Task Force on Private Foreign Investment, 1979 - 1981; the Task Force on Non-Concessional Flows, 1980-1981; the Group of Twenty-Four, 1978-1981; and the Interim Committee of the Board of Governors of the International Monetary System , 1978, 1980 - 1981.
    1. Files related to Development Committee studies and reports include: correspondence, papers, and a report regarding cofinancing, 1978 -1980; a Bank study of aid groups sponsored by IBRD, 1978; a report on the implementations of the Special Action Program, 1978; the Joint Fund/Bank staff study on The Stabilization of Export Earnings, done at the invitation of the Development Committee and submitted to the Committee in 1978; and reviews of Development Committee performance, 1976 and1978.

Correspondence and Other Records of the Development Policy Staff, Departments, and Divisions

This series contains the records of the Vice President for Development Policy's (VPD's) staff, departments, and divisions for the period 1978 - 1982. There are a few files that cover the Development Policy Staff (DPS) in general, and these files include a small amount of correspondence with the VPD, his senior adviser, and the Director, Development Policy, but this series primarily contains the correspondence, studies, reports, and publications of four of the DPS departments and of some of the divisions within those departments. Included are files for the Policy Planning and Program Review Department (PPR), the Economic Analysis and Projections Department (EPD), the Development Economics Department (DED), and the Development Research Center (DRC). The EPD correspondence for the years 1978 - 1980 also includes information regarding the Berne Union: Back-to-the-Office Reports from missions to Berne Union meetings; summaries of discussions at Berne Union meetings, and analyses of Berne Union data. The division-level files include correspondence, publications and reports generated by the division.

In addition to the department and division files, there are records relating to the Bank's World Development Report (WDR), 1978 - 1980. These files include correspondence containing input for the report, comments on drafts of the report, and plans for the content of the next report. Copies of background papers for the report and copies of the 1978 - 1980 editions are also included.

The Development Policy Staff ended in 1982, but this series includes DPS publications issued with a 1983 publication date.

Memoranda and Issuances Relating to the Reorganization of 1972

Contained in this series are memoranda and copies of Bank-wide issuances concerning the Bank's Reorganization of 1972 as it affected the Economics Department and, after the reorganization, the Development Policy Staff. The notebook appears to have been maintained first by P. D. Henderson and, after the reorganization, by Alexander Stevenson, the Director of the Development Economics Department (DED). Among the contents are: November 1971 memoranda to Henderson from Economics Department managers with their thoughts on possible future organizational structures for the Bank; copies of December 1971 memoranda from Mohamed Shoaib (chair of the Organization Study Steering Committee) and Hollis B. Chenery to President McNamara with their reorganization ideas; Henderson's notes from the December 22, 1971 meeting of the President's Council; McNamara's January 7, 1972 announcement of a study of the Bank's organization and procedures; Henderson's correspondence from McKinsey, the consulting firm which helped with the study; a copy of the July 13, 1972 memorandum outlining the views of Mahbub Haq and Ernest Stern regarding the Bank's policy function; a copy of E. Lerdau's July 24, 1972 comments on Haq's and Stern's views; the August 10, 1972 announcement of the first phase of the restructuring; memoranda from various managers of the Central Economic Staff (CES) to Henderson with ideas as to how to reorganize CES; Henderson's September 30, 1972 draft of a memorandum from Hollis B. Chenery to President McNamara concerning responsibility for sector development policy; the October 16, 1972 announcement of the Development Policy Staff's organization; and other memoranda further refining the organization and staffing of the Development Economics Department in the Development Policy Staff.

World Debt Tables and World Economic Indicators

The earliest World Debt Tables in the series were prepared by the Comparative Data Division, Economics (later Economic Program) Department. The tables were developed from data received from deBTOr countries supplemented by data from other sources. These tables were periodically updated and supplemented; data used in some updates are part of the series. The Economic and Social Data Division, Economic Analysis and Projections Department of the Development Policy Staff succeeded the Comparative Data Divisionin issuing World Debt Tables.

Included in this series is the first World Economic Indicators report that was transmitted with a November 2, 1973 explanatory memo from Bank President Robert McNamara. The purpose of the report was to assemble data for use by Bank senior staff and the Board relating to major trends in the world economy and to describe major features of the economic situation in developing countries.

Records Relating to the Committee of Twenty and to Two of Its Technical Groups

The Committee of Twenty (C-XX), formally known as the Committee of the Board of Governors on Reform of the International Monetary System and Related Issues, was established by the IMF in 1972 to prepare a draft for a reformed international monetary system after the United States had announced in August 1971 that it was suspending the convertibility of the dollar into gold. The records in this series were compiled by Frank Vibert while he was working in the Policy Planning and Program Review Department (PPR) in the Office of the Vice President for Development Policy (VPD). The records primarily concern two of the Committee's Technical Groups: the Technical Group on the Transfer of Real Resources and the Technical Group on the Special Drawing Rights (SDR) Link and Related Proposals. The Bank was asked to participate in the secretariat function for the Technical Group on the Transfer of Real Resources, and Frank Vibert with Azizali Mohammed from the IMF formed the secretariat for the Group. Earnest Stern, Senior Adviser in VPD, was part of the Technical Group on the SDR Link.

The series contains copies of IMF and World Bank studies and other documents that were used as background materials for the Committee or that were drafted in response to specific requests from Committee staff; drafts of and comments from IMF and Bank staff on the Bank paper, Capital Flows to Developing Countries, that was prepared for the Committee; and the issues of the IMF newsletter, IMF Survey, that included articles regarding the Committee of Twenty. The files include: copies of President McNamara's correspondence with Ernest Stern and with C. Jeremy Morse, the chair of the Deputies of the Committee of Twenty; memoranda exchanged between Vibert and Stern; intra-VPD correspondence and other intra-Bank correspondence relating to the Committee of Twenty and the Technical Groups; Vibert's correspondence with IMF staff and with the chair of the Technical Group on the Transfer of Real Resources; copies of memoranda Vibert drafted for the chair's signature; and Vibert's copies of Stern's memoranda to the files regarding the SDR Link.

Records maintained for meetings of the Technical Group on the Transfer of Real Resources include: Vibert's correspondence relating to pre-meeting planning, copies of documents provided as background for the meeting discussions, lists of attendees, copies of the Terms of Reference for the Group, and Vibert's handwritten notes form the meetings. The files also contain multiple drafts and comments on the drafts of the Group's report.

Records relating to the Technical Group on the SDR Link include copies of World Bank and IMF documents provided the Group as background materials; copies of statements regarding the SDR Link made by heads of delegations to the Group; notes regarding SDR discussions with the United Kingdom and Germany; and various drafts of the Bank paper Bank Group Uses of SDR Link Resources.

Secretariat's Copies of Policy Papers and Minutes of Policy Review Committee Meetings and of Staff Review Meetings

The Policy Planning and Program Review Department staff (Pedro-Pablo Kuczynski, Frank Vibert, and Shahid J. Burki) served as the secretariat for the Policy Review Committee (PRC). This series contains the secretariat's set of policy papers and the notices of meetings and minutes of staff review meetings and of Policy Review Committee meetings at which the policy papers were discussed. The policy papers, which were drafted by various units throughout the Bank, were distributed for review at the PRC stafflevel or by the Policy Review Committee as a whole or were widely distributed throughout the Bank for comment or for information purposes prior to consideration by the Executive Directors. The files contain the various versions of a paper as it proceeded through the review process. The policy papers cover a broad range of subjects: sector issues, project costs overruns, the lending policies and practices of IDA, the World Bank's approach to interest rates and credit allocation issues, and the establishmentof the Third Window.

Records of the Economics and Research Staff, Departments, and Divisions

The files in this series contain correspondence, reports, and publications documenting the economic analysis and research work of the Economics and Research Staff (ERS) and the two ERS departments: the Economic Analysis and Projections Department (EPD) and the Development Research Department (DRD). Most of the correspondence was sent or received by the Director of EPD and by staff in the EPD divisions, but there is some correspondence of the Vice President of ERS and of the DRD staff. The correspondence concerns commodity price forecasts, economic and social data generated by ERS, international trade, external debt of developing nations, and comments on drafts of the World Development Report (WDR) and on background papers prepared for the WDR. Specific documents and publications include: Back-to-Office Reports from ERS staff attending conferences or undertaking missions to analyze a specific industry; copies of the commodity handbooks issued by the Commodities and Export Projections Division (EPDCE); quarterly reviews of commodity markets; publications on commodities from the Commodity Studies and Projections Division (EPDCS); copies of the 1984 - 1986 annual reports on the World Bank Research Program; the EPD's User's Guide on World Bank Trade Data System issued in October 1985; and a June 1984 draft of the Pfeffermann Committee's Report on Economy-Wide Modelling in the Bank.

Copies of Articles, Lectures, and Speeches Authored by Anne O. Kreuger

This series contains copies of 30 articles, lectures, and speeches authored by Anne O. Kreuger, Vice President, Economics and Research (VPERS). In some cases, the title page indicates at which conference or seminar the paper was delivered or in which periodical it was to be published.

Files Relating to ERS Reviews of Documents Disscussed in Meetings of the Loan Committee, the Operations Policy Subcommittee, and the Operations Policy Committee

This series contains five sets of files that the Economics and Research Staff (ERS) compiled while reviewing proposals and developing the ERS position on proposals (for loans, credits, Country Policy Papers, Country Strategy Papers, and Policy Framework Papers) that were considered primarily by the Loan Committee but also by the Operations Policy Subcommittee (OPSC) and, beginning in September 1986, by the Operations Policy Committee (OPC).

  1. The bulk of the series (1.5 linear feet) contains country files, dated 1985 to 1987 and arranged alphabetically by client country and thereunder chronologically. The file for a particular country contains, at a minimum, the agenda and/or minutes of the committee meeting at which a proposal was discussed. The minutes include a summary of the proposal but not the complete text. Other documents in a typical file include intra-ERS memoranda analyzing a proposal and containing recommendations regarding the position ERS should support; a briefing note summarizing the ERS position; an ERS staff member's report on the meeting, providing information to supplement the official minutes; memoranda from the ERS staff to Regional or sector staff clarifying the position ERS took on the proposal in the committee meeting; other correspondence between ERS and Regional staff; and some Back-to-Office Reports from ERS staff who took part in negotiations with the client country. Filed under Rwanda/SAVEMS is a small collection of statistical tables (titled Selected Analytical Variables for Economists and Managers), 1985 - 1987, arranged by client country that the Country Analysis and Projections Division (EPDCO) of ERS generated on 28 countries.

Filed at the end of the series are four small collections of files. Many of the items in these files are duplicated the country files.

  1. A set of files concerning Country Policy Papers (CPPs), arranged alphabetically by client country and dated February 1984 - January 1987. For Bolivia and Jamaica, the files refer to Divisional Country Briefs (DCBs) rather than CPPs. The file for a particular country typically includes an agenda for the Operations Policy Subcommittee (OPSC) or Operations Policy Committee (OPC) with comments on major policy issues in the CPP that were identified by the Country Policy Department (CPD) and the Planning and Budget Department (PBD); a Postscript of the OPSC or OPC meeting at which the CPP was discussed; and a memorandum forwarding the CPP to the Managing Committee of which the Vice President of ERS was a member. In most cases, the complete CPP is not in the file, but most files do include intra-office memoranda and briefing notes from ERS staff.

  2. A set of minutes of the Operations Policy Subcommittee and, beginning in November 1986, of the Operations Policy Committee, arranged chronologically and dated September 1986 - April 1987. The meetings were held to discuss Policy Framework Papers (PFPs) and most are Structural Adjustment Facility PFPs. Attached to the minutes are summaries of the PFP provided by the Director of the Country Policy Division, but complete PFPs are not found in the files.

  3. Agenda and Minutes of Loan Committee meetings arranged by Region and dated September 1984 - May 1987. Included with the agenda are summaries of the proposed loan or credit provided by the Director of the Country Policy Department.

  4. Agenda and Minutes of Loan Committee meetings and Operations Policy Committee meetings, arranged alphabetically by country and dated April 1985 - April 1987. The OPC meetings dealt with Structural Adjustment Facility Policy Framework Papers, Country Policy Papers, and Divisional Country Briefs. This file also includes briefing notes stating the ERS position on a proposal and post-meeting notes from ERS staff supplementing the official minutes.

Background Materials, Memoranda, and Drafts of Research Papers

This series contains background materials, intra-Bank memoranda, and drafts of research papers primarily of staff from two Economic Analysis and Projections Department (EPD) units: the International Trade and Capital Flows Division (EPDIT) and the Global Analysis and Projections Division (EPDGL). The records are divided into two parts. The first and more voluminous part (2.33 linear feet) consists of EPD files dated 1977 to 1984 and containing rough working files for research papers. In addition to rough drafts of papers, these files contain intra-Bank memoranda containing comments on drafts or concerning EPD computer usage, analysis of data compiled by EPD staff, and other issues relating to research. The second part of the series contains drafts of research papers dated 1979 - 1990 and generated primarily by EPDIT and EPDGL staff, but there are also four papers written by staff from the International Economic Analysis and Prospects Division (IECAP) of the International Economics Department and threepapers authored by economists from: the School of International Service at American University; Seoul University; and Sidney Sussex College, University of Cambridge. Some of the research papers in this series were issued as Division Working Papers which reported on research work in progress and were circulated only for Bank staff use to stimulate discussion and comment. Others were prepared for presentation at a conference or for publication by the World Bank or in a professional journal.

Research Files of the Economic Analysis and Projections Department (EPD)

This series contain files for two research projects conducted by EPD staff. Research Project No. 672-32: The Direction of Developing Countries' Trade: Patterns, Trends, and Implications was begun in 1980 in the International Trade and Capital Flows Division (EPDIT) and completed in 1987 under the Global Analysis and Projections Division (EPDGL). Oli Havrylyshyn and Martin Wolf (and later Peter Miovic) were the principal researchers. The project files include the original research proposal, a request forsupplementary funds, Back-to-Office reports from project-related missions, a status report, copies of Havrylyshyn's and Wolf's articles related to the project, a completion report, and a project evaluation. The second project, which was conducted by Iveta Bebris of the International Finance Division (EPDIF) in 1977 - 1978, was a Comparison of the Reporting of Loans from Financial Markets in the DeBTOr Reporting System (DRS) and the Capital Market System (CMS), 1973 - 1976. The project file includes a summary of the findings and a comparison of data from the two systems for the 26 countries covered by the study.

Records Relating to Capital Market Seminars Sponsored by the Economic Analysis and Projections Department (EPD) and to Other Conferences and Seminars Sponsored or Attended by DEC Staff

This series consists of records relating to the capital markets seminars sponsored by Economic Analysis and Projections Department (EPD) and to conferences and seminars attended by staff from EPD or other DEC units. Beginning in 1979, EPD organized annual capital market seminars on private capital flows to developing countries. This series contains files for the seminars held September 29, 1980; September 28, 1981; February 7, 1983; and March 19 - 20, 1984. Included for each seminar are invitations toparticipants and their replies, agenda and schedules, lists of participants, EPD correspondence with participants, summaries of the proceedings, and copies of some of the papers presented at the seminars. There is also some preliminary planning memoranda for the April 4, 1985 seminar.

Files in this series relating to other conferences include: copies of papers presented at the World Bank seminar on Technology and Long-Term Economic Growth Prospects, November 16 - 17, 1988; detailed notes from the World Bank Workshop on Prospects for Growth in Industrial Countries, June 13, 1984, which was chaired by Jean Baneth, Director of EPD; EPD staff member Martin Wolf's Back-to-Office Reports and copies of his papers presented at two meetings on international textile trade, October 29 - 30, 1979 and May 27 - 29, 1980; Jean Baneth's copy of a detailed summary of the Export Credit Agencies Conference, May 5 - 7, 1986; and the participants' package for a seminar sponsored by the Country Economics Department (CEC) on Macroeconomic Adjustment and Growth Seminar, October 18 - 20, 1989. In addition, there are copies of papers and remarks that EPD staff member Joseph Michael Finger presented at a June 23- 25, 1982 Institute for International Economics Conference on Trade Policy in the 1980s and a copy of a 1981 paper, The Outlook for the 1980s with Particular Reference to Trade, by EPD staffers Helen Hughes and Ernest Lutz.

Subject File of Dennis N. de Tray, Head of the Living Standards Measurement Unit (DRDLS), Development Research Department

These very loosely organized files appear to have been assembled, mostly in black binders, by de Tray for his personal use. Files (binders) were created for a 1985 mission to Jamaica he participated in to evaluate the effects of structural adjustment activities on major sectors of the Jamaican economy and a 1986 mission to Grenada he also participated in to meet with government officials in the national statistical office to discuss government survey needs and the possibility of monitoring a Living Standards Study. These files include copies of Back-to-Office Reports (BTOs) and other correspondence relating to the mission.

De Tray's Ivory Coast Living Standards Survey (ICLSS) materials, which consist mostly of technical data from the survey (1985-1987), include a Terms of Reference (TOR) and BTO for a 1983 project identification/preparation mission to Abidjan, Paris, and London for the ICLSS. A small number of reports, sampling plans, and prototype questions for the ICLSS are included for the 1983 - 1984 period. Correspondence concerning the French version of the ICLSS questionnaire, recommendations for questionnaire changes, and a report of a mission by a DRDLS staff member to Cote d'Ivoire to collect data from the ICLSS are included for the 1986-1987 period. De Tray also created a file for a 1985-1986 Bank study (RPO 673-84) (folder 1315128) of the determinants of children's nutritional status and morbidity in the Cote d'Ivoire for which he was principal supervisor.

De Tray's Ghana Living Standards Survey (GLSS) materials include his BTO from a February - March 1986 Technical Assistance mission to Ghana and Cote d'Ivoire to explore the possibility of undertaking a GLSS and to discuss a proposed seminar covering results from the 1985 ICLSS and an earlier 1979 consumption survey. Also included are other 1986-1987 BTO reports from missions relating to the GLSS including a September 17, 1986 report of a mission to Ghana de Tray participated in to finalize plans for the GLSS. Also included is correspondence with and mission reports from a consultant working on the GLSS.

A smaller amount of material is included for the Peruvian Living Standards Survey. BTO reports (1984) from missions to Peru to prepare for the survey and a proposal for a study of Education and Informal Sector Employment (1983) are among the documents assembled. The series also includes an undated draft proposal for an Egyptian Living Standards Survey, a December 5, 1983 BTO from a mission to that country to discuss the conduct of a Living Standards Survey, and some related material. De Tray also assembled some publications and other materials that appear to have related to his membership on the Task Force on the Annual Report on Bank Research. Found with this material is a copy of a paper he prepared in October 1984 entitled The Living Standards Measurement Survey which describes in detail the origin of LSMS at the Bank, the development of the survey design, planned analyses of data collected, and the survey plan for the Ivory Coast where the first LSMS was to take place.

Files Regarding the Publication and Dissemination of Research Products

The files in this series contain correspondence, reports, and other records establishing policies and procedures for the publication and dissemination of World Bank research products. The files were maintained successively by the Development Policy Staff (DPS), the Economics and Research Staff (ERS: primarily by Research Administrator Deepak Lal and Policy Advisor Dennis N. de Tray), and finally by Research Administrator de Tray in the Policy, Planning, and Research Staff.

Subjects covered include: the establishment and funding of the Bank Research Documentation Center (BRDC) as the primary depository of research documentation on projects funded by the World Bank Research Program, 1980 - 1984; the selection of topics for the next several editions of the World Development Report, 1985 - 1988; the costs of producing the Bank's main periodicals on research, 1986; and general discussions of the types of publications best suited for the dissemination of information about the research program. Specific documentsin the files include: copies of key documents (Terms of Reference; agenda and minutes of meetings), 1985 - 1987, for the Comparative Studies Coordination Committee and its successor, the Research Coordination Committee; the July 1984 draft of the report of the Committee on Economy-wide Modeling in the Bank (filed under Model Review Committee); a copy of Bela Balassa's August 1987 Report on World Bank Research and the voluminous comments from Bank staff on that report (filed under Review of Bank's ResearchProgram); briefing papers used in an ERS presentation by ERSVP Anne Kruger to the Executive Directors, December 1986; correspondence and intra-DPS and ERS memoranda outlining policies concerning the publication of products of the Bank's staff (filed under Publication Policies); and a copy of the October 1984 preliminary report of the Subcommittee of BRAG [Bank Research Advisory Group] on dissemination of the Bank's research output (filed under Research Dissemination).

Minutes, Agenda, and Other Records of the Research Policy Council (RPC) and the Bank Research Advisory Group (BRAG)

This series contains the minutes, agenda, and other records of the Research Policy Council (RPC) and the Bank Research Advisory Group (BRAG). Based on the recommendations in a report on the management of Bank research which was produced by a study team under the auspices of the Organization Planning Department (OPD), President A. W. Clausen established the RPC on August 2, 1983 to provide overall leadership in the guidance, coordination and evaluation of all Bank research. Anne Krueger, Vice President, Economics and Research Staff (VPERS), served as chairperson. The RPC records in this series consist primarily of agenda and minutes of meetings, August 1983 - February 1987. Filed with some of the agenda are copies of the issues papers to be discussed at the meetings. Included with the records are: a small file of May 1987 intra-Bank memoranda regarding the Internal Audit Department's proposed review of the comparative studies program, and memoranda and issuances, August 1983 - October 1985, outlining the role of the RPC and how it changed the role of the Research Committee. There is also a copy of the minutes of the first meeting (November 19, 1987) of the Research and Publications Policy Council (RPPC) which replaced the RPC.

The Bank Research Advisory Group (BRAG) was established by the RPC to advise it on a wide range of Bank views on research issues of interest to the Council and to assist the RPC in formulating institutionally relevant research priorities. Anne Krueger (VPERS) chaired BRAG and appointed its members after consultation with the RPC. The BRAG had a membership of 20 senior Bank staff chosen so as to ensure a wide representation of perspectives. The Secretary of the RPC was also an ex-officio member of BRAG. The BRAG records in this series consist of: lists of the BRAG members; Anne Krueger's correspondence with members, February-August 1984; copies of key documents establishing BRAG and outlining its duties; and agenda and minutes of the two BRAG meetings, April 12, 1984 and October 4, 1984. Filed with the agenda are copies of documents to be discussed at the meetings, including a copy of the October 1984 report on dissemination of the Bank's research output that was prepared by a BRAG subcommittee, chaired by C. Michalopoulos.

Records of the Research Projects Approval Committee (REPAC)

This series contains the records of the Research Projects Approval Committee (REPAC) which the Research Policy Council (RPC) established in January 1984 to evaluate and recommend individual research projects for funding from the External Research Budget (later renamed the Research Support Budget [RSB]). The committee's evaluations were to ensure that projects were technically sound, cost-effective, and conformed to the institutional research priorities established by the RPC. To maintain links with theRPC, the Secretary of RPC was the Chair of REPAC. In July 1984, a new position, Research Administrator, was created in the Office of the Vice President, Economics and Research (VPERS); the Research Administrator (RA) served as the REPAC chair and dealt with all matters relating to the Research Policy Council, REPAC, and the Bank Research Advisory Group (BRAG). REPAC consisted of nine Bank staff members, appointed by the Research Policy Council on the recommendation of VPERS.

The REPAC records consist ofofficial requests for Research Support Budget (RSB) funding for research projects, some of which are accompanied by reports from referees, the outside consultants who commented on proposals; minutes of REPAC meetings (filed under correspondence and under rules and procedures); guidelines for evaluating completed projects funded by the Research Support Budget; copies of memoranda establishing REPAC and outlining REPAC rules and procedures; and correspondence which includes memoranda of REPAC decisions regarding requests for funds, incoming requests for additional funding to continue on-going research projects, REPAC correspondence with referees, replies from project managers responding to REPAC funding decisions, and minutes of meetings at which research proposals were discussed.

Stanley Fischer's Chronological File of Correspondence with Bank Staff (Internal Chronological Files)

The correspondence in this series documents Stanley Fischer's wide range of responsibilities as DECVP. Fischer did not officially assume the duties of DECVP until January 1988 and much of the correspondence in the series prior to that time concerns organization of the VPDEC Front Office, personnel matters, and scheduling of meetings. A significant amount of his correspondence is from the directors and division chiefs of the International Economics Department (IEC), the Country Economics Department (CEC), the Economic Development Institute (EDI), and his Front Office staff. Incoming communications are found with some of Fischer's outgoing memoranda, letters, e-mail, handwritten notes, and other communications. Copies of policy briefs and outlines for studies and papers, policy papers, and research papers on the debt crisis, structural and sectoral adjustment lending, trade policy, environmental issues, and other international economic issues were forwarded from the divisions and the Front Office for Fischer's review and/or further action. Structuring of work programs, proposals for the annual World Development Report (WDR) and drafts of the WDR, World Debt Tables, and proposals for EDI training are also subjects of Fischer's correspondence.

As Chief Economist, Fischer served as principal economic adviser to President Barber Conable (EXC) and to W. David Hopper, Senior Vice President, Policy, Planning and Research [PPRSV] and Hopper's successor, Wilfried P. Thalwitz, Senior Vice President, Policy, Research and External Affairs [PPRSV]. Fischer's memos, informal notes, and other communications with PPRSV are found throughout the series. Memos and informal notes sent in his role as Chief Economist to Moeen A Qureshi, Senior Vice President, Operations (OPNSV) and Ernest Stern, Senior Vice President, Finance (FNSV) concern matters coming before the Operations Committee.

Found with correspondence for 1988 are Fischer's briefing papers for Conable for a June 1988 meeting at the Bank with the Director-General, GATT, Arthur Dunkel and for an August 1988 meeting with Julius Katz, Chairman of the Uruguay Round Negotiating Group on the Functioning of the GATT System (FOGS); Fischer's background paper containing information for an October 1988 meeting between Conable and Romano Prodi, President of the Instituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale (IRI); memos prepared for Conable on the debt problem (May 1988) and Argentine loans (August 1988); and talking points for Conable's May 1988 speech at the brookings Institution.Among the 1989 correspondence are talking points Fischer prepared for a Conable-Camdessus luncheon meeting on proposals to improve collaboration between the Bank and IMF; a policy brief prepared for Conable on Experience in Trade Reform (April 1989); an informal memo on the Brady Plan debt strategy (April 1989); a draft memo to Conable on World Bank Intellectual Leadership (September 1989); and a formal proposal to Conable regarding establishment of a Socialist Economy Reform Unit within CEC (October 1989)which was approved the following month. Among the 1990 correspondence are several memos containing talking points for Conable-Camdessus luncheon meetings.

Fischer also corresponded with OPNSV regarding the classification of economists. Found throughout the series are Fischer's memos announcing meetings of the Economists Review Panel which he chaired, announcing actions taken by the panels, addressing appeals to the panels' actions, and inviting Bank staff to fill panel vacancies. The series also contains Fischer's correspondence as Chairman of the EDI Advisory Board and the Research Committee and his correspondence with the Research Administrator (RAD). Some Fischer correspondence with the Vice President, Sector Policy and Research [PREVP], Visvanathan Rajagopalan, is also part of the series.

Back-to-Office (BTO) Reports prepared by Fischer following trips to Argentina, Germany, Switzerland (Geneva), and China in 1988, to Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal, Tanzania, Yugoslavia, and Poland in 1989, and Japan, Israel, India, Poland, and London in 1990 are in the series. Also part of the series are copies of speeches, Il Messagero articles, and other papers Fischer prepared that were sent to DEC managers who provided him input. Correspondence with other Bank officials and papers forwarded to him for comment from other Bank offices and some outside economists are part of the series. Routine correspondence concerning administrative and personnel matters are scattered throughout the series. Fischer's last official day as DECVP was August 31, 1990 but the series includes correspondence for September - December 1990 during which time Fischer made brief visits to the Bank from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.) and served as a consultant to the joint Bank/IMF study of the Soviet economy.

Stanley Fischer's Chronological File of Correspondence with Non-Bank Organizations and Individuals (External Chronological Files)

Most of Fischer's outgoing letters and memoranda are accompanied by incoming communications. The majority of the letters in this series concern Fischer's contacts with fellow economists and professional and international organizations outside the Bank. Included are: Fischer's letters accepting and declining invitations to speak or otherwise participate in conferences, institutes, symposia, and professional meetings; his responses to letters suggesting topics for his future research and writing; and his responses to letters requesting Fischer's comments on papers and to letters commenting on his papers and other writing. Some incoming letters and memoranda contain Fischer's annotations regarding the response to be prepared.

The remainder of the series includes: Fischer's letters of invitation sent to academics and other outside economists to participate in informal workshops, seminars, and conferences sponsored (or co-sponsored) by the Bank; Fischer's thank you letters to participants following these events and to officials with whom he met during overseas trips; and occasional memoranda Fischer sent to individuals inside the Bank.

Records of the Social and Economic Statistics Committee (SESC)

The Bank-wide Social and Economic Statistics Committee (SESC) was established in 1987 and was responsible for advising the Senior Vice President, Policy, Planning and Research (SVPPR) on policies of the Bank's social and economic statistical services. It served as a Bank-wide forum for ensuring that the interests of the Bank's socio-economic data collectors, managers, and users were adequately considered. The Committee met at roughly quarterly intervals; the Chief Economist (DECVP) was chair and Ramesh Chander, Statistical Adviser (DECVP), was ex-officio Secretary.

This series contains a small collection of SESC records that D.C. Rao maintained while he was Director of the Risk Management and Financial Policy Department (FRS) and a member of SESC. This set of the Committee's records includes lists of members; Terms of Reference; minutes of the first meeting held on September 8, 1987; an August 11, 1988 note from Stanley Fischer summarizing the major issues regarding the Bank Economic and Social Database (BESD) prior to a discussion of BESD at a SESC meeting; and a copy of the 1987 questionnaire for Short Term, Long Term and Credit Worthiness Surveys.

While Rao was neither the Chair nor the Secretary for this Committee, there are no known records related to the SESC found in the custody of the World Bank Group Archives. Therefore, this set of records is retained permanently.

Michael Bruno's Chronological Correspondence File (Internal and External Chronological Files)

Both incoming and outgoing correspondence is included in this series. The incoming correspondence in the first part of the series documents Bruno's roles as Manager of the Development Economics Vice Presidency, Chief of Research for the Bank and the Bank's principal economic adviser, Chairman of the Research Committee, and Chairman of the Economist Panel. The letters from January to August 1993 were signed by D.C. Rao who was serving as Acting DECVP until Vruno's assumption of duties.

EDI funding and programs, selection of topics for annual World Development Reports, DEC Business plans, relations with the World Trade Organization (WTO), liaison functions with Berne Union and the Paris Club, and Terms of Reference for DEC department heads leading missions are among the many subjects of Bruno's correspondence with DEC department heads and Bank Managing Directors in the first part of the series. Responses to Ernest Stern, Chairman of the Loan Committee, on lending options and comments offered for Country Assistance Strategy (CAS) Reviews are also in the first part of the series along with Bruno's reports on his 1994 visits to India; Slovenia, Slovakia, and the Ukraine; Brazil and Argentina; and South Africa, Senegal and Kenya.

The internal correspondence file relating to Bank President James D. Wolfensohn in the second part of the series includes informal memos and notes from Bruno to Wolfensohn on Bank-Fund [IMF] relations and collaboration and issues raised in policy papers and presentations; background papers prepared for Wolfensohn on various subjects including the closure of the World Bank office in Geneva and Wolfensohn's forthcoming trip to Russia and Hungary; and copies of Wolfensohn's staff announcements. Bruno's elevation to Senior Vice President and to the President's new Executive Committee is part of the December 7, 1995 Announcement to Staff on the Restructuring of the Bank's Top Management. Also placed in the file is a copy of a Wolfensohn December 26, 1996 memo addressed to all staff announcing Michael Bruno's death on December 25, 1996 in Jerusalem. Bruno had left the Bank earlier in 1996. Filed at the end of the internal correspondence in the first part of the series is a small amount of Lyn Squire's correspondence while serving as Acting DECVP following Bruno's departure from the Bank. It includes correspondence concerning meetings with Joseph Stiglitz in January 1997. Filed immediately following the internal correspondence are comments and other correspondence concerning the 1994 WDR.

The external correspondence file relating to Bank President Wolfensohn includes letters from outside organizations and private individuals forwarded to Bruno by the President's office requesting that a response be prepared in DEC for Wolfensohn's signature, Bruno's signature, or for signature by one of the DEC department heads. Background information provided to Wolfensohn to use in his replies and information copies of Wolfensohn's correspondence forwarded to Bruno are also in this external correspondence file.

Correspondence Regarding Collaboration between the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF)

This series contains the incoming and outgoing correspondence of the Vice President and Chief Economist that concerned collaboration between the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. It is primarily the correspondence of Chief Economists Fischer and Bruno; there is very little from Lawrence Summer's tenure. The correspondence is with DEC staff and managers, managers in other Bank units, and IMF managers and concerns proposed topics for the periodic luncheons between the Bank's President and the Fund's Managing Director with summaries of those luncheon discussions drafted by DEC staff; comments from Bank staff on draft IMF papers; IMF comments on draft Development Committee papers; attendance of Bank staff at IMF Board meetings and Board seminars and summaries of those meetings and seminars from Bank staff; duplication of effort between the Bank and the Fund; policy on disclosure of Policy Framework Papers; Bank procedures for Policy Framework Papers; proposals for joint Bank/Fund studies; planningfor a joint retreat in 1995; guidelines for Bank-Fund collaboration on public expenditure issues; and DEC representation on the IMF Working Party on Measurement of International Capital Flows. Included in the series is a July 5, 1990 draft of the joint Bank/Fund report, World Bank and International Monetary Fund Progress Report on Bank-fund Collaboration.

Subject Files Relating to Major Issues of Interest to the Vice President and Chief Economist (DECVP)

This series contains files on major issues of interest to the Vice President and Chief Economist and his staff. Most files contain documents compiled by DECVP Michael Bruno and by Mark Baird, Director of Development Policy in DEC, but some are from the administrations of former DECVPs Stanley Fischer and Lawrence Summers. Among the topics covered are: aid effectiveness; plans to relaunch and reform the Economic Development Institute in 1995; planning for the 50th Anniversary of the World Bank; and DEC presentations made to the Board and to President Wolfensohn.

Specific documents include: comments on drafts of a paper on aid effectiveness, prepared by the staff of the World Bank, in collaboration with the staff of the International Monetary Fund, for the 49th meeting of the Development Committee on October 3, 1994; memoranda on research proposals on aid effectiveness; a copy of Mark Baird's presentation to the IDA Deputies at a February 1995 meeting in Paris to discuss the Eleventh Replenishment of IDA; a DEC paper, dated April 1, 1994, on the contribution of research and training (EDI) to the work of the World Bank (filed under 50th Anniversary); summaries of brainstorming sessions, held in 1994 in conjunction with plans for the 50th Anniversary, on future issues facing the Bank; a copy of the DEC information package provided the Executive Directors when DEC made a presentation to the Directors on December 2, 1994 as part of the Executive Directors' Information Program; background notes used to prepare for a strategy meeting with President Wolfensohn on November 22, 1995 (filed under DEC strategy note); DEC memoranda and a February 1995 DEC report regarding the DEC review process of loans and country strategies (filed under lending); an October 1994 DEC Proposal to Restructure Funding of Non-Lending Services (filed under Non-lending Services); comments from Mark Baird and other DEC staff on items discussed at Loan Committee meetings; Michael Bruno's correspondence with the Deputy Director-General and the Director General of the World Trade Organization (WTO); briefing materials prepared for President Wolfensohn's July 6, 1995 meeting with the head of the WTO and the IMF; summaries of meetings the Chief Economist and DEC staff had with WTO staff; and comments on drafts of the guidelines for World Bank staff cooperation with the WTO.

Briefing Books, Travel Documents, and Travel-Related Correspondence of Nicholas H. Stern

This series contains the briefing books, travel documents, and travel-related correspondence for Senior Vice President and Chief Economist Nicholas H. Stern. The files include information on his trips to Washington, DC from March to June 2000 before he officially took charge as Chief Economist. Some of the files (e.g. those for brief trips to Boston, New York, London, and Ottawa) contain only travel documents (such as itineraries and e-mails regarding travel arrangements), but the more extensive files include briefing books containing: daily schedules and agenda; outlines of the objectives and themes for the visit or the Bank's strategy for a conference; biographical data on officials with whom Stern met; talking points for meetings; background information on and summaries of Bank projects in the countries he was scheduled to visit; copies of Bank documents (e.g. country assistance strategies, Implementation Completion Reports, OED evaluations of Bank projects, loan status reports) relating to the country visited; formal invitations to special events; copies of Stern's presentations and related Power-point slides; press releases; and extensive intra-Bank correspondence regarding trip plans and drafts of Stern's presentations. Many files include copies of Stern's Back-to-Office Reports to President Wolfensohn and Stern's own extensive notes from meetings. If Stern attended a conference, the conference documents (program, list of attendees, background documents) are included. If Stern accompanied President Wolfensohn on a trip (e.g. Brazil, March 28 - 29, 2003), a copy of the President's briefing book is in the files.

Reading File of The World Development Report (WDR) Team

The series consists of documents sent electronically within the WDR team, to other parts of DEC, and to other Bank organizations. The WDR team reported directly to DECVP and had primary responsibility for the Bank assessment of the state of the global economy found in the annual WDR and for selecting an aspect of development to be analyzed in depth for the annual report. The documents in this series reflect the process of information gathering, analysis, and review involved in the preparation of the annual WDR, including briefing of the Bank President. Also documented is the collaboration that took place with other Bank organizations for information and data needed for the report as well as consultation with outside groups including NGOs. Summaries of meetings at which the WDR was discussed are in the series. Michael Bruno was DECVP for most of the period covered by these records.

Reading File of the Front Office Staff, Office of the Vice President, Development Economics and Chief Economist (DECVP)

The series consists of documents sent electronically within the Front Office, to other parts of DEC, and to other Bank organizations by economic and statistical advisors and other staff. A few of the documents were sent by Mark Baird, DECVP [Director, Development Policy]. Included are comments on Country Assistance Strategy (CAS) papers, Initiating Memoranda (IMs) for loans and credits, Initial Executive Project Summaries (IEPS), the Unified Survey, and other papers received for review. Paris Club meetings are the subject of some of the documents.

Front Office Records Relating to Special Programs and Issues

This series consists primarily of files maintained by Lesley Davis Arnold, Program Coordinator in the DEC front office, 1993 - 1997. Her records concern special programs and issues affecting DEC, such as the DEC Action Plans for Women for FY 95 - 97; DEC's input into plans for the World Bank's 50th Anniversary; DEC presentations and briefings; matters concerning the Board of Executive Directors; and DEC's performance plan for FY 97 (filed under Planning Directions). Among the files for DEC's Action Plans for Women are Lesley Davis Arnold's correspondence regarding: DEC's Advisory Group on Gender of which she was a member; special funding available for first-time women consultants in DEC; plans for celebrating International Women's Day; and meetings of the Vice Presidential Unit Gender Coordinators and of the Local-Level Harassment Advisors (LHA). The files relating to the Board of Executives Directors include schedules of the major DEC papers and reports that required Board review. Files under Presentations include copies of the briefing materials Michael Bruno used in his March 1995 presentation to President Wolfensohn and a copy of his statement to the Executive Directors in December 1994. This series also includes five memoranda dated November 3 - 9, 1992, relating to plans for the 1993 reorganization as they affected DEC. Included is a copy of Lawrence Summers' November 9, 1992 memorandum regarding his vision for research on sectoral issues.

Front Office Work Program and Budget Records for Fiscal Years 1993-1998

These copies of DEC annual work programs and budgets, usually accompanied by Department and EDI [Economic Development Institute] feeder work programs and budgets, were maintained by Lesley Davis (Lesley Davis Arnold) who was Program Coordinator for Administration in DEC's Front Office. Copies of DEC's FY 93 Mid-Year and Retrospective Review Reports were maintained with the FY 93 work program and budget. Background materials for the FY 93 work program and budget include correspondence concerning positionsand funds associated with a proposed downsizing of the Geneva Office and concerning the impact on staffing of the acceptance into Bank and Fund membership in 1992 of most of the Republics of the former Soviet Union. Found with the FY 94 work plan and budget is correspondence concerning the merger of the budget of the Development Policy Group (former Economic Advisory Staff [EAS]) with that for the rest of DEC and copies of monitoring and Mid-Year Review Reports. The FY 94 - FY 96 Business Plan for DEC accompanies these records. A new format was adopted for the FY 95 work plan and DEC units' submissions were entered into the Resource Planning System (RPS). Accompanying documents relating to the FY 95 work program are FY 95 - FY 97 and FY 96 - FY 98 Business Plans for DEC (including EDI). Found with documents pertaining to the FY 96 work program is correspondence concerning development of a new Country Assistance Strategy or Country compact and a copy of the Third Quarter FY 97 Monitoring Report of the DEC work program and budget which was prepared for the first time in a new format in line with implementation of the Bank's new Strategic Compact - the plan for fundamental reform to make the Bank more effective in delivering its Regional program and achieving its basic mission of reducing poverty. Correspondence concerning DEC's proposed involvement in the Bank's program of technical cooperation, expanded volunteer efforts, and modest funding of activities related to education, employment, poverty alleviation, and municipal services for Washington, DC is found with guidance documents for preparation of the FY 98 work programs and budgets.

Front Office Quarterly Monitoring, Mid-Year, and Retrospective Review Reports

Most of these copies of DEC 's Apex, Quarterly Monitoring, Mid-Year, and Retrospective Review Reports were maintained by Lesley Davis (Leslie Davis Arnold) who was Program Coordinator for Administration in DEC's Front Office. The FY 92 Apex Reports were submitted after the end of the first quarter to the Policy and Review Department (PRD) before that unit was abolished in the 1992 reorganization. The FY 92 DEC Apex Reports described the status of DEC's implementation of the FY 1992 PRE [Policy, Research and External Affairs] Management Contract, compared quarter outcomes with the original plan in the Contract, described major activities/accomplishments by program objective category (POC), and described the status of EDI's development training program and EXT's [External Affairs Department] public information work and publications program. The report also commented on cross-cutting topics such as private sector development, environment, poverty, and women in development.

In FY 93, the Apex Reports were renamed Quarterly Monitoring Reports and, similar to the earlier Apex Reports, described progress of DEC departments against their individual Management Contracts and commented on cross-cutting topics. Guidance memoranda, divisions' submissions, and other related correspondence are found with the Monitoring Reports submitted to the Director, Planning and budgeting Department (PBD) following the First (FYs 93 - 95) and Third (FYs 94 - 97) Quarters of the fiscal year.

DEC's Mid-Year Review Reports (FYs 92 - 94, 96, 97) were prepared to provide bases for estimating whether fiscal year objectives and plans would be achieved. They covered structural changes within DEC and cross-support activities and compared first-half of the year performance of the DEC Departments and other units to the Management Contracts. Sometimes the Mid-Year Review Reports were accompanied by requests to PBD for additional funds for the second half of the fiscal year for programs included in the Management Contracts.

Retrospective Reviews (FYs 92 - 96 and FY 99) were conducted for DEC organizations after the close of a fiscal year. They provided Department Directors and the Vice President opportunities to compare organizational performance against the fiscal year budget plan or management contract, to determine the reasons for any deviations from the plan, to gain insights for the implementation of the new fiscal year budget plan, and to share findings at the institutional level. The reports, which were submitted to PBD/PBDPR [Program and Budget Review Division], provided an overview of the implementation of the past year's work program, highlights of program activities, services to other parts of the Bank, and dissemination activities.

At the beginning of FY 97 the Mid-Year and Retrospective Review Reports were replaced by Semiannual Reports on Monitoring the Bank's Strategic Compact - the plan for fundamental reform to make the Bank more effective in delivering its Regional program and achieving its basic mission of reducing poverty.DEC submitted data to PBD for retrospective reporting and, in addition, DEC provided a brief retrospective narrative report describing steps taken to deliver on the Compact. The FY 99 Retrospective Review consisted of: a review of progress under the Strategic Compact; a review of focus areas and major programs and activities; and budgetary information.

Davis also maintained a copy of the Country Economics Department's (CED) Black Book, which was developed at the end of FY 92. The black Book includes a completion report on each of the research or policy tasks completed by CED during that fiscal year, a summary linking work completed in FY 92 to the FY 93 work program, and a list of CED FY 92 publications.

Front Office Business Plans for Fiscal Years 1991-2000

These copies of DEC Business Plans were maintained by Lesley Davis (Leslie Davis Arnold) who was Program Coordinator for Administration in DEC's Front Office. Prior to the 1992 reorganization, DEC Business Plans were submitted to the Senior Vice President, Policy, Planning and Research (PPRSV). After the reorganization of that year, they were submitted to the Director, Planning and budgeting Department (PBD). The plans were submitted for all DEC units. The Business plan was a major component of Bank budget cycles and provided information from DEC that would become part of priorities and framework papers presented to the Board. The Business plan also served as the basis for DEC's next fiscal year work program and budget, described each DEC organization's plans for the following two or more fiscal years, described each organization's underlying strategy and work program, and indicated plans for special emphases and topics that cut across department and other organizational boundaries. Included in files aredraft and final Business plans, submissions for each DEC unit, background correspondence, data relating to the preparation of the plans, and copies of monitoring reports. The FY 1998 - 00 [2000] DEC Business Plan was prepared in April 1997 in anticipation of the Bank reorganization by July 1 of that year which would form as major parts of DEC a new Research, Data and Prospects Group and an Economic Development Institute and Leadership Center (EDI) in alliance with the Bank's new Strategic Compact.

Front Office Records Relating to the 1992 and 1998 Bank Reorganizations

These files were created by Leslie Davis (Leslie Davis Arnold), Program Coordinator for Administration in DEC's Front Office, during the planning stages of the FY 1993 Bank reorganization. They include copies of: briefing papers, memoranda, electronic messages, and other correspondence concerning reassignments within DEC and the Technical Departments; budget allocation and remapping documents; notes and reports from meetings discussing the DEC reorganization; correspondence concerning the reconfiguration of the Country Economics Department (CEC); and DECVP's memorandum of January 19, 1993 announcing CEC's change in name to the Policy Research Department (PRD) and designating it as the principal department in DEC engaged in research affecting the formulation of development policy. Also included as part of Davis' files on the FY 1993 reorganization are correspondence and reports concerning the closing of the Geneva Office by the end of June 1993. Much of the correspondence between Davis with the Administrative Assistant at the Geneva Office, Diane Cunningham, concerns various aspects of the closedown including reactions to the announcement of the shut down, allocation of Geneva Office responsibilities to DEC and to other Bank units, employment issues affecting Bank personnel at the office, the abolition of the Geneva Office support staff, termination of the lease for the office space, and disposition of Bank property at the Geneva Office.

Davis' file for the FY 1998 reorganization includes memoranda, electronic messages, organization charts, copies of kiosk announcements, and other documents concerning the movement of staff resources and dollars, reclassifications and appointments, and proposals for reorganization structure. Also in her file are copies of memoranda exchanged between human resources organizations, DEC department heads, and DEC Front Office staff, as well as Davis' correspondence with personnel within and outside of DEC regarding the reorganization.

Reading File of Bela Balassa

This reading file covers Balassa's work as a consultant for the World Bank from September 1966 to May 1991. Bela Balassa was recruited in 1966 by Irving S. Friedman, The Economic Adviser to the President, as a consultant adviser to the Economics Department of the Bank. Balassa had recently been appointed Professor of Political Economy at The Johns Hopkins University and prior to that was on the faculty of Yale University. Balassa worked closely with Friedman and Andrew Kamarck, the Director of the Economics Department, and later with Hollis B. Chenery after he was appointed Economic Adviser to the Bank President in October 1970.

Through successive Bank reorganizations, Balassa served as a consultant policy adviser and prepared papers at the request of Operations and other Bank units, led Bank missions to developing countries, supervised research performed in Regional offices, and conducted his own research and writing. He served as a consultant in DEC at the time of his death on May 10, 1991.

During theperiod 1966-1970, the series includes Balassa's letters and Back-to-Office Reports for missions to Argentina, Korea, Taiwan, and Israel, letters sent in conjunction with the Development Strategies in Semi-Industrial Countries and Export Promotion in Developing Countries projects, and letters to outside economists invited to attend meetings at the Bank on the Structure of Protection in Developing Countries.

Letters and memoranda for the 1971-1981 period continue to document his duties as Research Adviser to the Economics Department and to the Vice President, Development Policy Hollis Chenery who was appointed the Economic Adviser to the Bank President. Balassa also consulted with Ernest Stern, Senior Adviser, Development Policy and officials of other Bank departments on policy issues and participated in economic or advisory missions. In February 1972 he was transferred to the Development Research Center. Letters and memoranda for the period afterward indicate that Belassa continued to lead or otherwise participate in missions; performed other policy advisory work for Regional Offices, other parts of the Bank, and governments of less developed countries; assisted the Research Committee (later the Research Projects Approval Committee [REPAC]) in panel review of research proposals; provided leadership to the Industrial Development and Trade Steering Group; commented on the quality and distribution of World Bank staff working papers; and conducted his own research and writing

Beginning in 1982, Balassa reported to the Vice President, Development Policy Staff (later Vice President, Economics and Research [ERS]) and to the Director of the Development Research Department. Letters and memoranda indicate his increased involvement in policy advising and operational support both to senior Bank management and Regional Offices and continued participation in missions and in the Research Committee. After the 1987 Reorganization, Balassa reported to the Vice President, Development Economics and Chief Economist (DEC). A copy of an August 4, 1987 report on World Bank Research prepared at the request of the Senior Vice President, Policy, Planning and Research is in the file. A number of letters and reports after that date and continuing through 1991 concern Balassa's review of papers in the Policy, Planning and Research (PPR, later PRE [Policy, Research, and External Affairs]) Working Papers series. Included in the PPR/PRE series were World Development Reports and other papers prepared by organizations within DECVP, IEC [International Economics Department], and CEC [Country Economics Department].

Throughout the series are copies of papers Balassa prepared at the request of the Board and Bank offices, copies of research papers and lectures prepared for Bank-IMF sponsored conferences and for meetings of international organizations, reports prepared after returning to the Bank from outside meetings on economic issues and trade policy, and letters concerning his books and other publications.

Research File of Bela Balassa

Most of the correspondence in this series covers the period when Balassa reported both to the Vice President, Development Policy Staff (VPD, later Vice President, Economics and Research [VPERS)] and to the Director of the Development Research Center (DRC), and, after the 1987 Reorganization, the Vice President, Development Economics and Chief Economist (DECVP). He also served during this period as Chairman of the Development Policy Staff Trade Advisory Committee. The files are loosely organized around Balassa's projects while serving as consultant to the Bank during this period.

Included are Balassa's completion reports for some of the projects he personally carried out, his comments on proposals and research projects conducted by others in the Bank, and correspondence with the Research Projects Approval Committee (REPAC) and the head of the Research Administration Unit in VPERS. Some files contain background materials, including statistical data, used in Balassa's research. Specific documents include: Terms of Reference (TOR) for a May-June 1983 mission to Tunisia led by Balassa that constituted the first phase of a study on employment creation; his TOR and Back-to-Office (BTO) Report for a January 1985 Industrial Policy Mission he led to Tunisia; and his report on his coordination of a Latin American development strategy study (introduced by David Rockefeller) while on leave from Johns Hopkins University. Correspondence, including a BTO Report, for a mission to Venezuela Balassa led from January to October 1987 to hold discussions with the Venezuelan government on the economy and possible resumption of Bank lending is also part of the series.

Also included in the series are copies of talking points and papers Belassa prepared at the request of high-level Bank officials and correspondence with DECVP. Belassa's handwritten notes and drafts can be found throughout the series.

Publication File of Bela Balassa

The series includes reprints of approximately 200 papers and essays authored by Bella Balassa on a wide spectrum of economic and trade issues including development strategy, adjustment policies, tariff policy and taxation, exchange rates and balance of payments, protectionism, and export policy and performance. Most of the papers and essays were initially presented by Balassa at symposia, conferences, institutes, and seminars held in the United States and abroad while he served as consultant to the Bank and as a faculty member at The Johns Hopkins University. A series of papers published between 1963 and 1966 were written while he was on the faculty of Yale University. Also found in the series is a copy of a Le Monde article of 26 April 1990 announcing the award of an honorary doctorate to Balassa by the l'universite de Paris, a copy of a letter Belassa sent to friends concerning the Sorbonne ceremony and other honors, and a copy of an article on Balassa that appeared in the March 1990 issue of The Bank's World.

Reports to Headquarters from Special Representatives to U.N. Organizations in Geneva

The series consists of three black binders containing reports sent from Geneva to Headquarters by Representatives Mahmud Burney, L. Peter Chatenay, and Wolfgang Siebeck. The Bank first opened an office in Geneva in 1978 staffed by a resident representative and one support staff. Its responsibilities included representing the Bank in meetings of international organizations held in Geneva, principally the GATT, UNCTAD, ILO, and WHO. The Bank staff at Geneva kept Bank Headquarters informed through periodicreports and facilitated informal contacts with staffs of Geneva organizations. Reports to Headquarters prior to 1987 were addressed to the Director of the Bank's International Relations Department (IRD). When the Strategic Planning and Review Department (SPR) was established under the Senior Vice President, Policy, Planning and Research (SVPPR) in May 1987, the Geneva Office reported to the International Relations Division (SPRIE), which included the U.N. Offices in New York and Geneva (SPRGE).

The first black binder contains numbered Geneva bi-monthly letters (also referred to as newsletters) sent by Mahmud, the first Representative, from September 21, 1979 to October 29, 1982. A register showing letter number, date, and subject is located at the beginning of the binder. At the back of the binder are 15 unnumbered Washington letters and one unnumbered memorandum (10 September 1979 - 31 August 1982), most of which were sent to Burney by Shirley Boskey, Director, International Relations Department (IRD),in response to issues raised in Burney's numbered reports.

All of the numbered Burney Geneva letters except the first and last were addressed to Boskey. In almost all of the letters, Burney provides full descriptions of discussions and outcomes of meetings and conferences of UNCTAD [United Nations Conference on Trade and Development], particularly the Trade and Development Board of UNCTAD, and GATT [General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade]. In the 17 December 1979 letter, Burney offers his views on the impact of the crisis in Iran on Geneva negotiations and possibly the Bank. Burney's letters describe his involvement with work of the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and various preparatory meetings for the G-77 ministers meeting (1980), the U.N. Conference on the Least Developed Countries (1981), the GATT Ministerial Meeting (1982), and UNCTAD VI (1982). Burney also reported on the reactions from the U.N. and other organizations at Geneva to world events such as the Iran crisis (1979), President McNamara's announcement of his retirement (1980), the Gulf War (1980), Ronald Reagan's assumption of the U.S. Presidency (1981), and President Clausen's early pronouncements as Bank President (1981). Burney included in his letters information gained in informal and formal discussions with country representatives at Geneva concerning the impact of high oil prices and inflation on economies, balance-of-payments problems of developing countries; the absence of developing countries' at management and seniormanagement levels of the Bank; and the withholding of observer status for the PLO at Bank annual meetings. Burney also reported on other formal and informal contacts with representatives of international organizations in Geneva, arrivals and departures of ambassadors, changes in U.N. and GATT officials, and visits with Bank staff attending meetings in Geneva.

Reports from Geneva of the other two Representatives were similar in the kinds of information covered but differed in frequency and format. The Geneva Letters binder of L. Peter Chatenay is divided into three parts: Geneva Office Activity Reports (in the form of memoranda) sent monthly to the Director, IRD, Shahid Javed Burki, 15 August 1983 - 3 July 1985; reports of UNCTAD, GATT, and other meetings Chatenay attended, 12 September 1983 - 30 July 1985 addressed primarily to Burki; and a small number of Washington letters and messages, some undated, received by Chatenay from Burney and others at the Bank, 10 August 1983 - 16 September 1985. The monthly activity reports focused more on general trends, upcoming events, contacts with and observations about the diplomatic community at Geneva, and contacts with Bank visitors to Geneva. The reports of meetings attended describe comments made by Chatenay and other representatives at these meetings, outcomes, and Chatenay's observations and/or recommendations for Bank response.

Wolfgang Siebeck's first report of 21 January 1986 to Burki was in the form of a letter. The next report, simply captioned Geneva Report for April 1986, covered meetings and other developments related to GATT, UNCTAD, the International Trade Center, the International Labor Organization, and a World Bank briefing given by Burki on April 20, 1986 at Geneva for a group of 88 representatives of Permanent Missions and U.N. Organizations. The reports which followed were submitted on a monthly basis, followed the same format, and focused primarily on GATT and UNCTAD. In these reports, Siebeck covered meetings attended, positions taken,outcomes, and his observations.

In his cover memo of 14 November 1986, Siebeck announced a change in the format of the Geneva Report. Attached to the memo were the October/November and November/December reports, both of which focused on preparations for and negotiations at the Uruguay Round. Succeeding reports beginning with January/February 1987 were numbered and covered Uruguay Round meetings/negotiations, UNCTAD VII and other activities. After September 1987, Siebeck's reports from Geneva fluctuatedbetween one month and two months coverage but continued to address the Uruguay Round and UNCTAD VII developments. In his last report (October/November 1989) from Geneva, Siebeck focused entirely on the status of negotiations in individual Uruguay Round groups.

Miscellaneous Correspondence of the Office of the Special Representative to the U.N. Organizations in Geneva

The series consists of documents that were most likely retained for reference purposes by the Directors of the Geneva office (also referred to as Special Representatives to the U.N. Organizations in Geneva) and their staffs. Included in the series are: copies of the agreement regarding privileges and immunities concluded between the U.N. and the Swiss Federal Council on 19 April 1946; a copy of the 22 June 1978 letter from the Director, International Relations Department of the Bank to the Deputy Director-General of the U.N. announcing the opening of the Bank's Geneva office with Mahmud Burney as permanent representative; biographical information about Bank Presidents; copies of staff and other announcements of the appointments of Wolfgang Siebert (effective 20 January 1986) and Jean Baneth (effective 4 August 1989) as Directors; copies of the announcement of Baneth's departure and the appointment of his successor Piritta Sorsa (effective 14 December 1992); memos and other correspondence concerning the Post Adjustment (cost-of-living) System for Field Assignments (1988 - 1992); memoranda concerning work plans (1990 - 1991) and staffing requirements (1985, 1987, 1989) for the office; an unsigned 7-page monograph titled Notes on the Bank Office in Geneva dated 20 November 1985 most likely written by L. Peter Chatenay who headed the office from 1982 to 1985; and a draft of a letter to the U.N. office in Geneva announcing the permanent closing of the Bank's Geneva office as of 1 July 1993. Copies of a small amount of correspondence prepared by Siebert and Baneth regarding the Geneva office and correspondence from other permanent missions at Geneva are also part of the series.

Correspondence and Reports of the Office of the Special Representative to the U.N. Organizations in Geneva Concerning Negotiation of General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) for the Uruguay Round

Most of the records were maintained by Special Representatives Wolfgang Siebeck and Jean baneth who were also referred to as Directors of the Geneva office from 1986 to 1992. Baneth was succeeded by Pritta Sorsa in 1992. Beginning in 1987, the Geneva Office reported as SPRGE to the Senior Vice President, Policy Research and External Affairs (SVPRE). After the restructuring of the Policy, Planning, and Research Complex (PPR), the Geneva Office reported to the Senior Vice President, Policy, Planning and External Affairs (PRESV). As the GATT negotiations gained momentum, the Geneva Office was upgraded and transferred to the Front Office of PRESV, reporting as PREGE. Following the termination of all Senior Vice Presidencies in the Bank, the Geneva Office was transferred to the Front Office of DEC on December 12, 1991 and began reporting as DECGE to the Vice President, Development Economics and Chief Economist (DECVP).

The Uruguay Round, the eighth GATT multilateral trade negotiation, was launched in September 1986 in Punta del Este and was completed in 1994. This series includes correspondence with Headquarters of the Representatives and others designated as observers at various Trade Policy and GATT Council meetings. Subjects include: general progress of the Uruguay Round; development of a handbook on multilateral trade negotiations to support developing countries in the Uruguay Round; Bank participation in seminars and workshops to provide technical assistance and support to developing countries in the Uruguay Round; Bank access to country trade and tariff data; and arrangements for visits of the Director General and the Personnel Director of GATT to the Bank in Washington, DC.

With the correspondence are documents provided to the Special Representatives by the GATT Secretariat headquartered in Geneva including Trade Policy Review reports (1989 - 1993) documenting reviews of trade policies and practices by the GATT Council. Also included are documents furnished by the GATT Secretariat concerning acceptances(Protocol of Accession) to GATT of Bolivia, Bulgaria, China, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Panama, Paraguay, and Nepal (1987 - 1992) and Romania, Switzerland, Tunisia, and Venezuela (1990 and 1992). Documents concerning the renegotiation of Terms of Accession for Poland (1991 - 1992) and working papers and notes of meetings at the Uruguay Round and the mid-term review of the Round completed in Geneva in 1989 were also furnished by the GATT Secretariat.

The Geneva Office continued to represent the Bank in the GATT negotiations in the Uruguay Round and in meetings of UNCTAD and other U.N. organizations at Geneva. As the Uruguay Round negotiations came to an end, the Geneva Office was closed on June 30, 1993. After the Geneva Office closed, its functions were provided through a combination of Geneva-based consultants and Headquarters staff sent to Geneva.

Subject Files of the Office of the Special Representative to the U.N. Organizations in Geneva

Most of these files appear to have been created while Wolfgang Siebeck (1986-1989) and Jean Baneth (1989-1992) served as Special Representative. A few files contain documents of earlier Representatives who served during the 1980s (Mahmud Burney and L. Peter Chatenay) and of Jean Baneth's successor in 1992, Sorsa Piritta. Documents placed in these files include not only memoranda, electronic messages, speeches, and statements prepared or received by the Representatives but also memoranda and other documents prepared by members of their staffs and other Bank officials.

A few files (Women, North/South Roundtable on Trade) contain only a single document but others are more substantive. The International Labor Organization (ILO) files (1982 - 1990) contain considerable correspondence of both Siebeck and Baneth covering coordination between the World Bank and ILO. In some of the correspondence, Siebeck is identified as Director, International Relations Department, Geneva Office (IRDGO). Much of the correspondence in the Human Rights file pertains to Baneth's participation as Bank representative at meetings of the U.N. Centre for Human Rights and preparations for the 1993 U.N. Conference on Human Rights. The file also contains some correspondence of earlier Representatives concerning human rights issues. The Gulf Crisis file (26 October 1990 - 16 July 1991) includes Baneth's (and his Administrative Assistant's) correspondence concerning United Nations Disaster Relief Organization (UNDRO) efforts on behalf of displaced persons in the Middle East during the crisis. Correspondence was exchanged during the crisis with the Vice President, Corporate Planning and budget Robert Picciotto; the Senior Vice President, Policy Research and External Affairs Wilfred Thalwitz; and the Director, External Affairs Alexander Shakow.

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) Files of the Special Representative to the U.N. Organizations in Geneva Relating to Least Development Countries (LDCs)

Included in the series is the 1982 correspondence between L. Peter Chatenay while assigned to the International Relations Department (IRD) and Representative Mahmud Burney regarding Bank/UNDP/UNCTAD cooperation on Least Developed Countries (LDC) issues and meetings attended on LDC issues. Correspondence between the two concerning LDCs continued after Chatenay succeeded Burney as Representative and Burney was designated Senior Adviser, U.N. Affairs, IRD. Also in the series is Chatenay's correspondence with other IRD officials and Representatives Siebeck and Baneth's correspondence with Bank Headquarters and U.N. officials on various LDC issues and the Second United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries held in Paris on 3 March 3 1990 - 14 March 1990. Copies of statements made by Bank officials at the Conference are part of the series.

Subject Files of the Director, Policy and Review Department (PRDDR)

This series contains both the incoming and outgoing correspondence of the Director, Policy and Review Department (PRDDR) and his immediate staff. Much of the incoming correspondence is heavily hand annotated by Director Paul Isenman with his reply and/or his comments regarding the disposition of the incoming document. The files also contain agenda and minutes of meetings; drafts of reports, papers, and publications; and Isenman's handwritten notes from meetings. The series consists of the following four parts:

  1. The first and largest (8.83 linear feet) segment is the main subject file, January 1990 - November 1991. It consists largely of files on draft policy papers that the PRD staff reviewed. These files contain Isenman's copies of the correspondence, comments, and minutes of meetings relating to the policy paper throughout the drafting process. Policy subjects covered include: forestry, governance, guarantees (i.e. expanding Bank guarantee instruments for private sector development), human development, military expenditure, poverty, the Soviet economy, technical assistance for the Soviet Union, and policy guidelines on tobacco. Also included are files regarding the review of the Report of the Technical Assistance Review Task Force (TARTF); files documenting the development of Business plans for units in PRE [Policy, Research and External Affairs]; and memoranda and other correspondence, dated January - October 1990, on the transition to establish PRD from the Strategic Planning and Review Department (filed under New Department). Filed under President's Council are agenda and minutes of meetings of the President's Council (PC) along with PRD staff comments on documents that were to be discussed at the meetings.
  • The second segment, Isenman's working file, 1989 - 1991, contains many documents that Isenman annotated as working file or file W. Most of the files relate to subjects that were of short-term interest to PRD, but filed under Policy Research and External Affairs (PRE) Committee are schedules for PRE meetings and minutes and agenda for meetings of the PRE Committee on which Isenman served. Some items filed under lunches and people are dated as early as 1989 when Isenman was director of the Africa-South Central and Indian Ocean Department (AF3).

  • The third segment, January 1990 - August 1991, contains PRD's correspondence with and notes from meetings with PRE managers and the staff in PRD's Program Management Unit (PRDPM) concerning the drafting and monitoring of budgets and work programs for all PRE units. Also included are files on the FY 91 retrospective reviews for PRE units and the FY 92 PRE management contract.

  • The final segment appears to be another working file pulled together as PRD was being abolished. It contains a number of files pulled from the first segment, but the bulk of it consists of thick accordion files in which Isenman filed background materials on topics of current interest or in preparation for attendance at a meeting on the topic. Many include Isenman's handwrittennotes from meetings.

Pre-Operations Committee Briefing Memoranda of the Policy Analysis and Review Division (SPRPA), Strategic Planning and Review Department

This series primarily contains briefing memoranda prepared by staff in the Policy Analysis and Review Division (SPRPA) of the Strategic Planning and Review Department. SPRPA was the predecessor to the Review and Analysis Division (PRDRA). The memoranda, which analyze documents to be discussed at an Operations Committee (OC) meeting and propose a position to be taken by the Chief Economist (DECVP), were forwarded to the Chief Economist and, in some cases, also to the Vice President for Sector Policy and Research (PREVP). Most of the items discussed in the briefings are Country Strategy Papers and adjustment loan/credit documents. Included in the series are several agenda for OC meetings and some post-Operations Committee meeting memoranda summarizing the discussion at an OC meeting.

Post-Operations Committee Meeting Memoranda of the Review and Analysis Division, Policy and Review Department

This series contains memoranda prepared by staff in the Review and Analysis Division (PRDRA) of the Policy and Review Department and its predecessor, the Policy Analysis and Review Division (SPRPA) of the Strategic Planning and Review Department. The memoranda summarize discussions in meetings of the Operations Committee (OC) that were of interest to the Policy, Research and External Affairs (PRE) staff. The memoranda were written to the files and copies were sent to the Chief Economist and to the headsof other Policy, Research and External Affairs units. Most of the memoranda are post-meeting memos that summarize the OC's discussion on a particular topic, but scattered throughout the series are several pre-meeting briefing memoranda that analyze the document that is to be the topic of discussion at the next OC meeting. One such pre-meeting memorandum, dated April 11, 1990, was sent to Ajay Chhibber in preparation for his briefing for the Chief Economist.

Subject Files of Geoffrey B. Lamb, Adviser, Policy Development Unit (PRDPD), Policy and Review Department

This series contains files compiled by Geoffrey B. Lamb while he was an adviser in the Strategic Planning Division (SPRSP) of the Strategic Planning and Review Department and, after July 1, 1990, an adviser in and later head of the Policy Development Unit (PRDPD) of the Policy and Review Department (PRD). SPRSP had the major responsibility for generating and drafting the President's addresses to the Annual Meetings of the Bank and the Fund, and more than two thirds of this series consists of files Lamb compiled while drafting the speeches that President Conable delivered at the 1987, 1988, and 1989 annual meetings. These speech files contain numerous drafts of the speeches, much intra-Bank correspondence containing suggestions for the speeches and comments on the many drafts, copies of Bank publications used as background materials, Lamb's handwritten notes from meetings at which the drafts were discussed, and intra-Bank memoranda regarding follow-up action required to ensure that policies and programs outlined in the speeches were, in fact, accomplished.

Other files in the series contain records concerning the Group of Thirty's Study Group on Financing Eastern Europe which issued a 1991 report on the outlook for capital flows into Eastern Europe and the policy issues affecting them. Included is Lamb's correspondence with Richard A. Debs, the chair of the study group; Charles Taylor, the Executive Director of the Group of Thirty; and Wilfried Thalwitz, the World Bank's Senior Vice President, Policy, Research and External Affairs (PRESV), who was a member of the study group. A copy of the published report is included in the files. Items filed under President's Retreat 1989 concern the drafting of a work program and other follow-up work emanating from the January 6, 1989 retreat on the Strategic Agenda Framework. Another file contains intra-Bank memoranda and reports on the relationship between the U.S.S.R. and the Bretton Woods institutions and copies of and comments on a draft of the 1989 article The Soviet Union and the Bretton Woods Agencies written by the Executive Vice President and Director of the Overseas Development Council Richard E. Feinberg. There is also a file concerning the drafting of briefing materials compiled in November 1990 for President Conable prior to his visit to the U.S.S.R.

At the end of the series is a small file (under Guarantees) containing seven memoranda and papers, June 1990-September 1991, from Alfred J. Watkins, a senior economist in the Policy Development Unit, outlining howthe World Bank could use its guarantee powers to facilitate private capital flows to private sector entities in developing countries.

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