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Statements, speeches and interviews

This series contains the official statements issued by Robert S. McNamara as President of the World Bank. The material consists of drafts by the President (some handwritten) and drafts prepared by staff (some heavily annotated)' press releases' and occasional background documents. Statements include remarks at the signing of Bank loans' statements at press conferences' airport statements' statements at Annual Meetings and Board meetings' toasts at official dinners including some toasts to McNamara given by Presidents' messages to be delivered at conferences' remarks to the U.S. Congress and messages to staff.

The set also contains transcripts of interviews and newspaper articles. The former include interviews for the NBC Today Show and Meet the Press (1974)' Segment Three (1978)' Bill Moyer's Journal on WNET (1975)' a CBS interview with Peter Jay (1977)' the ABC presentation of A Day in Shrishnagar (1980)' and appearances on the BBC (1978-1980) and on Norwegian' Japanese' German' and French television. There are also interviews for the London Times and Europa (1975)' the New York Times (1978)' Newsweek (1979)' and the Sunday Times (1980).

Board [of Executive Directors] Actions files

President McNamara's memoranda to the Board of Executive Directors constitute this series. They are divided into the following subjects:

  • I. Lending rate

  • II. Profit transfer

  • III. Budget proposals

  • IV. Compensation

  • V. Structural adjustment lending

  • VI. Miscellaneous

  • VII. International Development Association

  • VIII. International Finance Corporation

  • IX. Financial policy

  • BC. Brandt Commission Pearson Commission Role of the Bank.

The first file of the series consists of 2 finding aids prepared in the President's office. The first finding aid is an annotated list of the President's memoranda to the Executive Directors from 1 April 1968 - July 10, 1980, listing the subjects discussed, the background papers distributed on the subject, the date of the discussion, and remarks. The annotations indicate the file (I through X and BC) containing the documents on the subject. The second finding aid is titled Board Actions Books I-X. It lists all documents filed within the ten numbered subject files plus the Brandt Commission file. Copies of these lists are filed in the subject files, and the lists in the subject files are annotated to show which documents have been removed from that file or have been filed in other files.

The memoranda dealing with lending rate contain the President's recommendations to the Board with regard to the Bank's interest rate policy and its annual and quarterly review. They include background material dating from 1947 and some handwritten notes by McNamara of the Executive Directors' discussions on lending rate policy (1968, 1969 and 1979).

The memoranda on profit transfer deal with the Bank's annual transfer to IDA of part of the year's income. They include some handwritten notes by McNamara of the Executive Directors' discussion on the allocation of net income for FY69. The budget proposals and related memoranda presented to the Executive Directors for review and approval are occasionally annotated by McNamara. The 1973 Review of IBRD/IDA program, FY74-78, is accompanied by the President's handwritten notes of his meetings with H. Kaufman, E. Patberg and L. Parker of Salomon Brothers, the First Boston Corporation and Morgan Stanley respectively.

The memoranda on compensation are concerned with salary policies and procedures, salary reviews, staff retirement and tax liabilities. They include McNamara's proposals of a general salary increase with his notes of the discussions of the Board, drafts and comparative figures (1968-1970), and recommendations with regard to the conclusions of the McKinsey study on staff compensation (1972) and the Report of the Joint Bank-Fund Committee on Staff Compensation Issues (Kafka Committee 1979). There are also notes taken by the President of discussions on tax liabilities (1979).

The miscellaneous memoranda deal with Board procedures, IBRD borrowing, lending policies, procurement practices, operations evaluation, work arrangements with other agencies, the Bank research program, international agricultural research, and office space. They contain McNamara's handwritten notes on the Executive Directors' discussions of his recommendations regarding subscriptions to the capital stock of the Bank (1969, 1970), Board procedures (1971), and the financing of tea (1973). The memoranda relating to IBRD borrowing and bonds issues are heavily annotated by the President (1978-1980), as is a memorandum on development policy for countries dependent on exports of primary products (1973).

The memoranda regarding IDA concern IDA policies, financing and international agricultural research. They bear no annotations by the President.

The memoranda regarding IFC contain some notes by McNamara of the discussion by the Executive Directors of papers on operating policies (1973), as well as personal comments by R. L. Knight regarding IFC policies (1973).

The memoranda on financial policy contain McNamara's papers to the Board on the Bank's borrowing program, financial policies and capital increase, and the establishment of the Third Window. They include the President's drafts of statements and closing remarks for the Executive Directors' discussions of memoranda on the scale of financial operations FY74-78 (1972) and IBRD financial policies (1973) and notes accompanying his 1976 memorandum on IBRD capital increase.

The memoranda on the recommendations of the Pearson and Brandt Commissions relating to the Bank bear some annotations by McNamara.

A set of documents concerning the discussions of memoranda to the Board on the future role of the Bank and its associated capital requirements was put together by President McNamara. It contains summaries of informal meetings with the Directors, technical notes, memoranda and handwritten notes of the discussions, and correspondence. An index to the documents in the file Role of the Bank, both in McNamara's handwriting and in typescript, is included in the file.

Contacts - Member Countries files

The Contacts - Member Countries files are the record of President McNamara's meetings with famous individuals, representatives of member countries other than the United States, and representatives of organizations (e.g., Executive Directors, Annual Meeting delegates, heads of States and organizations, government officials, parliamentarians, bankers, businessmen, industrialists, economists, journalists). The files contain minutes of meetings, briefings, questions and answers for press interviews, background material and some correspondence.

Although the minutes were generally prepared by staff from the concerned region or the Personal Assistant to the President, the files contain many memoranda of conversations and notes on meetings and visits drafted by McNamara, some handwritten. Also in McNamara's hand are a number of points to discuss for meetings and annotations on the briefs prepared by staff. Among the items personally drafted by McNamara are notes of, or for, meetings with King Baudouin (1969), Pierre Trudeau (1976), Anwar Sadat (1975), Georges Pompidou (1969), Valery Giscard d'Estaing (1972, 1975, 1979), Karl Otto Poehl, Hans Dietrich Genscher, Helmut Schmidt (1975), Indira Gandhi (1973), the Shah of Iran (1973), Felix Houphouet-Boigny (1969), Takeo Fukuda (1978), William Tolbert (1973), Nicolae Ceausescu (1968), Leopold Senghor (1969), Alec Douglas-Home (1972), Edward Heath (1973), U Thant (1969), Joseph Mobutu (1972).

IPA chronological file (outgoing)

This series is composed of letters and memoranda drafted for McNamara by the Department of Information and Public Affairs (IPA) between January 1969 and July 1981. Letters consist of thank-you notes, mostly regrets, for invitations to participate or speak at meetings or luncheons, deliver interviews and appear on television, thanks for gifts, books, articles, comments, views, support, staff work, and responses to requests for material, statements and articles.

The addressees are private citizens, scholars, journalists, heads of organizations and congregations, diplomats, and government officials. Thank-you letters range from a note to President Leopold Sedar Senghor thanking him for a volume of poetry, to letters to the U.S. President, senators and congressmen thanking them for assuring the passage of foreign assistance legislation. Responses to inquiries include a letter informing President Sekou Toure of the progress of the Konkoure project, a letter attempting to answer William Safire's etymological inquiry about the phrase bargaining chip, and notes declining requests for comments on defense policy and the Vietnam War.

Travel briefings of staff assistants to the President

The series consists of the travel briefing files of three staff assistants for three trips during the McNamara Presidency. The first are the files of Sven Burmester, Special Assistant to the President, for the Middle East trip (Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates) of March 5-16, 1975. The second are the files of Caio Koch-Weser, Personal Assistant to the President, for the West Africa trip (Nigeria, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Guinea, The Gambia, and Senegal) of November 1-15, 1977. The last are the files of Oliver Lafourcade, Personal Assistant to the President, for the trip to India and Pakistan, March 28-April 1, 1981. All of these trips also have briefing files in the President's travel briefs series.

Photographs

This series contains primarily photographic prints and negatives documenting some of President Conable's trips abroad, taken by governments or businesses where he visited. The photographs, all in albums, are in predominantly in color, with a few in black and white. The photographs have no identification other than country and date. One album contains photographs taken by the World Bank of the 1990 annual meeting in Washington and includes photographs of U.S. President George W. Bush.

Chronological file

This chronological file consists of copies of the outgoing letters, memoranda and correspondence handled for President Conable by J. William Stanton as well as Stanton's correspondence. The records include social and public relations messages; letters of appreciation for invitations, acceptances and regrets; congratulations; arrangements for meetings; and letters of introduction and recommendation. A few incoming letters are included. Public figures, such as U.S. Senators and officials of the Executive Branch, are among the correspondents.

Reorganization files

This series consists of the records maintained by J. William Stanton concerning Bank's 1987 reorganization. They include internal Bank correspondence, presentations, and follow-up reports describing the successes and weaknesses of the 1987 reorganization efforts. The files also include correspondence and reports from management consultants in connection with the 1987 reorganization, memos of Stanton's discussions with President Conable, and reorganization reports of the Steering Committee and the Support Units Task Force.

Space Files

The series concerns the expansion, retrofit and reconstruction options for buildings occupied by the Bank in Washington, DC (known as Buildings A, B, C, D, E, F and I). It is the most complete set of records in the President's office on space issues facing the Bank.

More than half of the files are reports submitted to the Bank by architects, real estate appraisers, and real estate developers. The internal memoranda and external correspondence cover such topics as the space needs of the Bank, real estate values, and the acquisition and sale of properties, in particular the agreement between the Bank and the IFC regarding the transfer of the responsibility for the IFC building. The International Monetary Fund's expansion is the subject of one file.

Chronological file

This chronological file consists of copies of the outgoing letters and memoranda, both those handled for President Conable by Marianne Haug and Haug's own correspondence. The records begin in July 1985 when Haug was the Assistant Director of the Industry Department, continue through her service as Assistant Director, West Africa Projects, and conclude in May 1990 at the end of her stay in the President's office. A few incoming letters are included. The files for the periods mid-October 1985 through March 1986, October through December 1986, and mid-March through June 1989 are missing.

The files are useful both for their window onto the issues handled in the president's office and also for the glimpse they give of Haug's work as the first woman to serve as an Executive Assistant to the President of the Bank.

Reorganization files

This series consists of the records maintained by Marianne Haug concerning Bank's 1987 reorganization. They include internal Bank correspondence, presentations, and reorganization follow-up reports describing the successes and weaknesses of the 1987 reorganization efforts. This is the fullest set of files in the President's office on the reorganization and its subsequent fine-tuning' in 1989.

Subject files

This series provides an unusually good overview of the scope of issues handled by staff assistants in the Office of the President. Unlike the Stanton files in WB IBRD/IDA 03 EXC-11-02 which are focused on reorganization and space needs, the Haug files cover a very wide range of administrative matters and program topics. The Bank's increasing emphasis on environmental and social issues is reflected here, in such files as environment, forestry, population, and women in development. The monitoring of program operations can be traced in such files as annual sector reviews and strategy papers from Bank entities. Haug also had special interests in staff issues, reflected in files on outside interests and activities, the staff association, the staff retirement plan and staff compensation.

Haug brought some files with her to the President's office, including those on the Joint Committee on Staff Compensation and the Outside Interests Committee, from which she resigned when she joined the President's staff. In addition, a few documents from 1991 in the U.S. estate tax file post-date her tenure and presumably were filed by the President's office staff into Haug's subject file after she departed.

Budget files

The series consists of FY88 budget appeals and the effect of reorganization on the budget, budget policy and discussions, planning and budget guidelines; a budget framework paper; records of midyear budget reviews, the FY89 work program, and budgets for regional offices. The records also include the initial budget guidelines provided to the senior management group by President Conable.

President's Council files

This series consists of the records of meetings of the President's Council that were maintained by Anapum Khanna, Special Assistant to the President. The files contain agendas and minutes of the meetings, Khanna's handwritten notes taken during meetings, talking points for the President, and papers for discussion by the Council. The series is not a complete record of all President's Council meetings for the period covered, and not all records of meetings contain an agenda or minutes.

This series is a useful supplement to the official records of the Council in WB IBRD/IDA EXC-11-32S. Not all of the official records include minutes, and Khanna's handwritten notes may fill in gaps in the official files. Furthermore, this series includes talking points for the President, all of which may not be included in the official files.

Subject files

The files in this fragmentary series contain primarily memoranda and reports on a few administrative topics. Some of the items in the files had been accumulated by Khann's predecessor as Special Assistant, Josue Tanaka. Some files are useful because they continue a subject found elsewhere; for example, the environment file in this series complements and extends the environment file found in the Haug subject files. The private sector development file postdates the Conable Presidency.

Annual Meetings

This series contains records relating to President Conable's meetings during Annual Meetings of the Bank's board of Governors. The organization of the Annual Meeting is the responsibility of the Corporate Secretary, so these records are those of the President himself and the arrangements made by and for his immediate office. The records are arranged in 2 subseries. The first subseries contains the President's records for the Annual Meetings, including background materials and briefings prepared by the staff in preparation for general meetings and meetings with country delegates. The records cover only the first three years of Conable's term (1986-1988).

The second subseries contains the administrative files the President's office created while preparing for the annual meetings. The files include schedules for the President and senior Bank officials, files for Mrs. Conable's activities, special guest lists, letters of invitation, travel and financial arrangements for staff, hotel accommodations and related items. Briefings are included in the files for some meetings. The administrative file on the 1987 annual meeting, for example, includes sub-files titled: Part I [country Governors], Part II [country Governors], Africa, Asia, EMENA [Europe, Middle East, North Africa], LAC [Latin America and Caribbean], IMF, Social, VIPs, JS [Joint Secretariat] documents, Speeches, Development/Interim Committee, Briefs, Administration. The series includes a photo of three Bank Presidents - McNamara, Clausen, and Conable - taken at the 1986 Annual Meeting.

President's Council files

Shortly after assuming the Presidency, Barber Conable discontinued the Managing Committee that, during the Clausen years, had provided overall administrative control of the Bank. In its place Conable created an advisory body made up of the Bank Vice Presidents who reported directly to the President (some vice presidents reported to other vice presidents; they were excluded). This body was originally known as the Policy Committee, then renamed the President's Council in May 1988. It advised on policy decisions for consideration by the Executive Directors, on strategic objectives, resource mobilization and allocation, manpower strategies, and other managerial issues. A staff member in the President's office served as the secretary for the Committee/Council.

This series contains the official records of the Council, from May 1987 to July 1991, grouped in two subseries. The files in the first subseries, amounting to 10 linear feet, are the records of the weekly meetings of the Council, including agendas, minutes, reports, and documents discussed. The second subseries, 2 linear feet, is the set of papers distributed to the Council members for background information; the first seven files (of a total of nine) include a list at the beginning of the file providing the title of each document in the file, the originator, and the date. The files include a few pieces of correspondence and a few annotations and comments from Council members.

These records are an essential source for a researcher who wishes to understand the internal discussions in the Bank during the Conable years.

Chronological files (outgoing)

This series contains letters and memoranda signed and sent by the President. Topics range from substantive issues of development assistance to social and public relations messages. Letters are addressed to foreign heads of state, government officials, banks, private citizens, US Senators and Congressmen, scholars, development institutions and academics, heads of organizations, diplomats, and journalists. Some internal messages and memorandam, including memoranda to the files, are included.

This is a verycomplete record of Conable's views on all matters that came before him and of the people with whom he corresponded. Although these are duplicate copies of records that should appear elsewhere in the files of the President's office or the Bank, this is a particularly useful series when other files have gaps.

Transition Correspondence

This small series contains President's Conable's correspondence at the time of his appointment as President of the World Bank and for the first few months of his term. The records include congratulations, thanks, job inquiries, and letters from persons advertising their services, and the correspondents include both friends and institutions such as commercial banks. The series provides an interesting view of the type of approaches made to an incoming President.

Administrative files

This series contains subject files on administrative and budgetary issues involving the Bank and, occasionally, the International Monetary Fund. The records include management discussion briefs, correspondence, and reports. The files cover important topics such as Paul Volcker's meetings with Conable, the purchase of theI building, press relations, staff issues such as pension and compensation, and fine tuning the 1987 Bank reorganization. The files also include a copy of a lecture delivered by Ibrahim F.I. Shihata, Vice President and General Counsel, in reference to the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) and the legal treatment of foreign investment. Some files contain material dating from the Clausen presidency.

This is one of the few series of records from the Conable Presidency whose content is principally the internal administration of the World Bank. As such, it provides insight into Conable's administrative style and the set of issues in which he was interested. This series does not contain files on the major reorganization that he undertook in 1987; it does, however, have substantive files on the subsequent fine tuning of the reorganization in late 1989.

Financial files

This series provides information on financial issues, both internal and external, that affect the Bank. The files include briefings, talking points, agendas, drafts of Mr. Conable's opening remarks for meetings, and correspondence. The file on the debt initiative includes records dating from the Clausen presidency.

Country files

This series contains records of President Conable's meetings with representatives, delegates, and heads of the member countries; briefing notes for meetings with country leaders; general background information on countries and governments; press releases; correspondence with government leaders; memoranda of advice from staff members; and congratulatory and thank you letters. Topics covered in the records include external debt; Bank lending operations and criteria, and environmental concerns. Three files cover regions in Africa - Eastern, Southern, and Sub-Saharan - rather than an individual country, in addition to individual files on most countries in those regions. No files on the United States are included.

The files on the USSR are significant, as the period of the Conable presidency covers the late twentieth century political changes in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Of particular interest are the files on a joint study that the 1990 economic summit in Houston, Texas, asked the Bank and the IMF toundertake. The study, completed between July 1990 and May 1991, surveyed the Soviet economy, made recommendations for its reform, and established criteria for Western economic assistance to support reform.

Many of the files contain records dating from the Clausen presidency, some as early as 1984; apparently Conable used the Clausen country records as building blocks for his information on the countries. Similarly, the files on the USSR contain some records that post-date the Conable administration by several months (until December 1991), as the incoming Preston administration continued to use them.

Liaison files - Non-governmental and international agencies

This series documents the communications between the Bank, particularly the President's office, and various national and international organizations, governmental and nongovernmental, non-profit and commercial. A wide range of liaison activities are reflected; the records include invitations to meetings and conferences, points of discussions for meetings, meeting briefs and minutes of meetings, news releases and communiques, and correspondence. An equally broad range of topics is included, from agricultureand the environment to trade and financial affairs. A few files include records from the period of the Clausen presidency.

One subject file on the Gulf crisis of 1990-1991 is included. It relates primarily to funding issues, both for countries in the region of the crisis and for the return of refugees in the post-crisis period. The UNICEF file contains black and white photographs of President Conable at a meeting on February 6, 1989.

Liaison files - U.S. Government

This series contains the records of President Conable's interaction with both Congressional and Executive branches of the U.S Government. The files include information on legislation affecting the Bank or its staff, briefing notes and minutes of the meetings with the Members of Congress and senior officials in the Executive Branch, and correspondence with the White House. A few documents are included from the end of the Clausen Presidency.

A general file covers Congressional matters, in addition to files on the House of Representatives and the Senate. One subject file is included, on an initiative by the U.S. Treasury Secretary James Baker III and Senator Bill Bradley to develop a new strategy to manage international debt. In addition, one file is included on the Bank's relationship with the government of the District of Columbia.

Travel briefings

This series contains records related to President Conable's trips and attendance at meetings and conferences abroad and appearances and presentations inside the United States. The first file contains a table of travel undertaken by the President from September 1986 through September 1990, with columns for the dates, region visited, the country/state/city/town/field location visited, the purpose of the trip, meeting dates, and whether Mrs. Conable accompanied the President.

The files consist of travel itineraries background information on countries, briefing notes for meetings, arrival and departure statements and sometimes speeches, press conference briefings, remarks, schedules of meetings and appointments, agendas, correspondence with government leaders (including thank you notes), lists of government officials and biographical data, general background information on countries and governments, notes on projects and field visits, and maps of the country. A videotape is included on Conable's trip to India in November 1987.

Speeches

This series consists of two subseries: President Conable's addresses and opening remarks at the Annual Meetings between 1986 and 1991, and a chronological set of speeches during the course of his Presidency. The files include correspondence, drafts, press releases, agendas, talking points, and background information about the organization or meeting to which Conable was speaking. Two speech file folders are empty, and the series appears to be incomplete.

A copy of a speech by Michel Camdessus, the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund, is included with the 1989 Annual Meeting speeches.

Working files - Conable/Camdessus lunches

This series contains records of President Conable's meetings with Michel Camdessus, Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund, between June 1989 and July 1991. The records consist of meeting agendas, briefing notes, talking points, and minutes of the meetings. The topics include Bank and Fund collaboration and operations involving debt reduction, country matters, environmental issues, and preparations for Annual Meetings issues, among others.

The file was maintained by Jennifer Volk, an Executive Assistant to the President. The official file on the lunches is missing from the Liaison files - Non-governmental and international agencies; consequently the working file provides the existing information on the meetings of these two executives.

External Affairs

This series is a rich source of information on the liaison and public relations activities of the Preston Presidency. The records are particularly strong on the Bank's efforts to improve relationships with the Government of the United States and the U.S. public. Other files cover efforts to improve internal communications in the Bank and to coordinate with Bank field offices. In addition, McHugh's files on Presidential trips cover travel that is not included in the Travel files of the President.

World Bank 50th Anniversary

This is the only series in the President's office records that covers the commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of the Bank. The files document the anniversary activities, and one file relates to the Commission on the Future of the Bretton Woods Institutions, a commission established by the private Bretton Woods Committee. To mark the fiftieth anniversary of the Bretton Woods Conference, the commission issued a report with recommendations on state of the international monetary system, development finance, and the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, and this file provides the Bank's view of the work of the commission.

Subject files

Visvanathan Rajagopalan maintained a series of subject files during his period as Vice President, Operations, and as Special Adviser to the President. Some of the files contain information spanning both periods, while others contain information from only one. Some files are purely topical (environment, for example) while others are on a specific meeting (for example, the file on Bellagio III) or a particular type of meeting (Bank senior staff retreats from 1987 through 1992).

Rajagopalan's files on development effectiveness provide useful background to the Wapenhans report controversy. Finally, during his tenure as Special Adviser Rajagopalan served briefly as the manager of the Information, Technology and Facilities Department, and a number of files deal with ITF management issues.

Speeches

This series contains transcripts of speeches and remarks Visvanathan Rajagopalan delivered as Chairman of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) and as Vice President and Special Adviser to PresidentPreston. Most of the speeches concern CGIAR, but other topics range from the engineer's role in sustainable development to safe motherhood; food security; the Bank's activities in environment and infrastructure; integrating women's issues in project, sector, and economic work; the World Conference on Education for All; and malaria control. The series includes Rajagopalan's remarks at his retirement party.

Records of the Portfolio Management Task Force (Wapenhans Report) and follow-up

In February 1992, Lewis Preston ordered a study of the Bank's basic portfolio management and evaluation process for loans and credits. Headed by Willi Wapenhans, who was assigned to the President's office for the study, the Portfolio Management Task Force produced a report in September 1992 that is one of the most famous in the Bank's history. It argued that the Bank did not pay enough attention to the implementation and supervision of loans and that sustainable development impact is the true measure of success. The Wapenhans Report, as it came to be known, was presented to the Board of Executive Directors in November 1992. In January 1993 Preston assigned Visvanathan Rajagopalan, who as a vice president who had been a member of the advisory council to the Task Force, to coordinate discussions regarding the implementation of the recommendations in the Task Force report.

The files are in 2 parts. The first part is the files of Wapenhans as the chair of the Task Force. These files were inherited by Rajagopalan as he worked on the implementation of the report during 1993. The second are the files of Rajagopalan, both a file regarding the work of the Task Force that he had maintained while he was the Vice President, Sector and Operations Policy, and files that he created during the follow-up period.

This series is the central source for information on the work of the Task Force. It includes the record of the discussion of the Executive Directors at the time the Task Force was formed and the background documents for the meeting of the Executive Directors after the report was issued, the minutes of the meetings of the Task Force from March through June and the audio tapes and the transcripts of a 2 day meeting with partner organizations (cofinancers), and feeder studies on topics ranging from the Bank's internal culture to the use of information technology.

Records regarding the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR)

This series contains records compiled by Visvanathan Rajagopalan in his capacity as Chairman of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). The records include his correspondence, agendas and travel plans for meetings, copies of papers presented at meetings or circulated prior to meetings, copies of his introductory remarks delivered at meetings, his briefing books for International Centers Week (the annual meeting of the international agricultural research centers that form the CGIAR network), and scattered reports of the CGIAR Oversight Committee and its Technical Advisory Committee. Correspondence covers meeting arrangements; appointments, salaries, and other personnel matters affecting staff; and resource allocations. The series includes a small amount of the correspondence of Wilfried Thalwitz, Rajagopalan's predecessor as chair of CGIAR.

Chronological files

This series contains President Preston's outgoing correspondence, principally letters, between December 1990 and May 1995, as well as some incoming correspondence addressed to Preston, and other correspondence originating in the Office of the President. The first file predates Preston's tenure at the Bank. As the series covers the entirety of Preston's term, records created during his leave of absence by acting President Stern and other Office staff are included.

Because the Preston records are scant, this series of formal outgoing letters provides an important overview of the external liaison activities in which the President engaged.

Annual Meetings

This series consists of President Preston's files for the Annual Meetings and the records of the logistical arrangements made by his office staff. The general organization of the Annual Meeting is the responsibility of the Corporate Secretary, so the records in this series are those of the President himself and the arrangements made by and for his immediate office.

The records consist of agendas, background material, briefings, speeches, correspondence, and related records regarding the Annual Meetings. The 1993 and 1994 files include briefings on commercial banks and financial institutions and the 1993 files include a Reference book. Market that has briefings on the Bank's FY94 funding plan, official borrowings, and country briefs. The briefings provided to the President for these meetings give a useful snapshot of the state of the particular country or institution as of the date of the meeting.

Travel files

The files in this series contain Mr. Preston's travel itinerary; briefing books that include background on the country's economy, the Bank's lending program, projects under execution, country profile and map of the country; schedules; meetings with Heads of States and representatives of member countries; minutes of meetings; arrival and departure statements; press statements; and outgoing letters to the government subjects.

The series contains both the files that the President used on the trip and the administrative files created by the President's office, most often by Gisu Mohadjer, an Executive Assistant to Preston, during the preparation for the trips. In some cases, there are Gisu Mohadjer files for a trip as well as files that appear to be the President's copy for use during the trip. Often the Mohadjer file will contain some briefing materials as well as logistical information.

The records include photographs from Mr. Preston's trips to Tanzania, Venezuela, Morocco, and India.

Country files

The series contains records of President Preston's briefings and talking points for meetings with Government leaders and representatives of member countries, background information on the country, country strategy papers, and internal memoranda. A few files contain items from the Conable Presidency. Many of the records in the files are memoranda and correspondence of the Managing Directors; however, the records were maintained as the record set of country files for the Office of the President.

The files cover only the first three years of the Preston term. Files on countries during the last part of the Preston years are found in the records of Matthew F. McHugh, who was appointed Counselor to the President in 1993. McHugh remained in the President's office for the first term of the Wolfensohn Presidency and he continued to use and file into the country files he maintained; these records are part of the Wolfensohn Presidential records.

Liaison files - U.S. Government

This series contains the records of President Preston's interaction with both Congressional and Executive branches of the U.S. Government. The files include information on legislation affecting the Bank or its staff, briefing notes and minutes of the meetings with the Members of Congress and senior officials in the Executive Branch, and correspondence with the White House. The file on the White House contains mostly records from the Conable Presidency.

Speeches

This series contains both draft and final copies of Mr. Preston's speechesm, opening remarks, and addresses given to the Board of Governors and at Annual Meetings, United Nations' conferences, official luncheons, and farewells. The series is incomplete.

Speech reference collection

This series contains speeches made by Bank staff and, in lesser amounts, Bank consultants, Executive Directors, and government officials. These records were maintained by EXT staff as a reference collection. In addition to speeches, a small amount of similar materials are included, such as: talking points for speeches; transcripts of radio addresses, lectures, press conferences, and interviews; and a small number of published articles.

Note that, while one of EXT's responsibilities was to serve as speechwriter for the Bank President and other senior staff, there is no evidence of speechwriting activities contained in the records of this series. Additionally, EXT staff were regularly responsible for fielding requests for appearances and speeches by Bank Presidents and managing logistics related to those appearances; records related to these activities are likewise not included in this series.

Speeches of Bank Presidents

Speeches made by every Bank President from 1946 to 1999 are included. Presidential speeches contained in this series were delivered to a variety of audiences, both internally and externally, although the latter is more common. The most frequent audience is the Board of Governors at the Bank's Annual Meetings. Other external audiences include international organizations (including the United Nations and its various councils, divisions, and conferences), clubs, associations, and academic institutions.

The speeches of Bank Presidents contained in this series are often small pamphlet-sized publications. This is most commonly the case with the annual Address to the Board of Governors given at the Bank's Annual Meetings. Other formats include photocopies and press releases.

Only three speeches made by President Eugene Meyer are included in this series. Two of the speeches, both dating from 1946, are from: the Annual Meeting of the Academy of Political Science; and a dinner in honor of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund's (IMF) Boards of Governors. The third speech, from 13 January 1947, was given to the Canadian Club subsequent to Meyer's resignation as Bank President.

President John J. McCloy's speeches date from April 1947 to June 1949. In addition to speech transcripts and the scripts of two television programs McCloy participated in, the script for his three-part lecture given at John B. Stetson University in February 1949 is also included. Statements made by McCloy to the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations in January 1948 and the House Committee on Bank and Currency in May 1949 are also included.

The speeches of President Eugene Black date from 1947 to 1962. These include speeches from 1947 and 1948 made by Black while serving as the U.S. Executive Director to the Bank. In addition to his speeches, a single folder includes Bank press releases related to Black's appointment as President of the Bank and to other matters. A small number of photocopied magazine articles profiling Black are also included.

President George D. Woods' speeches date from January 1963 to May 1968. In addition to speeches, a small amount of Bank press releases related to Woods' appointment as Bank President as well as magazine articles related to Woods and the World Bank are included; the latter includes a copy of Forbes magazine dated 15 December 1963 featuring Woods on the cover. An article authored by Woods and published in Foreign Affairs magazine in January 1966 is also included.

The majority of President Robert S. McNamara's speeches are in published form and date from 1968 to 1981. Three speeches given by McNamara following his departure from the World Bank are also included: the Sir John Crawford Memorial Lecture (1 November 1985); the Africa Leadership Forum (21 June 1990); and the Annual Conference on Development Economics (25 April 1991).

President A. W. Clausen's speeches date from 1981 to 1986. Clausen's addresses to the Board of Governors are available in published pamphlet form as are a small number of other speeches. The remainder are photocopies.

President Barber Conable's speeches date from 1986 to 1991. Conable's addresses to the Board of Governors at the Annual Meetings from 1988 to 1990 include translations in a number of languages, including: Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, Spanish, Portuguese, German, and French.

President Lewis Preston's speeches date from 1991 to 1994. Only talking points are included for a number of his speeches.

President James D. Wolfensohn's speeches date from 1997 and are relatively few in number. Speeches are filed alongside those of other Bank staff and external political figures.

Bank staff (non-President) and other speeches

This series also contains speeches made by Bank Group staff (including International Finance Corporation [IFC] staff) and, in far less number, Bank consultants, Executive Directors of the Bank, country leaders and ministers, and other prominent external figures. The majority of the speeches are by International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) staff. Speeches date from 1946 to 1993. In addition to speeches, a small number of interview transcripts, statements, and published articles are included. In most cases, there are between one and three speeches per individual, although in the case of more senior staff, the number of items can exceed a dozen. Drafts of speeches are included, although in very small number. Translations of speeches are included for some speeches and in a few cases the speech exists only in a language other than English; in the case of the latter, the most common languages are French and Spanish.

Note that some speeches by senior External Relations staff that were filed alongside the speeches of other senior Bank staff are included in this series. These include speeches, lecture and press conference transcripts, speech notes (with hand-written annotations), and published articles dating from 1996 to 1999 by EXTVP Mark Molloch Brown.

EXT speechwriters' reference collection

A group of speeches maintained as reference copies by EXT speechwriters from 1981 to 1989 are also included in this series. Speeches made by Presidents Clausen and Conable are the most common in this collection. Conable's speeches from August 1987 to September 1989 are interfiled with speeches made by other senior Bank staff and prominent external figures. Conable's speeches, however, still make up the majority of the records during this period.

Photograph library

This series consists of photographs created by or for departments responsible for the external affairs function in the World Bank. The majority of the photographs included here were managed by Information and Public Affairs Department (IPA) staff responsible for the Photograph Library. Photographs were taken by Bank staff or were received from other sources, including contracted photographers, country representatives, among others. The Photo Library loaned or provided copies of photographs to external organizations, including publishing companies, newspapers, magazines, governments, and academic institutions. Photographs were also used in Bank publications and other promotional displays and projects in the World Bank Group headquarters and field offices.

This series contains an extensive collection of country photographs documenting project sites, and loan and credit signing events. The majority of these photos document International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and International Development Association (IDA) projects from 1946 to 2001, but projects financed by the International Finance Corporation (IFC) between 1962 and 1981 (predominant 1978-1980) are also represented. Country photos may also include images of cities, villages, dwellings, people, streets and markets, transportation, and water supply. Photographs documenting membership signings of the IDA and the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) are also included. The majority of these photographs are 8x10black and white prints mounted on cardboard, often with captions on the reverse. More recent images are 35mm color slides often contained in binders. Some of the IFC project images are black and white negatives.

Photographs of World Bank staff, including Bank Presidents, as well as Executive Directors are included in this series. Photographs are generally portraits but, in the case of senior staff and, especially, Bank presidents, images documenting activities, meetings, trips, and other important events are also included. Photographs are 8x10 black and white prints and are, in most cases, mounted on cardboard, occasionally with captions on the reverse.

Photographs of Bank-owned buildings, including those in Washington DC and, in lesser number, Paris, France, are included. Images are of building exteriors and also include building interiors and the office of President Robert McNamara. Photographs date from 1946 to 1982 and are black and white prints of various size, some of which are mounted on cardboard.

Photographs from the Bretton Woods Conference held at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire in July 1944 are also included. Photographs include images of various national delegations as well as notable attendees. A small number of group photos and photos of country representatives signing International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) Articles of Agreement are also included. Note that these photographs were originally taken by press sources and by the Office of War Information of the United States Government. Photographs are black and white prints of various size, some of which are mounted on cardboard with captions on the reverse.

Photographs documenting the Bank's Annual Meetings are also included in this series. These photographs show prominent guests, Bank staff, speakers, and events and are included for every year between 1946 and 1986 with the exception of 1976. Annual Meetings from 1994 to1996 and 1998 are also included. The majority of photographs are black and white prints of various size, some of which are mounted on cardboard with captions on the reverse. Some of the photographs from the 1990s are color prints or slides.

A small amount of textual records relating to the management of the photograph library and procurement of photographs are also included. These records, dating from 1959 to 1968, primarily relate to hiring photographers to travel to Bank member countries and photograph ongoing Bank-funded projects. Many of these contracts are with photographers represented by Black Star Publishing Co., Inc., in New York, New York. Much of the series contains correspondence with Black Star as well as with the photographers themselves discussing contracts, logistics, and related matters.

Textual records in this series also include correspondence between staff in the Bank's Information Department responsible for photograph lending and external correspondents representing publishing companies, academic institutions, international organizations, etc. Correspondence generally concerns requests and logistics related to the loan of photographs from the World Bank photo library. These records date from 1966 to 1968.

The series also contains single copies of the Bank publication "Loans at Work". Included are copies from 1950 through 1967 with the exception of 1951, 1956, and 1966. These publications, which provide country and regional lending information but primarily consist of photographs, were maintained by the Photo Library staff. Some of the publications contain annotations next to photographs indicating where in their library the photograph was stored.

Slides and black and white prints of images used in the 1984 to 1986 World Bank Group Annual Reports are also included in this series. A folder containing prints of diagrams and charts as well as a folder containing notes related to the creation and publication of the reports are are also included.

A small number of Photo Library brochures dating from 1983 and 1984 are also included in this series.

Media relations

The media relations series includes press releases disseminated by the World Bank Group relating to operations and activities from the founding of the World Bank in 1946 through 1995. Press releases of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), International Development Association (IDA), and the International Finance Corporation (IFC) are included in this series.

The series consists of IBRD numbered press releases relating to Bank Group operations and activities dating from 1946 to1995. Press releases document country membership admission to the Bank and announce staff appointments in various member countries and other promotions within the Bank. The majority of IBRD press releases relate to IBRD loans, including applications, agreements, and issuances. Other topics of press releases include organizational changes (including reorganizations, retirements, and staff and Executive Director appointments), country membership, bond issuances, Resident Mission developments, speeches by senior management, report publications, conference attendance, consultative group meetings, mission travel undertaken by senior management, and Spring and Annual meetings. Early press releases were numbered consecutively. Beginning in 1962, press releases were numbered according to the year of release. Numbered press releases are missing from the following years: 1982, 1983, 1985, and 1986.

Series also includes press releases relating to IDA operations and activities from its creation in 1960 to 1994. The majority of IDA press releases relate to the funding of projects through IDA credits. Other topics of press releases include organizational changes (including reorganizations, retirements, and staff appointments), country membership, IDA replenishments, consultative group meetings, conference attendance, and Spring and Annual meetings. The press releases are arranged consecutively by number from 1960 through December 1961, numerically by calendar year from 1962 to June 1976, and numerically by fiscal year from July 1976.

An index for IBRD and IDA press releases from 1946 to 1994 is included. Indexes provide a brief descriptive subject title along with press release number and date. A separate index for IDA records for the years 1962 to 1979 is also included and contains the same information.

A portion of IBRD and IDA press releases dating from 1946 to 1994 are unnumbered and arranged chronologically. Unnumbered press releases are included in the file indexes as "unnum" or "unnumbered" but are not filed withthe numbered press releases. Some press releases have published informational supplements attached; supplements originated in both the Bank and in other organizations.

The series also contains translations of some of the IBRD and IDA press releases from 1948 to 1994. French and Spanish translations are most common but translations into Chinese, German, Italian, Arabic, Japanese and Portuguese are also included. A number of smaller series of press releases dating from 1987 through 1994 that relate to specific World Bank agencies or topics are also included. The financial series describes general World Bank finances, currency issues, and bonds. The larger special series details World Bank presidents' visits to member countries, staff appointments, and new Bank initiatives. A small number of press releases from the early 1990s relate to the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), and the impact of development on particular US states export growth are also included.

The series also includes versions of speeches and addresses by Bank Group officials that were disseminated as press releases. These date from 1946 to 1965. The majority of the speeches are by Bank presidents Eugene Meyer, George Woods, and Robert McNamara. Speeches by other Bank officials include: J. Burke Knapp; Sir Denis Rickett; Mohamed Shoaib; Siem Alderweld; and Irving Freidman. These speeches include commencement addresses, Annual Meetings addresses to the Board of Governors, remarks during sessions of Economic and Social Council of the United Nations, and addresses to various bank associations and conferences.

The series also contains IFC press releases relating to operations and activities dating from 1956 to 1979. Topics include external operations as well as organizational changes, activities and events. Responsibility for writing and disseminating IFC press releases was the responsibility of various departments within the Information and Public Affairs Department (IPA) between IFC's creation in 1956 and 1979. In 1979, this activity was transferred to IFC's new Information Office. A small number of press releases dating from 1965 to 1974 include IPA correspondence relating to the authorship and dissemination of both press releases and photographs from the Bank's photograph library. These files are titled according to either the name of the company that received the investment or by country, thereunder by name of company.

The series also contains records relatingto press tours organized and facilitated by the Bank and governments and institutions of member countries. Press tours included media from around the world. Participants visited sites of projects funded by the Bank, partook in talks and discussions related to development, and met with government officials. Records include memoranda related to the planning of the trip, programs and itineraries, and background publications for participants.

Support and communications of the Office of the President and senior staff

The staff support and communications of the Office of the President and senior staff series includes records related to a variety of activities undertaken by External Relations (EXT) departments. These include: authoring correspondence for senior staff and Bank presidents; scheduling and managing logistics for media relations and speaking engagements; liaising with the press with regard to publication requests; and authoring briefing books for mission travel and meetings. This series contains records related to these activities in addition to subject and reference files.

Series contains records related to the authorship of correspondence for the Office of the President (EXC). The correspondence was authored for Bank Presidents Robert McNamara (1968 to 1981), A. W. Clausen (1981 to 1986), and Barber Conable (1986 to 1991). The records include correspondence received by EXC and forwarded to EXT for response. Forwarded correspondence is accompanied by EXC's forms for requests of action (i.e. author a response,file with EXT records, provide advice, etc.) Topics of correspondence are wide ranging and include: requests for interviews; invitations to conferences and meetings; research proposals; and letters of introduction.

Also included in this series are records related to the scheduling and logistics planning provided by EXT for media interviews in which Bank presidents participated. Records relate to interviews with Presidents McNamara and to a lesser extent, Conable. Records include: correspondence leading upto the interview; internal memoranda concerning logistics; proposed questions and answers; and a clipping or a full transcript of the actual interview. Records relate to print interviews with the Wall Street Journal, Newsweek, Washington Post, New York Times and Life magazine. Television interviews include the BBC, Italian television, and McNamara's appearance on NBC's Meet the Press in 1974. The records related to McNamara's Meet the Press appearance include preparation notes, transcripts from the episode, and correspondence from viewers.

Records relating to EXT's support of press conferences in which President Conable participated are also included. Records include transcripts of press conferences and press interviews for the years covering 1986 to 1989. Topics include: Bank's 1987 Reorganization; Annual Meetings; annual reports; the establishment of the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA); Bank policies on the environment; a 1988 loan package to Argentina; indebtedness; adjustment lending; and a 1989 loan package to Mexico. Series also includes records related to press conferences involving Sir William Ryrie (International Finance Corporation [IFC] Executive Vice President), Yoshio Terasawa (Executive Vice President of MIGA), and Ibrahim F. I. Shihata (World Bank Vice President).

Also included in this series are records related to the requests for speeches by Bank senior staff including the president. The majority of these records consist of correspondence with external organizations that are requesting participation by Bank staff in their conferences, meetings, and other events. In the cases where invitations were accepted, a transcript of the speech given is often included. In addition to requests to Presidents Black, Woods, and McNamara, requests are also made to a number of other World Bank vice presidents. A small amount of records related to World Bank policy with regard to speaking events is also included. Records date from 1950 to 1968.

Records relating to requests for article submission to periodicals and other publications are also included in this series. Records relate to requests made to Presidents Woods and McNamara. Records include correspondence with media representatives in which requests for articles are made. Records also relate to the submission of articles, including drafts (often with hand-written annotations) and final versions as well as correspondence with the publisher.

The series also includes records relating to logistical and program support for tours of member countries made by senior Bank staff including Presidents McCloy, Woods, and McNamara. Records date from 1947 to 1968 and consist of internal memoranda, correspondence (including invitations), and itineraries.

The series also contains briefing books prepared by EXT staff for President James Wolfensohn between 1996 and 2005 in support of his various trips and conferences. The briefing books include event background, speaking points, transcripts of speeches, meeting notes, agendas, itineraries, biographical and relevant information on meeting participants, and media biographies. Briefing papers relate to: Wolfensohn's visits to Geneva, Spain, and Switzerland; UN Special Representative Secretary General seminars; Annual Meeting seminars; and the 2002 Monterrey Mexico conference on development financing. There are also briefing papers and supporting materials for Wolfensohn and other staff members related to G-7 meetings from 1995 through 1997. A small number of briefing papers for Mats Karlsson (Vice President of External and United Nations Affairs [EXTUN]) covering 1999 to 2001 are also included.

The series includes recordings and transcripts (including physical and electronic formats) of President Wolfensohn's various internal addresses to staff. These include: high-level workshops, end of year messages, senior management meetings, townhalls, and, most voluminously, his semi-regular "journal" recordings that update staff on Bank operations and activities. This collection of speeches was to be included in Wolfensohn's online "Speech Bank" and incorporated into the Renewal website. The versions in this series were maintained by EXT as a reference collection.

Records also relate to EXT's involvement in the management of internal facing World Bank Group websites. Specifically, records relate to the creation of the Renewal website, a staff-focused resource providing updates on the 1997-1998 reorganization as well as other ongoing administrative and operational initiatives. Records include: email correspondence; materials related to the testing and creation of website content; reports created by the Planning and Budgeting Department; and printouts of pages from the Renewal site. The series also includes materials related to the creation and management of the EXC website from 1998 to 2000. These records include internal correspondence within the department for updates, requests for approval of information to be included on the website, drafts of page content, requests for images for website use, and printout copies of webpages.

The series also includes memoranda summarizing recommendations made by the Pearson Commission on International Development which investigated the effectiveness of the World Bank's first 20 years of operation. These memoranda, dated from 1969 to 1970 and authored by EXT staff for review by the Executive Directors, address specific topics such as education, population, economic reports, debt relief, and aid coordination. The memorandum has handwritten notes written on them by President McNamarato members of the Board.

Internal communication and staff engagement

This series consists of internal Bank staff publications and newsletters as well as photographs and negatives used in those publications. Also included are records relating to internal communications strategies. A small amount of records related to community relations programs is also included.

Records include copies of the various iterations of the World Bank's internal staff publications. These include: "International Bank Notes" (1947 - 1971); "Bank Notes" (1971 - 1981); and "Bank's World" (1982 - 2000). Series contains a full collection of these publications with only a few exceptions.

Bank newsletters started with the publication of International Bank Notes in 1947. International Bank Notes was published out of the Bank's Personnel Division. The newsletter was intended to foster a sense of community among staff and provide information of a personal nature to Bank staff rather than duplicating material from press releases and official memorandum. The publication highlights social events, marriages, births, and the arrival of new staff. It also reports on recreational events and offers favorite cooking recipes submitted by staff. The publication started out with a 2-page format but soon after transformed into a small booklet with photos. By the end of its run, International Bank Notes had a more polished look and tone including a table of contents, multi-page interviews with Bank staff, and articles about Bank activities and projects. International Bank Notes Supplements were also published in six monthintervals. These were subtitled "Introducing New Professional Staff", and include a biography and picture of new staff.

In 1971 the staff newsletter publication function was moved to the Information and Public Affairs (IPA) Department and was renamed Bank Notes. It took on a larger physical format with the look and feel of a newspaper. Its content, however, did not change significantly. In addition to the combination of staff- and operations-focused content, the publication included a Bank Calendar of upcoming social events and meetings, a column entitled Women's Information and Volunteer Service (or "WIVES"), a Cross Currents page containing classified ads, as well as humor and food columns.

The next and final version of the physical staff newsletter was titled Bank's World. It was a glossy color magazine and was published from 1982 through 2000. Each issue included a cover story article, articles about development projects, reports from various Country Departments, and a new column called AnswerLine that provided answers to questions of broad interest concerning the Bank Group's policies and procedures. Other features included multipage in-depth articles called On the Record which were often written by the Bank President and a space entitled Around the Bank which detailed news from Executive Directors and Vice Presidents. Some issues have indexes of stories. A special June/July 1987 issue titled The Reorganized Bank: Managers and Senior Staff is also included. In 2000 the print version of "Bank's World" was discontinued and replaced with an online intranet version called "Bank's World Today".

An index of articles in these three publications from 1947 to 1993 is also included.

The series also includes photographs and negatives from 1952 through 1983 that were created for use in staff newsletter publications. Image formats consist of negatives, transparencies, prints, and color photocopies of photographs taken or acquired by the Bank's Photolab. It also includes photographs of projects, staff events, headquarters' activities, and staff portraits.

The series also contains a variety of other newsletter-type publications intended for Bank staff. This includes copies of "Report - News of the World Bank Group" from 1973 to 1982, complete except for a small number of missing issues. The publication was produced by the IPA and the Publications Department (PUB) for both internal and external audiences. It provided general news of economic development as well as reports on World Bank Group activities.

There are also printouts of "Updates on the Bank Renewal" (or its informal name "Manager's Updates"), an electronic newsletter that was produced and sent bi-monthly by the Chief of Internal Communications from June 20, 1997 to December 1998. The updates shared Bank-wide news from the Board; summaries of the President and Managing Directors' town halls and senior management meetings; and progress on change initiatives.

Also included is a newsletter created by the Development Services Department (DSD) that was intended to be sent to field staff to keep them abreast of current activities in the Bank such as Bank membership, borrowing, IDA financing, and staff and organizational news. While DSD existed from 1961 to 1973, this series only includes issues of the DSD newsletter from 1966 to 1973; it is unclear if the Department published this newsletter prior to 1966.

Also included in this series are copies of the EXT-produced Development News Weekly Supplement from 1981 to 1990 and Development News Daily Summary from 1995 to 1998. Both are bound collated supplements of external press clippings related to the Bank and its activities. The articles range from governmental news, various developmental projects, and financial activities of the Bank.

Records related to EXT's internal communication support and engagement activities from 1988 to 1999 are also included. Records document communication strategies developed for internal programs and change initiatives as well as the dissemination of information and documentation about the initiatives, and research methods measuring staff response to initiatives. Internal communication records include correspondence and other materials primarily created by Internal Communications Division Chief, Rachel Weaving, and other senior staff. There are emails and facsimiles sent between the division and EXT Director, Managing Director's staff and other Bank departments. Correspondence is filed with summaries of Bank meetings given by the Bank Group President and global offices or meetings led by other senior staff, draft outlines, statements and emails, questionnaires and surveys, reports, external reference material, briefing material for senior management, and handwritten notes.

Many records relate to the 1997 Bank-wide reorganization and the 1997 Staff Survey and follow-up, as well as the Bank's 1997 Strategic Compact, a reform and renewal plan intended to increase Bank efficiency and effectiveness. There are files, 4 audiocassettes and a floppy disk relating to Managing Director Sandstrom's Open Forum, February to October 1997.

Other records relating to internal communications include: the development of a comprehensive Bank-wide communications strategy for fiscal year 1989; logistics and communications for Annual Meetings including briefings and broadcasting; 11-17 Network Launch and its steering committee; Knowledge Management Board (KMB); Human Resources Reform and Cost-Effectiveness; and photograph displays and exhibits including a World Bank mission photograph exhibit at the Bank and IFC between 1998 and 1999 and the Greening the Bank fair and exhibit. The exhibit files contain copies of emails, facsimiles, copies for displays, working documents, and reference material related to planning and content creation for the Bank exhibits.

A small volume of records related to Bank community relations programs are also included in this series. Records consist of administrative materials for charity programs such as the United Way campaign and other charitable fundraisers.

Communications with financial and business community

Series consists of records relating to communications with those members of the business and financial community that might support, invest in, or seek information about the Bank. These include financial institutions such as regional banks and the Federal Reserve district banks as well as the financial editors of newspapers. Most of the series is comprised of records belonging to William Bennett, the Bank's Financial Relations Advisor within the Information and Public Affairs Department (IPA) from 1949 to 1978. Bennett came to the Bank in 1949 as a Financial Editor on loan from the New York Herald Tribune to help publicize the Bank and assist with the rating services assessing the quality of the Bank's securities. That same year he was offered a full-time position and would remain with the Bank in IPA until 1978.

Records include the chronological files and "Loan Books" of William Bennett related to Bank operations from 1947 to 1971 and Bank bond issues from 1947 to 1965. Records consist of: press releases; statement of loans and credits; official memoranda; correspondence with various city and national newspapers; internal memoranda with other Bank staff members; and articles and speeches. "Loan Books" cover the dates from 1954 to 1971 and relate to the lending operations of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), International Development Agency (IDA), and International Finance Corporation (IFC). Loan Books include current lists of country assignments, summaries of loan amounts, monthly operational summaries, and notices of significant decisions and loan approvals.

This series also contains Bennett's collection of published articles authored by Bank staff and externally. Articles relate to the World Bank and Bank-funded projects. Topics include the history of the Bank, international economic situation predominantly from the 1950s through the 1960s, the Bank's role in the economy, and description of Bank projects. Articles are in a variety of languages and appear in a variety of scholarly, specialized, and popular publications. Many of the articles are authored by Bank officials including Presidents John McCloy, Eugene Black, and George Woods. William Bennett also authored some of the articles. Articles often include typescript drafts as well as the published versions. The articles are in various formats, including pamphlets, clippings, and portions of magazines. These records date from 1946 through 1977.

Reference materials related to foreign and international bonds and equities for the years 1972 to 1976 are also included. Records include summaries of foreign and international bonds in multiple formats covering various annual and quarterly periods. Summaries of ammortization are also included.

This series contains records dating from 1965 to 1977 that relate to information seminars sponsored by the Bank offered to economic and financial experts. The purpose of the seminars was to explain the Bank's mission and operations. These experts included high ranking banking officials, retirement and pension fund operators, state level financial leaders, and prominent business leaders. The series includes guest lists, acceptances and regrets correspondence, memoranda on event plans between EXC and EXT, and correspondence related to participation at past and future seminars. Formal event programs and dinner menus are also included.

Publishing

This series contains records relating to the World Bank's publication function while it was located in or reported to the Bank's External Relations unit or its predecessors. The Bank's earliest publication activities occurred in the Public Relations Department from 1947 to 1955; a division dedicated to the publications of Bank-authored materials was established in 1949. With the termination of the Public Relations Department in 1955, the Bank's publishing function was transferred to the new Information Department (INFO). The publication of Bank-authored and Bank-sponsored materials increased rapidly over the subsequent decade. The publishing function was moved to the new Information and Public Affairs Department (IPA) in 1968 where it remained through 1980. In that year it was removed from IPA and upgraded to a separate department called the Publications Department (PUB); it reported to various iterations of the External Affairs Vice Presidency through 1992. In that year, PUB was downgraded to a division, but continued to report to the External Affairs Department.

The Bank's publications function is responsible for the publication of Bank-authored and, in some cases, Bank-sponsored informational materials for a variety of audiences, including: the broader public (speeches, regional and country booklets, press releases, fact sheets, informational pamphlets, educational materials); members and partners (Annual Report, World Development Report, Policies and Operations, various guidelines and handbooks); development practitioners (sector papers, Country Economic Reports, occasional papers); and the academic community (monographs and articles). Its activities have generally involved: selection of Bank-authored materials for publication; editing and design of publications; supervision of the production process; and promotion, marketing and distribution of Bank publications throughout the world.

Records relating to the publication and distribution of Bank-authored and Bank-sponsored materials include correspondencerelating to the various phases of the publication cycle. Correspondence is between the publishing unit and various stakeholders including: authors, relevant Bank units, external publishers and distributors, and members of the public or organizations. Correspondence relates to: submission of manuscripts; editing of manuscripts; translation of manuscript; solicitation of comments on drafts; determining the design aspects of the publications; budgeting matters; and marketing and distribution of publications. Records relating to editorial activities include drafts of manuscripts and page proofs that were published by the Bank; records relating to manuscripts that were reviewed for publication but ultimately not published by the Bank are also included. Records are primarily grouped into folders based on publication title. A small number of folders from the 1970s are titled by activity (budget, translation, etc.) or publication type (sector papers, country economic reports, etc.). Subject files relating to specific publication topics or authors are also included as are chronological files relating to publishing activities of a number of IPA staff: Donald Pryor (1973-9174); Brian J. Svikhart (1974-1976); and Goddard G. Winterbottom (1974-1976).

Records relating to the editorial decision-making and selection process of the Bank's Publication Committee are also included in this series. The Publication Committee was established in 1957 by President Black to develop and review policies and procedures with respect to the preparation, editing, approval and production of Bank publications. However, the committee's proceedings were, at least initially, devoted almost entirely to the consideration of specific proposals for publication submitted by staff including, especially, the Economic Development Institute. In addition to the director of the Information and Public Affairs Department (IPA), the committee members included vice presidents and department heads from throughout the Bank, including operations, EDI, administration, and the economics (or research) department. Records relating to the Publication Committee date from 1957 to 1978 and include meeting agendas and minutes as well as correspondence supporting the work of the committee.

This series also contains a large amount of material published by the Bank and maintained by publishing units as reference. These include: a copy of each World Bank Annual Report published between 1946 and 2003; copies of Annual Meeting Summary Proceedings from 1950 to 1991; and Development News - Daily Summary/Weekly Supplement from 1994 to 1999. A collection of "Finance and Development" is also included. "Finance and Development" was published quarterly by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) from June 1964 until June 1998 when the IMF became the sole publisher. English, Spanish, French and German language issues are included. Also included is a reference collection of "World Bank Loans at Work" for the years 1950 through 1967 except for a few missing issues. The publication was created for an external audience and contain photographs and descriptions of a variety of World Bank projects. Published versions of the World Bank Staff Working Papers series published between 1976 and 1986 are also included.

The series also contains a small amount of educational materials authored by the World Bank Group. The materials, which date from 1984 to 1986, were developed for secondary schools with the title "Toward a Better Tomorrow." Records include textual guides and reference materials as well as five film strips.

Records from a bibliographic project undertaken in 1970 are also included. The project aimed to compile a list of all Bank publications from 1946 to 1973. Records related to the bibliography include publication lists containing publication titles, dates, translations, quantities and distribution numbers for each publication. Other supporting material is also included although a final version of the bibliography is not.

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