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Records of the Office of the Chief Economist
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Correspondence of the Directors, International Economic Department (IECDR) Concerning GATT and WTO

The first part of the series consists primarily of correspondence (1994 - 1996) of Director Masood Ahmed (IECDR) concerning Bank preparations for drafting an agreement between the World Bank and World Trade Organization (WTO). It includes Ahmed's correspondence with Michael Bruno, Vice President and Chief Economist (DECVP), L. Alan Winters, Chief, International Trade Division (IECIT), and other Bank officials throughout the lengthy process of developing a document describing the parameters for a relationship between the Bank and WTO. Comments received from Bank offices on various versions of the document, including the version of the document circulated to the Board on 7 February 1995; a copy of the IMF paper on collaboration with the WTO presented to its Board on 15 February 1995; and the final version of the Agreement between the WTO and World Bank are part of the files. Correspondence concerning a Board Seminar on Bank relations with WTO held in 1995 includes Michael Bruno's 28 July 1995 report to Bank President Wolfensohn on the outcome of the seminar. The first part of the series also includes correspondence and briefing papers prepared for meetings of the Bank and IMF heads (Wolfensohn, Camdessus) with the newly appointed Director, WTO (Ruggiero) in 1995 and a Wolfensohn-Ruggiero meeting in 1996.

The second part of the series contains a copy of a 13 September 1993 letter from IECDR (D.C. Rao) to the Deputy Director General, General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade (GATT, Jesus de Seade) informing him of the closure of the Bank's Geneva Office and the appointment of consultant John Croome to represent the Bank in GATT and Uruguay Round meetings. Copies of Croome's faxed reports to IECIT regarding meetings of the GATT Council, formal Council committees (Trade Policy Review, Trade Negotiations, Market Access, balance-of-Payments), and other formal and informal meetings he attended as the Bank's representative are in both parts of the series.

Project Managers' Research Project Files

This series contains files for the earliest projects approved under the World Bank's research program. These particular files are primarily those that were maintained by the managers responsible for directing the projects. Most were directed by staff from departments under the Development Policy Staff (the Development Research Center, the Development Economics Department, the Economic Analysis and Projections Department) and under the Economics and Research Staff (the Economics and Analysis and Projection Department and the Development Research Department), but others were conducted by staff from the sectors or the Regions. The files are in two sections: those that were completed and for which completion reports and evaluations had been filed and those for which the final reports and evaluations had not been filed.

A project file typically contains draft research proposals with comments on the drafts, the formal research proposal submitted on a standardized form, memoranda establishing a review panel to vet the proposal and to convey the decision of the review panel, minutes of the Research Committee meeting at which the proposal was discussed, the Research Committee's decision on the proposal, correspondence with consultants who worked on the project, Back-to-Office reports from missions connected with the project, requests for computer support, requests for additional funding and/or an extension of the research schedule and the Research Committee's decisions regarding those requests, intra-office correspondence of the unit directing the project, a summary of the project results for inclusion in Research News, and possibly a project completion report on a standard form. For most projects, there is a separate folder containing quarterly status reports and possibly also the project completion report. The files in the completed projects section of the series also include evaluation reports. Most of the files for projects under the 672 and 673 series contain only completion reports.

Project files Numbered 671-93 to 671-98 were used for documentation relating to the General Research Advisory Panel (GRAP) and five of the Special Research Advisory Panels. For the official GRAP files, see (add link to series 4031).

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) Files of the Special Representative to the U.N. Organizations in Geneva Relating to Least Development Countries (LDCs)

Included in the series is the 1982 correspondence between L. Peter Chatenay while assigned to the International Relations Department (IRD) and Representative Mahmud Burney regarding Bank/UNDP/UNCTAD cooperation on Least Developed Countries (LDC) issues and meetings attended on LDC issues. Correspondence between the two concerning LDCs continued after Chatenay succeeded Burney as Representative and Burney was designated Senior Adviser, U.N. Affairs, IRD. Also in the series is Chatenay's correspondence with other IRD officials and Representatives Siebeck and Baneth's correspondence with Bank Headquarters and U.N. officials on various LDC issues and the Second United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries held in Paris on 3 March 3 1990 - 14 March 1990. Copies of statements made by Bank officials at the Conference are part of the series.

Correspondence and Reports of the Office of the Special Representative to the U.N. Organizations in Geneva Concerning Negotiation of General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) for the Uruguay Round

Most of the records were maintained by Special Representatives Wolfgang Siebeck and Jean baneth who were also referred to as Directors of the Geneva office from 1986 to 1992. Baneth was succeeded by Pritta Sorsa in 1992. Beginning in 1987, the Geneva Office reported as SPRGE to the Senior Vice President, Policy Research and External Affairs (SVPRE). After the restructuring of the Policy, Planning, and Research Complex (PPR), the Geneva Office reported to the Senior Vice President, Policy, Planning and External Affairs (PRESV). As the GATT negotiations gained momentum, the Geneva Office was upgraded and transferred to the Front Office of PRESV, reporting as PREGE. Following the termination of all Senior Vice Presidencies in the Bank, the Geneva Office was transferred to the Front Office of DEC on December 12, 1991 and began reporting as DECGE to the Vice President, Development Economics and Chief Economist (DECVP).

The Uruguay Round, the eighth GATT multilateral trade negotiation, was launched in September 1986 in Punta del Este and was completed in 1994. This series includes correspondence with Headquarters of the Representatives and others designated as observers at various Trade Policy and GATT Council meetings. Subjects include: general progress of the Uruguay Round; development of a handbook on multilateral trade negotiations to support developing countries in the Uruguay Round; Bank participation in seminars and workshops to provide technical assistance and support to developing countries in the Uruguay Round; Bank access to country trade and tariff data; and arrangements for visits of the Director General and the Personnel Director of GATT to the Bank in Washington, DC.

With the correspondence are documents provided to the Special Representatives by the GATT Secretariat headquartered in Geneva including Trade Policy Review reports (1989 - 1993) documenting reviews of trade policies and practices by the GATT Council. Also included are documents furnished by the GATT Secretariat concerning acceptances(Protocol of Accession) to GATT of Bolivia, Bulgaria, China, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Panama, Paraguay, and Nepal (1987 - 1992) and Romania, Switzerland, Tunisia, and Venezuela (1990 and 1992). Documents concerning the renegotiation of Terms of Accession for Poland (1991 - 1992) and working papers and notes of meetings at the Uruguay Round and the mid-term review of the Round completed in Geneva in 1989 were also furnished by the GATT Secretariat.

The Geneva Office continued to represent the Bank in the GATT negotiations in the Uruguay Round and in meetings of UNCTAD and other U.N. organizations at Geneva. As the Uruguay Round negotiations came to an end, the Geneva Office was closed on June 30, 1993. After the Geneva Office closed, its functions were provided through a combination of Geneva-based consultants and Headquarters staff sent to Geneva.

Miscellaneous Correspondence of the Office of the Special Representative to the U.N. Organizations in Geneva

The series consists of documents that were most likely retained for reference purposes by the Directors of the Geneva office (also referred to as Special Representatives to the U.N. Organizations in Geneva) and their staffs. Included in the series are: copies of the agreement regarding privileges and immunities concluded between the U.N. and the Swiss Federal Council on 19 April 1946; a copy of the 22 June 1978 letter from the Director, International Relations Department of the Bank to the Deputy Director-General of the U.N. announcing the opening of the Bank's Geneva office with Mahmud Burney as permanent representative; biographical information about Bank Presidents; copies of staff and other announcements of the appointments of Wolfgang Siebert (effective 20 January 1986) and Jean Baneth (effective 4 August 1989) as Directors; copies of the announcement of Baneth's departure and the appointment of his successor Piritta Sorsa (effective 14 December 1992); memos and other correspondence concerning the Post Adjustment (cost-of-living) System for Field Assignments (1988 - 1992); memoranda concerning work plans (1990 - 1991) and staffing requirements (1985, 1987, 1989) for the office; an unsigned 7-page monograph titled Notes on the Bank Office in Geneva dated 20 November 1985 most likely written by L. Peter Chatenay who headed the office from 1982 to 1985; and a draft of a letter to the U.N. office in Geneva announcing the permanent closing of the Bank's Geneva office as of 1 July 1993. Copies of a small amount of correspondence prepared by Siebert and Baneth regarding the Geneva office and correspondence from other permanent missions at Geneva are also part of the series.

Reports to Headquarters from Special Representatives to U.N. Organizations in Geneva

The series consists of three black binders containing reports sent from Geneva to Headquarters by Representatives Mahmud Burney, L. Peter Chatenay, and Wolfgang Siebeck. The Bank first opened an office in Geneva in 1978 staffed by a resident representative and one support staff. Its responsibilities included representing the Bank in meetings of international organizations held in Geneva, principally the GATT, UNCTAD, ILO, and WHO. The Bank staff at Geneva kept Bank Headquarters informed through periodicreports and facilitated informal contacts with staffs of Geneva organizations. Reports to Headquarters prior to 1987 were addressed to the Director of the Bank's International Relations Department (IRD). When the Strategic Planning and Review Department (SPR) was established under the Senior Vice President, Policy, Planning and Research (SVPPR) in May 1987, the Geneva Office reported to the International Relations Division (SPRIE), which included the U.N. Offices in New York and Geneva (SPRGE).

The first black binder contains numbered Geneva bi-monthly letters (also referred to as newsletters) sent by Mahmud, the first Representative, from September 21, 1979 to October 29, 1982. A register showing letter number, date, and subject is located at the beginning of the binder. At the back of the binder are 15 unnumbered Washington letters and one unnumbered memorandum (10 September 1979 - 31 August 1982), most of which were sent to Burney by Shirley Boskey, Director, International Relations Department (IRD),in response to issues raised in Burney's numbered reports.

All of the numbered Burney Geneva letters except the first and last were addressed to Boskey. In almost all of the letters, Burney provides full descriptions of discussions and outcomes of meetings and conferences of UNCTAD [United Nations Conference on Trade and Development], particularly the Trade and Development Board of UNCTAD, and GATT [General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade]. In the 17 December 1979 letter, Burney offers his views on the impact of the crisis in Iran on Geneva negotiations and possibly the Bank. Burney's letters describe his involvement with work of the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and various preparatory meetings for the G-77 ministers meeting (1980), the U.N. Conference on the Least Developed Countries (1981), the GATT Ministerial Meeting (1982), and UNCTAD VI (1982). Burney also reported on the reactions from the U.N. and other organizations at Geneva to world events such as the Iran crisis (1979), President McNamara's announcement of his retirement (1980), the Gulf War (1980), Ronald Reagan's assumption of the U.S. Presidency (1981), and President Clausen's early pronouncements as Bank President (1981). Burney included in his letters information gained in informal and formal discussions with country representatives at Geneva concerning the impact of high oil prices and inflation on economies, balance-of-payments problems of developing countries; the absence of developing countries' at management and seniormanagement levels of the Bank; and the withholding of observer status for the PLO at Bank annual meetings. Burney also reported on other formal and informal contacts with representatives of international organizations in Geneva, arrivals and departures of ambassadors, changes in U.N. and GATT officials, and visits with Bank staff attending meetings in Geneva.

Reports from Geneva of the other two Representatives were similar in the kinds of information covered but differed in frequency and format. The Geneva Letters binder of L. Peter Chatenay is divided into three parts: Geneva Office Activity Reports (in the form of memoranda) sent monthly to the Director, IRD, Shahid Javed Burki, 15 August 1983 - 3 July 1985; reports of UNCTAD, GATT, and other meetings Chatenay attended, 12 September 1983 - 30 July 1985 addressed primarily to Burki; and a small number of Washington letters and messages, some undated, received by Chatenay from Burney and others at the Bank, 10 August 1983 - 16 September 1985. The monthly activity reports focused more on general trends, upcoming events, contacts with and observations about the diplomatic community at Geneva, and contacts with Bank visitors to Geneva. The reports of meetings attended describe comments made by Chatenay and other representatives at these meetings, outcomes, and Chatenay's observations and/or recommendations for Bank response.

Wolfgang Siebeck's first report of 21 January 1986 to Burki was in the form of a letter. The next report, simply captioned Geneva Report for April 1986, covered meetings and other developments related to GATT, UNCTAD, the International Trade Center, the International Labor Organization, and a World Bank briefing given by Burki on April 20, 1986 at Geneva for a group of 88 representatives of Permanent Missions and U.N. Organizations. The reports which followed were submitted on a monthly basis, followed the same format, and focused primarily on GATT and UNCTAD. In these reports, Siebeck covered meetings attended, positions taken,outcomes, and his observations.

In his cover memo of 14 November 1986, Siebeck announced a change in the format of the Geneva Report. Attached to the memo were the October/November and November/December reports, both of which focused on preparations for and negotiations at the Uruguay Round. Succeeding reports beginning with January/February 1987 were numbered and covered Uruguay Round meetings/negotiations, UNCTAD VII and other activities. After September 1987, Siebeck's reports from Geneva fluctuatedbetween one month and two months coverage but continued to address the Uruguay Round and UNCTAD VII developments. In his last report (October/November 1989) from Geneva, Siebeck focused entirely on the status of negotiations in individual Uruguay Round groups.

Subject Files of the Office of the Special Representative to the U.N. Organizations in Geneva

Most of these files appear to have been created while Wolfgang Siebeck (1986-1989) and Jean Baneth (1989-1992) served as Special Representative. A few files contain documents of earlier Representatives who served during the 1980s (Mahmud Burney and L. Peter Chatenay) and of Jean Baneth's successor in 1992, Sorsa Piritta. Documents placed in these files include not only memoranda, electronic messages, speeches, and statements prepared or received by the Representatives but also memoranda and other documents prepared by members of their staffs and other Bank officials.

A few files (Women, North/South Roundtable on Trade) contain only a single document but others are more substantive. The International Labor Organization (ILO) files (1982 - 1990) contain considerable correspondence of both Siebeck and Baneth covering coordination between the World Bank and ILO. In some of the correspondence, Siebeck is identified as Director, International Relations Department, Geneva Office (IRDGO). Much of the correspondence in the Human Rights file pertains to Baneth's participation as Bank representative at meetings of the U.N. Centre for Human Rights and preparations for the 1993 U.N. Conference on Human Rights. The file also contains some correspondence of earlier Representatives concerning human rights issues. The Gulf Crisis file (26 October 1990 - 16 July 1991) includes Baneth's (and his Administrative Assistant's) correspondence concerning United Nations Disaster Relief Organization (UNDRO) efforts on behalf of displaced persons in the Middle East during the crisis. Correspondence was exchanged during the crisis with the Vice President, Corporate Planning and budget Robert Picciotto; the Senior Vice President, Policy Research and External Affairs Wilfred Thalwitz; and the Director, External Affairs Alexander Shakow.

Michael Bruno's Chronological Correspondence File (Internal and External Chronological Files)

Both incoming and outgoing correspondence is included in this series. The incoming correspondence in the first part of the series documents Bruno's roles as Manager of the Development Economics Vice Presidency, Chief of Research for the Bank and the Bank's principal economic adviser, Chairman of the Research Committee, and Chairman of the Economist Panel. The letters from January to August 1993 were signed by D.C. Rao who was serving as Acting DECVP until Vruno's assumption of duties.

EDI funding and programs, selection of topics for annual World Development Reports, DEC Business plans, relations with the World Trade Organization (WTO), liaison functions with Berne Union and the Paris Club, and Terms of Reference for DEC department heads leading missions are among the many subjects of Bruno's correspondence with DEC department heads and Bank Managing Directors in the first part of the series. Responses to Ernest Stern, Chairman of the Loan Committee, on lending options and comments offered for Country Assistance Strategy (CAS) Reviews are also in the first part of the series along with Bruno's reports on his 1994 visits to India; Slovenia, Slovakia, and the Ukraine; Brazil and Argentina; and South Africa, Senegal and Kenya.

The internal correspondence file relating to Bank President James D. Wolfensohn in the second part of the series includes informal memos and notes from Bruno to Wolfensohn on Bank-Fund [IMF] relations and collaboration and issues raised in policy papers and presentations; background papers prepared for Wolfensohn on various subjects including the closure of the World Bank office in Geneva and Wolfensohn's forthcoming trip to Russia and Hungary; and copies of Wolfensohn's staff announcements. Bruno's elevation to Senior Vice President and to the President's new Executive Committee is part of the December 7, 1995 Announcement to Staff on the Restructuring of the Bank's Top Management. Also placed in the file is a copy of a Wolfensohn December 26, 1996 memo addressed to all staff announcing Michael Bruno's death on December 25, 1996 in Jerusalem. Bruno had left the Bank earlier in 1996. Filed at the end of the internal correspondence in the first part of the series is a small amount of Lyn Squire's correspondence while serving as Acting DECVP following Bruno's departure from the Bank. It includes correspondence concerning meetings with Joseph Stiglitz in January 1997. Filed immediately following the internal correspondence are comments and other correspondence concerning the 1994 WDR.

The external correspondence file relating to Bank President Wolfensohn includes letters from outside organizations and private individuals forwarded to Bruno by the President's office requesting that a response be prepared in DEC for Wolfensohn's signature, Bruno's signature, or for signature by one of the DEC department heads. Background information provided to Wolfensohn to use in his replies and information copies of Wolfensohn's correspondence forwarded to Bruno are also in this external correspondence file.

Front Office Records Relating to the 1992 and 1998 Bank Reorganizations

These files were created by Leslie Davis (Leslie Davis Arnold), Program Coordinator for Administration in DEC's Front Office, during the planning stages of the FY 1993 Bank reorganization. They include copies of: briefing papers, memoranda, electronic messages, and other correspondence concerning reassignments within DEC and the Technical Departments; budget allocation and remapping documents; notes and reports from meetings discussing the DEC reorganization; correspondence concerning the reconfiguration of the Country Economics Department (CEC); and DECVP's memorandum of January 19, 1993 announcing CEC's change in name to the Policy Research Department (PRD) and designating it as the principal department in DEC engaged in research affecting the formulation of development policy. Also included as part of Davis' files on the FY 1993 reorganization are correspondence and reports concerning the closing of the Geneva Office by the end of June 1993. Much of the correspondence between Davis with the Administrative Assistant at the Geneva Office, Diane Cunningham, concerns various aspects of the closedown including reactions to the announcement of the shut down, allocation of Geneva Office responsibilities to DEC and to other Bank units, employment issues affecting Bank personnel at the office, the abolition of the Geneva Office support staff, termination of the lease for the office space, and disposition of Bank property at the Geneva Office.

Davis' file for the FY 1998 reorganization includes memoranda, electronic messages, organization charts, copies of kiosk announcements, and other documents concerning the movement of staff resources and dollars, reclassifications and appointments, and proposals for reorganization structure. Also in her file are copies of memoranda exchanged between human resources organizations, DEC department heads, and DEC Front Office staff, as well as Davis' correspondence with personnel within and outside of DEC regarding the reorganization.

Files Maintained by Vinod Dubey and Enzo Grilli, Directors, Economic Advisory Staff, Related to Collaboration between the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund

The bulk of the series consists of Policy Framework Papers (PFP) and related records documenting Bank/Fund collaboration in connection with the Fund's Structural Adjustment Facility (SAF), and the later Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility (ESAF) from April 1986 to September 1991. These files are arranged in three segments. The first two segments are arranged alphabetically by client country and maintained primarily by Vinod Dubey when he was Director of the Country Policy Department (CPD) and Directorof the Economic Advisory Staff (EAS). The third segment focuses on Bank-Fund collaboration in reviewing the PFP process and the SAF program, and development of the ESAF program. The country files may include comments on a draft PFP from Regional staff, the Economics and Research Staff, and the Senior Vice President for Operations (SVPOP); minutes of meetings of the Operations Policy Subcommittee and the Operations Policy Committee at which the PFP was discussed; and summaries of discussions and agenda and minutes of meetings of the Committee of the Whole at which a PFP was discussed.

Additional PFP related records include program review and development records maintained by Enzo Grilli when he was Director of EAS. The records include: IMF papers submitted to the Executive Board related to PFP extensions and PFP modifications; IMF proposal papers related to ESAF operational and financial arrangements, legal documentation, and access and monitoring procedures; SAF/ESAF review papers submitted to the IMF Executive Board; and IMF Executive Board meeting minutes related to SAF/ESAF review. The records also consist of materials related to the IMF/Bank Working Group on PFP Issues and the Bank/IMF Seminar with Donors on PFPs. The records include Working Group meeting minutes and summary reports, and papers prepared by both IMF and Bank staff for the PFP Seminar. Lastly, records related to PFP procedures and practices, and country schedules for PFPs are also included.

The series also consists of background correspondence concerning the compilation of three reports on Bank/Fund collaboration between 1984 and 1990. The initial report was issued in February 1985; the second report was issued in May 1986 to document progress on Bank/Fund collaboration during the previous year. A third report was issued in July 1990. Final copies of reports are in the files. Records related to the Bank/Fund collaboration report include: President's Memoranda sent to the Bank's Executive Board of Directors; Executive Directors meeting minutes and notes; and meeting minutes held between Senior Vice President of Operations (OPNSV) Moeen Qureshi, and Senior Staff of IMF regarding the report. Vinod Dubey in the Country Policy Department (CPD) had responsibility for coordinating the Bank's input; C. David Finch was the IMF contact. This responsibility continued with Dubey and Grilli in EAS.

The series also includes records dealing with Bank/Fund collaboration from February 1972 to February 1984. The records come from Development Policy Staff (DPS) units from the Development Policy Vice Presidency (VPD), the Economics and Research Staff (ERS), and from Vinod Dubey while he was the Chief Economist in EMENA. The records are primarily intra-Bank memoranda and reports.

The series also consists of copies of Bank-wide records outlining Bank/Fund collaboration from 1966 and 1970 to 1979. The records were compiled by the Program Review Division (PRD) of the Policy Planning and Program Review Department (PPR) of the VPD, and includes intra-Bank memoranda, joint Bank/Fund memoranda, PPR and PRD memoranda, notes regarding the meetings of the Bank/Fund Working Group, which first met April 3, 1974, and published articles regarding the Bank/Fund relationship.

The series also includes records related to Bank-Fund collaboration on arrears for member countries, or overdue debt obligations to the Bank and IMF from 1988 to 1991. The records include: approach papers and reports produced by the IMF countries in arrears; IMF Executive Board meeting minutes regardingarrears; Joint Audit Committee (JAC) meeting minutes regarding joint IMF/Bank review of countries in arrears, and debt relief strategies for arrears; records related to preparation of collectability papers for countries in arrears; and incoming and outgoing correspondence records for EAS Directors Vinod Dubey and Enzo Grilli, Senior Vice President of Operations (OPNSV) Moeen Qureshi, Senior Vice President of Finance (FINSV) Ernest Stern, and Bank President Barber Conable regarding arrears. Country files are also maintained and include memoranda and correspondence focused on the following topics: arrears clearance, arrears country strategies and reviews, approach papers, and issue papers prepared for individual arrears member countries.

The series also consists of records related to EAS involvement in IMF/Bank collaboration on joint IMF/Bank papers, press releases, and publications for the years 1988 to 1991. The records include numerous draft papers with attached EAS comments related to economic policy topics, such as debt, export credits, or balance of payments (BOPs). EAS comments on drafted IMF press releases and joint IMF/Bank communiques for the IMF/Bank Annual Meetings and Interim Committee are also included.

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