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Records of the Office of the President

  • WB IBRD/IDA EXC
  • Fondo
  • 1947 - 1995
  • 1947 - 1995

The records of cover the entire span of administrative and substantive activities of the Bank. Particularly useful is the documentation of public relations activities by the presidents and coordination efforts with outside partners. Briefing books for country visits and for meetings at the Bank's annual meeting often provide good overviews of issues as well as reports on the economic and political situation in a country. Unique materials on major Bank studies and commissions, such as the Pearson and Brandt Commissions and the Task Force on Portfolio Management (Wapenhans Report), are also found in the records of the president's office.

The McNamara, Conable and Preston records include both the records of the president and the records of his immediate staff. Some staff members had specific mandates and their files are key sources for those activities, while other presidential assistants played a more general role in handling topics for the president.

Office of the President

Records of President Lewis T. Preston

Lewis T. Preston became President of the World Bank on 1 September 1991 and resigned on 4 May 1995. Relatively few records from his term exist. One of Preston's first decisions was to suspend the President's Council, and as a result there are no formal records of the interaction of the highest levels of management. Furthermore, Preston was in ill health and retired before finishing his term. He continued to make speeches and undertook some business travel, but the files on those activities are noticeably fuller in the early years of his tenure. No subject files exist, nor do files on his liaison activities with United Nations organizations, non-government institutions, and international banks. The few files on liaison with the U.S. Government are thin, but there is additional information on this relationship in the records of the Counselor to the President, Matthew F. McHugh.

The most complete files are those on Member countries. These include information on Bank projects in the countries, reports of discussions with country representatives, agendas for meetings, and other representational matters. The files on the Annual Meetings have some unusually interesting briefings for Preston's meetings with financial and other institutions.

The important records of the Portfolio Management Task Force (Wapenhans Report) and the follow-up to it are part of the records of the Special Adviser to the President, Visvanathan Rajagopalan.

Note that a small portion of the Chronological File series contains correspondence and executive memoranda records from the period when Ernest Stern served as acting President. These date from February 1 to May 31 of 1995.

Records of President Robert S. McNamara

Robert S. McNamara became World Bank President on April 1, 1968 and served 2 full five year terms and a partial term, leaving on June 30, 1981. The records are a very full account of his long and active presidency. Every part of the world is reflected in these records, as well as virtually every economic issue of the 1970s. Any student of the Bank during the McNamara years will find reading these records an essential first step for research.

When McNamara came to the World Bank, it was lending about $1 billion per year. When he left in 1981, Bank lending stood at about $12 billion a year. In addition to the dramatic increase in volume of loans, he refocused Bank lending beyond infrastructure and projects to basic human needs and poverty reduction. Using the term absolute poverty, his annual meeting speech in Nairobi in 1973 marked a turning point by identifying promoting rural development and alleviating the conditions of life to the poor as crucial development goals. He identified population growth as a major issue for the Bank to address and the Bank began proving support for family planning programs. The Bank also began providing loans for pollution control.

McNamara proposed the formation of the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), which makes major contributions to increasing global food production and reducing hunger. He mobilized Bank resources to launch an international onchocercieasis (river blindness) control program. He initiated two international commissions to examine world development: the Pearson Commission in 1968 and the Brandt Commission in 1977. The Joint Ministerial Committee of the Board of Governors of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund on the Transfer of Real Resources to Developing Countries, usually known as the Development Committee, was established in 1974 to support international cooperation in development activities and coordination of international efforts in finance development, and to provide advice to the Board of Governors of the Bank and the Fund on all aspects of the transfer of real resources to developing countries. And in 1978 the World Development Report was launched, the Bank's flagship publication on development issues.

Records of all these activities can be found in the records of the McNamara presidency. An unusually large number of records are annotated by McNamara, providing unparalleled insight into the thinking and decision-making processes of the president.

The records also include files form assistants to the President, notably two series from economic adviser Irving S. Friedman that include his correspondence with both President George Woods and President McNamara.

Records of President Eugene R. Black

This series contains the records of Eugene R. Black as U.S. Executive Director at the World Bank, 1947-1949, and President, 1949-1962. They are arranged in five file categories: general correspondence, congratulatory correspondence, honorary degrees, speeches, and travel.

The general correspondence file contains exchanges with U.S. and foreign government officials (especially U.K. officials), private bankers, lawyers, foundation officials and friends, arranged alphabetically by surname of correspondent. Among the notable correspondents are U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower, U.S. Senators J.W. Fulbright and Hubert Humphrey, British Prime Minister Harold McMillan, and U.N. Secretary General Dag Hammerskjold. The alphabetical correspondence file is followed by one file marked personal action covering the period from September through December 1960; it contains letters congratulating Black on the publication of his book, The Diplomacy of Economic Development, and wishing him recovery from surgery.

The congratulatory correspondence concerns Black's appointment as Executive Director and subsequent appointment and reappointments as President of the World Bank.

A single file contains correspondence on honorary degrees awarded to Black.

The speech file contains letters of invitation and appreciation and, in some cases, the texts of the speeches. Speeches given include commencement addresses, lectures to professional associations and private organizations, and addresses to the UN Economic and Social Council.

Thetravel file contains correspondence relating to tours Black took as U.S. Executive Director and as Bank President to familiarize himself with present and future member countries' economic and political situations and to meet national leaders. It includes letters of invitation, itineraries, thank you notes, as well as letters and memoranda on the purposes and results of particular trips. Two files contain the records of Black's 1948 trip to Indonesia (then the Netherlands East Indies) shortly before it obtained independence, including background material on Indonesia's economy and recent political developments, newspaper articles, UN documents, photographs, and letters from government officials, business executives and Black evaluating the situation in Indonesia. Other travel files contain information on the Bank's role in the settlement of the Suez Canal dispute (1958-1959).

Records of President George D. Woods

The records of the Presidency of George D. Woods (January 1963 until April 1968) primarily concern international relations, including both briefings and travel. The correspondence file, while small, has several unusually revealing items, as do the retained copies of outgoing letters and memoranda. The background papers on each country that are found in the annual meeting briefing files provide useful snapshots of the situation of that country at that time.

Records of President John J. McCloy

The records of President McCloy consist of incoming and outgoing correspondence between President McCloy, the U.S. Executive Director of the Bank, U.S. political leaders, U.S. public officials, and prominent business leaders. The correspondence address topics of Bank operations and lending.

Records of President A. W. Clausen

A. W. Clausen became World Bank President in July 1981 and served a full five year term. Shortly after he became President, Clausen established a Managing Committee to provide overall administrative and programmatic control of the Bank's activities. The records of the Clausen presidency are best approached through the official files of this Managing Committee, which provide comprehensive documentation on virtually all issues before the Bank during those years. Both Clausen's personal records of the Committee as well as the Committee's official records are part of this sub-fonds.

Clausen was President during the world debt crisis of the early 1980s, and throughout the files are documents about the issues of debt management and the Bank's programs of sectoral and structural adjustment. Discussions of a multilateral investment insurance program began during the Clausen years, which culminated in the establishment of the Multilateral Investments Guarantee Agency (MIGA) after Clausen left office. Both the Special Assistance Program for countries coping with the global recession and the Special Facility for Africa to provide policy reform assistance in sub-Saharan Africa were launched during Clausen's tenure, and the Clausen years saw a growing emphasis on programs in agricultural and rural development and environmental management, among others. Evidence of Clausen's personal interest in these issues can be found throughout the records, but particularly in the extensive set of alphabetical subject files that show Clausen's involvement with issues and organizations. Clausen's views are also evident in the chronological file of his outgoing correspondence during his entire time in office.

The country files and the itinerary files on official trips are good sources of information on the Bank's relationship with and the economic situation in the member countries. The records include photographs of Clausen's visits to countries and to World Bank projects.

Records of President Barber B. Conable

Barber B. Conable's term as President was noted for the major reorganization of the Bank he directed in 1987 and the emphasis on poverty reduction as a central mission of the Bank. He identified environmental protection as an important goal, culminating in the Bank joining with the UN Development Program and the UN Environment Program to establish the Global Environment Facility in 1991. Conable supported an increased role for women in development and he appointed a woman, Marianne Haug, to his senior staff. Broad political changes occurred in Eastern Europe during his tenure, and he maintained extensive liaisons with international organizations including the increasingly influential NGO community. Conable also authorized the project to write a history of the Bank; Brookings Institution was given the contract for the study which resulted in the two volume The World Bank: Its First Half Century. Conable gave the authors access to his Presidential files, and the use of some of the files by the Brookings team is noted in the series descriptions.

The records of President and his staff are extensive. The minutes of his President's Council reveal the mechanisms of Bank management. The usual Annual Meeting files are supplemented by his country files and the records of his travels around the globe. The two series of liaison files show his political skills with varied constituencies.

The records of the Office of the President also include separate series of records of the Executive Counselor to the President, J. William Stanton; the Executive Assistant, Marianne Haug; and the Special Assistant, Anapum Khanna. The file of Conable's Executive Assistant, Jennifer A. Volk, on the lunches between Conable and Michel Camdessus, the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund, is a separate series, while within the President's files on travel and Annual Meetings are other files that Volk maintained.

Records of the Vice President and Special Adviser to the President, Visvanathan Rajagopalan

Visvanathan Rajagopalan was the Vice President for Sector and Operations Policy when President Preston asked him to join the President's staff as Senior Adviser. Rajagopalan held this post for the year 1993, retiring at the end of December. During his time in the President's office, Rajagopalan had 2 principal tasks: manage the follow-up to the Portfolio Management Task Force report and chair the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research. In addition he spent a brief period in the summer of 1993 as the acting head of the Information, Technology and Facilities Department.

The most important records in this subfonds are those of the Portfolio Management Task Force. These records are essential to understanding the work of the task force and the controversy that followed its report.

Office of the President -- Lewis T. Preston -- Visvanathan Rajagopalan (Vice President and Special Adviser to the President)

Records of the Executive Assistant to the President, Marianne Haug

Marianne Haug served as Executive Assistant to the President and Secretary of the President's Council from May 1987 until May 1990. She was employed by various units in the Bank prior to joining the President's office; some of the records in this sub-fonds predate her service in the Executive Office.

Haug's files cover a mix of administrative and program topics. The series of subject files contains a very broad overview of topics that she handled for the President, as well as topics in which she was especially interested, such as the files of the Bank's Outside Interests Committee, 1981-1987, on which she served. The files on environment, forestry, and MIGA are very full; the series also contains copies of speeches by senior members of the Bank, showing that the President's staff was tracking the public statements. Several files, such as Centrally planned economies and Eastern Europe show the Bank's response to the changing situation in Eastern Europe.

The series on budget policy is useful to understand the internal development of budget packages from the point of view of the President's office. Haug's series on the Bank's 1987 reorganization is the fullest in the President's office, covering both the original reorganization and the fine tuning in 1989. Her extensive chronological file dates from July 1985 through May 1991.

Office of the President -- Barber B. Conable -- Marianne Haug (Executive Assistant to the President)

Records of the Special Assistant to the President, Anapum Khanna

Anapum Khanna was appointed as Special Assistant to the President in July 1989 and stayed through the end of Conable's term and into the first months of the Preston term. He succeeded Marianne Haug as the Secretary to the President's Council, and the primary series of records in this sub-fonds are the working files Khanna accumulated while handling Council business.

Office of the President -- Barber B. Conable -- Anapum Khanna (Special Assistant to the President)

Records of the Counselor to the President, Matthew F. McHugh

Matthew F. McHugh joined the President's office staff in May 1993. His files reflect a strong interest in and responsibility for external affairs, in particular the Bank's relationship with the U.S. Government and the 50th anniversary celebration of the World Bank. These records are useful for insight into the liaison activities of the President's office because similar records do not exist in the President's own files.

McHugh also served as Counselor to the President during James Wolfensohn's first term as President. McHugh continued to use and add items to some of his files from the Preston period, particularly the country files. Those McHugh files are among the records of the Wolfensohn Presidency, and they should be consulted for further information on the Preston years.

Office of the President -- Lewis T. Preston -- Matthew F. McHugh (Counselor to the President)

Records of the Executive Counselor to the President, J. William Stanton

When Conable became President, he appointed J. William Stanton to serve as Counselor to the President. Stanton held that post throughout Conable's term.

The records of Stanton's office focus on two of the major administrative issues of Conable's Presidency: the 1987 reorganization of the Bank, and the acquisition and retrofitting of the Bank's Washington buildings. They must be read in conjunction with the President's Administrative files and the files of Special Assistant Marianne Haug; for example, the Haug and Stanton records both have series on the 1987 reorganization, which does not appear in the President's files, but the President's Administrative files have the records of the 1989 fine-tuning of the reorganization. Taken together, the entire picture emerges.

Office of the President -- Barber B. Conable -- J. William Stanton (Executive Counselor to the President)

Congratulations file

This series contains congratulatory letters from heads of state, government officials, and international and domestic private entities to A.W. Clausen on the occasion of his appointment as the President of the World Bank and the outgoing responses from President Clausen. A list of the contact addresses filed at the beginning of the series.

Alphabetical [subject] files

This series contains President A. W. Clausen's subject files. The records consist of correspondence, memoranda, reports and background materials relating to a broad spectrum of organizations, interests and concerns. They contain general correspondence, internal Bank communications, and external correspondence with the European Economic Community; the U.S. Congress and the Departments of Treasury and State, among others; the United Nations and its many specialized agencies; and various international banksand organizations. The UNICEF file includes photographs of Mr. Clausen with the Bay Area Corporate Committee for UNICEF in 1985.

Records of Economic Advisor Irving Friedman

Irving Friedman maintained these files on the Bank's cooperation with the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development in developing a supplementary financing scheme. The scheme was conceived as a response to the instability of commodity prices that frequently led to unexpected shortfalls of export earnings in developing countries. The aim was to have supplementary financing cover these shortfalls through soft loans to shield the development programs of the developing countries. IBRD/IIDA supplementary financing would offer longer-term assistance, as opposed to the International Monetary Fund's short-term compensatory financing facility.

The records include correspondence with UNCTAD, memoranda, drafts, handwritten notes by Friedman and others, meeting briefs, agendas, speeches, and official documents from UNCTAD, IMF, and IBRD on supplementary financing. The general correspondence is principally between Friedman, other Bank managers, and UNCTAD officials, especially Raul Prebish and Manuel Perez-Guerrero, Secretary Generals of UNCTAD, and Sidney Dell, Director of UNCTAD. The meetings files relate to meetings of UNCTAD, the UNCTAD Committee on Invisibles and Financing related to Trade, the Intergovernmental Group on Supplementary Finance, the Development Advisory Committee, and meetings within the World Bank. Friedman filed into the file on a meeting both documents that pre-dated the meeting and documents from activities subsequent to the meeting, so researchers will need to read through the sub-series on meetings in order to find all the items about one meeting.

In addition, three files on stabilization of prices for primary commodity products, transferred to the World Bank Group Archives separately from those on supplementary financing, are found at the end of the series.

Correspondence of Economic Advisor Hollis Chenery

Hollis Chenery served as the Economic Adviser to the President from 1970 until 1972. Reporting directly to the President, he commented on virtually all the significant economic issues that confronted the Bank. The series consists of one file of Chenery's memoranda and correspondence and two files on the Development Research Center of the World Bank.

The correspondence file includes a memorandum by Chenery on research prospects in Latin America in April 1972; a proposal to the Bank on generation of employment in Mexico and a draft study with comments on planning in Mexico; and a draft study on Ethiopia. The correspondence ends in May 1972; an invitation dating from 1973 is also included.

The two files on the Development Research Center primarily drafts of economic studies. The study topics include evaluations of various economic models, Mexican agriculture, and substitution of labor for equipment in road construction.

Conferences, lectures and addresses

This series contains correspondence and notes regarding guest lectures and remarks by President McNamara and conferences he attended, both in the U.S. and in Europe. It is clearly fragmentary and does not cover many of the events in which McNamara participated. The series includes speeches he gave on topics such as population (University of Notre Dame in May 1969), poverty and population (American Urological Association in October 1977), and international development (Frederick Ebert Foundation in Bonn in 1979). Several files relate to awards given to McNamara, including on from the Tun Abdul Razak foundation in Malaysia; some awards files include speeches and remarks he made at the presentation of the award.

A few conference files include McNamara's handwritten notes of points made by other speakers; sometimes a typescript copy of his notes on the proceedings is filed. Because the speakers were often important figures in public affairs, these notes are useful for researching both the positions taken bythe participants and McNamara's understanding of the points they made.

Travel briefings

This series contains the briefings prepared for President McNamara's official trips. It includes notes by McNamara, some handwritten; correspondence with senior staff and government officials; and staff reports on visits.

The briefings consist of schedules, airport statements, government lists and biographies, lists of topics for discussion, basic data and maps, background information on the political and economic situation and the Bank's operations in the country visited and, for Part II countries, aid programs and IDA contributions. Schedules, statements, biographies, and topics for discussion are often annotated by McNamara, some heavily. If the trip included more than one country, the first file may include general information on the region. While most files contain a full briefing, a few files include only the list of persons visited or a schedule.

The 1980 files on an African trip include a file of Mrs. McNamara's activities. The series includes one photo from McNamara's trip to Peru in 1976.

These files are valuable for any researcher looking at the Bank's relationship with a country. The rich analytical material in the briefing file pulls together the Bank's information on a country at a particular date which, when supplemented with McNamara's notes, give a snapshot of the country's stage of development and its political climate.

Travel briefings of staff assistants to the President

The series consists of the travel briefing files of three staff assistants for three trips during the McNamara Presidency. The first are the files of Sven Burmester, Special Assistant to the President, for the Middle East trip (Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates) of March 5-16, 1975. The second are the files of Caio Koch-Weser, Personal Assistant to the President, for the West Africa trip (Nigeria, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Guinea, The Gambia, and Senegal) of November 1-15, 1977. The last are the files of Oliver Lafourcade, Personal Assistant to the President, for the trip to India and Pakistan, March 28-April 1, 1981. All of these trips also have briefing files in the President's travel briefs series.

Board [of Executive Directors] Actions files

President McNamara's memoranda to the Board of Executive Directors constitute this series. They are divided into the following subjects:

  • I. Lending rate

  • II. Profit transfer

  • III. Budget proposals

  • IV. Compensation

  • V. Structural adjustment lending

  • VI. Miscellaneous

  • VII. International Development Association

  • VIII. International Finance Corporation

  • IX. Financial policy

  • BC. Brandt Commission Pearson Commission Role of the Bank.

The first file of the series consists of 2 finding aids prepared in the President's office. The first finding aid is an annotated list of the President's memoranda to the Executive Directors from 1 April 1968 - July 10, 1980, listing the subjects discussed, the background papers distributed on the subject, the date of the discussion, and remarks. The annotations indicate the file (I through X and BC) containing the documents on the subject. The second finding aid is titled Board Actions Books I-X. It lists all documents filed within the ten numbered subject files plus the Brandt Commission file. Copies of these lists are filed in the subject files, and the lists in the subject files are annotated to show which documents have been removed from that file or have been filed in other files.

The memoranda dealing with lending rate contain the President's recommendations to the Board with regard to the Bank's interest rate policy and its annual and quarterly review. They include background material dating from 1947 and some handwritten notes by McNamara of the Executive Directors' discussions on lending rate policy (1968, 1969 and 1979).

The memoranda on profit transfer deal with the Bank's annual transfer to IDA of part of the year's income. They include some handwritten notes by McNamara of the Executive Directors' discussion on the allocation of net income for FY69. The budget proposals and related memoranda presented to the Executive Directors for review and approval are occasionally annotated by McNamara. The 1973 Review of IBRD/IDA program, FY74-78, is accompanied by the President's handwritten notes of his meetings with H. Kaufman, E. Patberg and L. Parker of Salomon Brothers, the First Boston Corporation and Morgan Stanley respectively.

The memoranda on compensation are concerned with salary policies and procedures, salary reviews, staff retirement and tax liabilities. They include McNamara's proposals of a general salary increase with his notes of the discussions of the Board, drafts and comparative figures (1968-1970), and recommendations with regard to the conclusions of the McKinsey study on staff compensation (1972) and the Report of the Joint Bank-Fund Committee on Staff Compensation Issues (Kafka Committee 1979). There are also notes taken by the President of discussions on tax liabilities (1979).

The miscellaneous memoranda deal with Board procedures, IBRD borrowing, lending policies, procurement practices, operations evaluation, work arrangements with other agencies, the Bank research program, international agricultural research, and office space. They contain McNamara's handwritten notes on the Executive Directors' discussions of his recommendations regarding subscriptions to the capital stock of the Bank (1969, 1970), Board procedures (1971), and the financing of tea (1973). The memoranda relating to IBRD borrowing and bonds issues are heavily annotated by the President (1978-1980), as is a memorandum on development policy for countries dependent on exports of primary products (1973).

The memoranda regarding IDA concern IDA policies, financing and international agricultural research. They bear no annotations by the President.

The memoranda regarding IFC contain some notes by McNamara of the discussion by the Executive Directors of papers on operating policies (1973), as well as personal comments by R. L. Knight regarding IFC policies (1973).

The memoranda on financial policy contain McNamara's papers to the Board on the Bank's borrowing program, financial policies and capital increase, and the establishment of the Third Window. They include the President's drafts of statements and closing remarks for the Executive Directors' discussions of memoranda on the scale of financial operations FY74-78 (1972) and IBRD financial policies (1973) and notes accompanying his 1976 memorandum on IBRD capital increase.

The memoranda on the recommendations of the Pearson and Brandt Commissions relating to the Bank bear some annotations by McNamara.

A set of documents concerning the discussions of memoranda to the Board on the future role of the Bank and its associated capital requirements was put together by President McNamara. It contains summaries of informal meetings with the Directors, technical notes, memoranda and handwritten notes of the discussions, and correspondence. An index to the documents in the file Role of the Bank, both in McNamara's handwriting and in typescript, is included in the file.

IPA chronological file (outgoing)

This series is composed of letters and memoranda drafted for McNamara by the Department of Information and Public Affairs (IPA) between January 1969 and July 1981. Letters consist of thank-you notes, mostly regrets, for invitations to participate or speak at meetings or luncheons, deliver interviews and appear on television, thanks for gifts, books, articles, comments, views, support, staff work, and responses to requests for material, statements and articles.

The addressees are private citizens, scholars, journalists, heads of organizations and congregations, diplomats, and government officials. Thank-you letters range from a note to President Leopold Sedar Senghor thanking him for a volume of poetry, to letters to the U.S. President, senators and congressmen thanking them for assuring the passage of foreign assistance legislation. Responses to inquiries include a letter informing President Sekou Toure of the progress of the Konkoure project, a letter attempting to answer William Safire's etymological inquiry about the phrase bargaining chip, and notes declining requests for comments on defense policy and the Vietnam War.

Chronological file (personal)

The personal chronological file contains material drafted by McNamara or his secretaries between 1968 and 1972. It includes outgoing correspondence, short memoranda to the senior staff and memoranda recording conversations, notes on special issues and notes to himself.

The correspondence consists of acceptances or declinations to speak, comment, serve on committees, join boards, lunch and dine; thank-you notes; congratulations and condolences; recommendations; the President's requests for meetings or support; letters on Bank activities and letters on private matters. Addressees include heads of States and government officials, U.S. Senators and Congressmen, bankers, scholars, publishers, journalists, art dealers and old friends. There are letters and cables to Hubert Humphrey, Edward Kennedy, David Rockefeller, John Kenneth Galbraith, Arthur Schlesinger, Pierre Salinger, Henry Kissinger, Walt W. Rostow, Edward Heath, Lord Mountbatten, and Harlan Cleveland.

The memoranda to the staff are short notes to the Vice-Presidents, the Economic Advisor, the General Counsel, and the Directors of the Development Services, External Affairs and Administration offices on particular issues of concern to their sector or department. Memoranda of conversations record discussions with members of the Board, Bank staff and government officials, including Henry Fowler, John Connally, Dean Rusk, Walt W. Rostow, Daniel Ellsberg and Maurice Strong.

Interfiled with outgoing letters and memoranda are lists of projects President McNamara drafted for himself in May 1968, April and August 1969, January 1971 and December 1972. There also are points for meetings and for the press, outlines of the Bank President's annual speech and notes and figures on the Bank's capital increase, the IDA policies and third replenishment, the budget, the Bank's organization, staff compensation, population growth, the gap between poor and rich nations and nuclear force issues.

Statements, speeches and interviews

This series contains the official statements issued by Robert S. McNamara as President of the World Bank. The material consists of drafts by the President (some handwritten) and drafts prepared by staff (some heavily annotated)' press releases' and occasional background documents. Statements include remarks at the signing of Bank loans' statements at press conferences' airport statements' statements at Annual Meetings and Board meetings' toasts at official dinners including some toasts to McNamara given by Presidents' messages to be delivered at conferences' remarks to the U.S. Congress and messages to staff.

The set also contains transcripts of interviews and newspaper articles. The former include interviews for the NBC Today Show and Meet the Press (1974)' Segment Three (1978)' Bill Moyer's Journal on WNET (1975)' a CBS interview with Peter Jay (1977)' the ABC presentation of A Day in Shrishnagar (1980)' and appearances on the BBC (1978-1980) and on Norwegian' Japanese' German' and French television. There are also interviews for the London Times and Europa (1975)' the New York Times (1978)' Newsweek (1979)' and the Sunday Times (1980).

Personnel Management Committee files

The President's Personnel Committee was established by President McNamara on 9 August 1979 together with the Finance Committee. Both Committees operated as sub-committees of the President's Council. The purpose of the Personnel Committee was to deal with such issues as staff compensation and benefits, staff development, recruitment, management and manpower planning, Staff Association relationships and senior level appointments and transfers. The membership consisted of the President as chair, the SeniorVice President, the Vice President for Administration who served as vice chair, the Vice President for Operations, the Vice President for Finance, and one rotating member.

The series contains the minutes of the Committee as well as discussion papers distributed to the members of the Committee.

Finance Committee file

The President's Finance Committee was established by President McNamara on 9 August 1979 together with the Personnel Management Committee. Both committees operated as sub-committees of the President's Council. The purpose of the Finance Committee was to deal with such matters as liquidity objectives, profit objectives, the lending rate, financial structure, and IDA transfers. The membership consisted of the President as chair, the Senior Vice President, the Vice President for Finance who served as vice chair, the Vice President for Operations, the Vice President and General Counsel, the Vice President and Secretary, the Vice President and Treasurer, and the Director, Programming and Budgeting.

The series contains the agenda and minutes of the Committee meetings between August 1979 and June 1981. It includes papers regarding the currency pooling system, debt problems of developing countries, co-financing, the cost of IBRD borrowings, criteria for selective capital increase and other papers distributed to the members of the Committee for discussion.

Contacts - Member Countries files

The Contacts - Member Countries files are the record of President McNamara's meetings with famous individuals, representatives of member countries other than the United States, and representatives of organizations (e.g., Executive Directors, Annual Meeting delegates, heads of States and organizations, government officials, parliamentarians, bankers, businessmen, industrialists, economists, journalists). The files contain minutes of meetings, briefings, questions and answers for press interviews, background material and some correspondence.

Although the minutes were generally prepared by staff from the concerned region or the Personal Assistant to the President, the files contain many memoranda of conversations and notes on meetings and visits drafted by McNamara, some handwritten. Also in McNamara's hand are a number of points to discuss for meetings and annotations on the briefs prepared by staff. Among the items personally drafted by McNamara are notes of, or for, meetings with King Baudouin (1969), Pierre Trudeau (1976), Anwar Sadat (1975), Georges Pompidou (1969), Valery Giscard d'Estaing (1972, 1975, 1979), Karl Otto Poehl, Hans Dietrich Genscher, Helmut Schmidt (1975), Indira Gandhi (1973), the Shah of Iran (1973), Felix Houphouet-Boigny (1969), Takeo Fukuda (1978), William Tolbert (1973), Nicolae Ceausescu (1968), Leopold Senghor (1969), Alec Douglas-Home (1972), Edward Heath (1973), U Thant (1969), Joseph Mobutu (1972).

Chronological files (outgoing)

This series contains letters and memoranda signed and sent by the President. Topics range from substantive issues of development assistance to social and public relations messages. Letters are addressed to foreign heads of state, government officials, banks, private citizens, US Senators and Congressmen, scholars, development institutions and academics, heads of organizations, diplomats, and journalists. Some internal messages and memorandam, including memoranda to the files, are included.

This is a verycomplete record of Conable's views on all matters that came before him and of the people with whom he corresponded. Although these are duplicate copies of records that should appear elsewhere in the files of the President's office or the Bank, this is a particularly useful series when other files have gaps.

Transition Correspondence

This small series contains President's Conable's correspondence at the time of his appointment as President of the World Bank and for the first few months of his term. The records include congratulations, thanks, job inquiries, and letters from persons advertising their services, and the correspondents include both friends and institutions such as commercial banks. The series provides an interesting view of the type of approaches made to an incoming President.

Presidential chronological files of Economic Advisor Irving Friedman

Irving Friedman served as the Economic Adviser to the President from 1964 until he left the Bank in 1970. Reporting directly to the President, he commented on virtually all the significant economic issues that confronted the Bank. The series, which Friedman called his Presidential chron files consists principally of Friedman's correspondence with Bank President Robert McNamara, but it also includes some correspondence with other Bank managers and one file on a memorandum from Friedman to President George Woods.

Friedman's 1964 memorandum to Woods is a commentary on an analysis by John C. Bullitt, U.S. Executive Director, of the impact on other funders of an accelerated development assistance effort by the United States Government. The files from 1968-1970 cover topics including the Grand Assize and the Pearson Commission, which were convened to help formulate a new development strategy; population planning; the second IDA replenishment negotiations; supplementary finance and debt rescheduling, among others. Also included are analyses of economic news; some reports of the Economic Committee, which Friedman chaired; reports from program studies units in the Bank; and status reports and briefs on Bank economic activities. The file on McNamara's interview consists of background information assembled for him and suggested answer to questions, particularly on financing for the Bank, borrower indebtedness and the Bank as a development institution. In addition there is one file on a commodity study and one file of minutes and matters outstanding from meetings of the Economics Group Directors, chaired by Friedman, between September 1969 and August 1970.

Country files

The series contains records of President Preston's briefings and talking points for meetings with Government leaders and representatives of member countries, background information on the country, country strategy papers, and internal memoranda. A few files contain items from the Conable Presidency. Many of the records in the files are memoranda and correspondence of the Managing Directors; however, the records were maintained as the record set of country files for the Office of the President.

The files cover only the first three years of the Preston term. Files on countries during the last part of the Preston years are found in the records of Matthew F. McHugh, who was appointed Counselor to the President in 1993. McHugh remained in the President's office for the first term of the Wolfensohn Presidency and he continued to use and file into the country files he maintained; these records are part of the Wolfensohn Presidential records.

Liaison files - Non-governmental and international agencies

This series documents the communications between the Bank, particularly the President's office, and various national and international organizations, governmental and nongovernmental, non-profit and commercial. A wide range of liaison activities are reflected; the records include invitations to meetings and conferences, points of discussions for meetings, meeting briefs and minutes of meetings, news releases and communiques, and correspondence. An equally broad range of topics is included, from agricultureand the environment to trade and financial affairs. A few files include records from the period of the Clausen presidency.

One subject file on the Gulf crisis of 1990-1991 is included. It relates primarily to funding issues, both for countries in the region of the crisis and for the return of refugees in the post-crisis period. The UNICEF file contains black and white photographs of President Conable at a meeting on February 6, 1989.

Country files

This series contains records of President Conable's meetings with representatives, delegates, and heads of the member countries; briefing notes for meetings with country leaders; general background information on countries and governments; press releases; correspondence with government leaders; memoranda of advice from staff members; and congratulatory and thank you letters. Topics covered in the records include external debt; Bank lending operations and criteria, and environmental concerns. Three files cover regions in Africa - Eastern, Southern, and Sub-Saharan - rather than an individual country, in addition to individual files on most countries in those regions. No files on the United States are included.

The files on the USSR are significant, as the period of the Conable presidency covers the late twentieth century political changes in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Of particular interest are the files on a joint study that the 1990 economic summit in Houston, Texas, asked the Bank and the IMF toundertake. The study, completed between July 1990 and May 1991, surveyed the Soviet economy, made recommendations for its reform, and established criteria for Western economic assistance to support reform.

Many of the files contain records dating from the Clausen presidency, some as early as 1984; apparently Conable used the Clausen country records as building blocks for his information on the countries. Similarly, the files on the USSR contain some records that post-date the Conable administration by several months (until December 1991), as the incoming Preston administration continued to use them.

Photographs

This series contains primarily photographic prints and negatives documenting some of President Conable's trips abroad, taken by governments or businesses where he visited. The photographs, all in albums, are in predominantly in color, with a few in black and white. The photographs have no identification other than country and date. One album contains photographs taken by the World Bank of the 1990 annual meeting in Washington and includes photographs of U.S. President George W. Bush.

Liaison files - U.S. Government

This series contains the records of President Conable's interaction with both Congressional and Executive branches of the U.S Government. The files include information on legislation affecting the Bank or its staff, briefing notes and minutes of the meetings with the Members of Congress and senior officials in the Executive Branch, and correspondence with the White House. A few documents are included from the end of the Clausen Presidency.

A general file covers Congressional matters, in addition to files on the House of Representatives and the Senate. One subject file is included, on an initiative by the U.S. Treasury Secretary James Baker III and Senator Bill Bradley to develop a new strategy to manage international debt. In addition, one file is included on the Bank's relationship with the government of the District of Columbia.

Country correspondence

The country correspondence files contain miscellaneous correspondence with persons and businesses from particular countries, mostly for the period after Woods' tenure as Bank President. They include invitations, thank you letters,travel arrangements and some printed brochures. In the Pakistan file is a set of material relating to the groundbreaking ceremony for the Tarbela Dam in November 1968.

Itinerary files

This series contains records of President Clausen's visits abroad and his appearances and presentations in the United States. The files contain travel itineraries, briefing materials, arrival and departure statements, press conference briefings, remarks, schedules of meetings and appointments, correspondence (letters, memoranda, telexes and facsimiles written to and from government leaders, thank you notes), lists of government officials and biographical data about them, general background information on countries and governments, status reports on projects in execution, maps and newspaper clippings. The file on Niger contains photographs of the ministers. Some files listed under a country are primarily files on a meeting held there, not on the country per se; see, for example, the GATT meeting file under Switzerland. Itineraries and briefings for Mrs. Clausen when she accompanied the President on foreign visits are found in some files. The general files at the beginning of the series contain travel orders and itineraries but no background information.

The series is rich in annotations and comments by Clausen and his advisors. It provides snapshot views of the countries at the time of the visits and also provides particularly useful information on the World Bank's relationship with each country.

Country files

The Country files series contains the records of President Clausen's meetings with heads of states and organizations, representatives of member countries, government officials, Executive Directors, and Annual Meeting delegates. No files on the United States are included; these records are found primarily in the alphabetical files.

The files contain correspondence, memos, briefings, reports, opening remarks for the meetings, Country Program Papers, Annual Meeting country briefs, memoranda of the meetingswith the country delegates, press interviews, and background material. The records reflect the World Bank's issues with, concerns for, and activities in the country, region, or organization. The files on Algeria and Panama include photographs.

President's committee files

Shortly after assuming the Presidency, A. W. Clausen established a Managing Committee to provide overall control of the Bank's administration. This Committee played a central role in the Clausen years and was the principal vehicle through which the President administered the Bank.

Clausen inherited a President's Council that had been created by George Woods in 1965, a larger body than the Managing Committee. The President's Council, renamed the Senior Management Council in 1982, continued to exist, although it met less frequently than it had in the past. A staff member in the President's office served as the secretary for both the Committee and the Council.

This series consists of Clausen's personal files on the Managing Committee and the Senior Management Council. The records include material on organization and procedures of the Committee, its agendas, minutes of the meetings of both the Committee and the Council, and indexes to topics discussed in the Managing Committee. The minutes of the ManagingCommittee cover only 1981-1982 and 1985 through July 1987 when Clausen's term ended; complete copies of the minutes are found in the official records of the Committee. Many items have Clausen's initials and the agendas have his annotations.

Managing Committee official files

This series consists of the official files of the Managing Committee. The records include agendas, schedules of meetings, minutes of the meetings, and memoranda and reports on a range of topics reflecting senior management concerns and overall World Bank administration. The records include correspondence with most of the Senior Vice Presidents on issues for committee consideration.

The minutes of the weekly Committee meetings were prepared from manuscript notes, then a draft was circulated (called pre-record minutes), and finally a record copy was issued. The series includes a file of manuscript notes by the Committee's secretary, covering both Managing Committee and Senior Management Council meetings, from February 22 to August 30, 1982. Draft minutes, with comments from the members, exist for the meetings from October 1981 through April 1983.

The Managing Committee had three subcommittees: Finance, Operations Policy, and Personnel and Administration. Issues coming to the Managing Committee were proposed by one of the subcommittees, by the President's office, or by one of the other primary offices in the Bank. Each issue had an accompanying paper, identified by the submitting office, year, and number; for example, an issues paper for the Managing Committee submitted by the Operations Policy Subcommittee in 1983 titled Power Sector Support Strategy was numbered OPS/MC83-06. This series has a full set of issues papers, arranged alphabetically by three-letter symbol for the submitting unit. The committee secretary prepared detailed indexes to the topics discussed in the Managing Committee, and the indexes provide easy access to these submissions.

Fragmentary records of the meetings of two of the three subcommittees make up the final section of this series. All these records are from 1982 and consist of one file of the working papers of the Personnel and Administration Subcommittee and six files from the Operations Policy Subcommittee. Additional information on the work of the subcommittees can be found in the set of submitted documents, because some of the subcommittee minutes were circulated to the entire Managing Committee for information.

These records are an essential source for a researcher who wishes to understand the internal decision-making in the Bank during the Clausen years.

Senior personnel files

This series contains correspondence, memoranda, reports and other material related to personnel issues generally and senior management personnel issues specifically. The files include descriptions of positions, a 1983 attitude survey, a grade and salary structure design, management succession and development plans for senior positions and vice presidents, data on vice presidents and directors (1983 - 1985), and similar materials.

Speech background files

This series consists of a collection of background materials for President Clausen's speeches and other public appearances, such as television, radio, and magazine interviews. The records include correspondence and memoranda, talking points, drafts, reference materials and data, schedules, meeting summary notes, guest lists, thank you notes, and transcripts of press conferences and interviews with TV networks and magazines. The files contain some handwritten notes by Clausen. The series also includes one file from the period before he became President.

The files are arranged according to the name of the organization to whom the speech was given or the name of the organization interviewing the President. It seems likely that this background file originally contained only the invitations, correspondence, and arrangements for appearances, with the actual speeches in the chronological speech file. Over time, however, two things happened: first, the background files grew to contain data and supporting material for the content of the speech and, second, the background files came to contain external relations material not related to a specific speech. The four files on the U. S. Commission on Security and Economic Assistance, for example, principally document the Bank developing a position on the Commission and its recommendations (its report is included in the files), not a speech. Neither the chronological speech files nor the background files appears to include all the Clausen speeches; they need be used together in order to obtain a full picture of his public appearances.

Development Committee files

This series contains President Clausen's records related to the Development Committee meetings from 1983 through 1986. Formally the Joint Ministerial Committee of the Boards of Governors of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund on the Transfer of Real Resources to Developing Countries, the Development Committee was established in 1974 with its own secretariat that maintained the official records of the Committee.

The records in this series, therefore, are Clausen's office files on the Development Committee meetings during his tenure (meetings 21-28). The records, organized by meeting, include correspondence, memoranda regarding the meetings, drafts of the President's opening remarks and the President's Report to the Development Committee, summaries of Committee discussions, and statements to the press. The files also contain papers and reports prepared for the Development Committee, including the Development Committee Annual Report, task force and working group reports, and papers on topics such as development in Sub-Saharan Africa, the world economic outlook, and external debt problems of developing countries.

Annual Meeting files

This series contains President Clausen's records related to the Annual Meetings of the Board of Governors. The records are a mix of substantive and administrative materials, from lists of delegations and special guests to briefing materials on countries and issues. The files contain the President's opening and closing remarks, speeches and addresses; records relating to the annual Ministers' luncheon, Co-Financing breakfast, and the Latin-American Governors' luncheon; records of press conferences; correspondence and memoranda regarding appointments with country delegations; schedules, letters of invitation and thank you notes.

Transition briefing files

This series consists of briefings prepared for A.W. Clausen upon his inauguration as the World Bank's President in July 1981 and Clausen's copy of briefings on Bank operations prepared in 1986 for the Presidential transition from Clausen to Barber Conable. The files provide a broad overview of the Bank's structure and functions, as well as the status of World Bank's projects throughout the world.

The 1981 briefings on the Bank itself describe the origins, purpose, objectives, and current status of the various Bank entities, including the Financial complex, Operations, Development Policy Staff, World Bank Group Staff Association, Secretary's Department, Legal Department, Central Projects Staff, External Relations, Compensation, and the Administration, Organization and Personnel Complex. Also included are briefings on the International Finance Corporation (IFC) and on Bank/Fund collaboration.

Regional briefings summarize the history and current status of development projects throughout the world. They are arranged by region, and then by country, and typically summarize the political background, economic structure, development policy, future prospects, and the Bank's role in development. Included are briefings on Europe; Eastern Africa Region; Western Africa Region; Europe, Middle East and North Africa (EMENA); East Asia and Pacific Region; South Asia Region; and Latin America and Caribbean Region.

The briefing on Operations prepared in 1986 for in-coming President Barber B. Conable provides an overview of the Operations Policy Staff and the Energy and Industry Staff. It also gives the history and status of Bank operations in EMENA, East Asia and Pacific, South Asia, West Africa, Eastern and Southern Africa.

The series includes background material dating back to 1970.

Chronological [outgoing] files

This series consists of copies of the outgoing letters and memoranda of George D. Woods and correspondence handled for President Woods by his personal assistants George C. Wishart and Rainer B. Steckhan. It includes correspondence sent on substantive issues of development assistance, memoranda to files, internal memoranda of the Bank and social and public relations messages.

Letters to foreign heads of state, government officials, banks, development institutions and academics regarding particular loans and projects, missions, technical assistance, bond issues and other sources of financing, and development policy issues are found in the series. Memoranda to files, usually written by Wishart, make a record of Woods' meetings with high-level government and business executives, focusing on important remarks and outcomes. Occasional Bank-internal memoranda, usually addressed to Vice Presidents and other high-level managers, concern such issues as staffing of the Economic Development Institute (EDI), defining the competencies of the technical operations and regional departments of the Bank with regard to project preparation, and procedures for establishing consultative groups.

The social and public relations letters express appreciation for invitations, hospitality, and for letters, publications and gifts received; express regret regarding invitations; offer congratulations; discuss arrangements for meetings and itineraries for travel; and provide letters of introduction.

Briefing papers

The majority of this series consists President George D. Woods' briefing papers for the annual meetings of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund Boards of Governors. The briefing papers for each annual meeting are organized by geographical region and thereunder by individual countries. The country sections contain background information on each country's economic and political situation (including occasional economic reports), the country's relations with the Bank, and lists of each member country's delegates at the annual meeting and the topics they are likely to raise. In the case of Africa and Latin America, there are also memoranda concerning the caucuses held by the countries in these regions and texts of remarks the President intended to deliver to them.

Also part of the series is a briefing file on the 57th session of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development in July 1965. Two small files contain briefs for visits to Argentina and Brazil.

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