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Records of the Office of External Relations Séries
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Speech reference collection

This series contains speeches made by Bank staff and, in lesser amounts, Bank consultants, Executive Directors, and government officials. These records were maintained by EXT staff as a reference collection. In addition to speeches, a small amount of similar materials are included, such as: talking points for speeches; transcripts of radio addresses, lectures, press conferences, and interviews; and a small number of published articles.

Note that, while one of EXT's responsibilities was to serve as speechwriter for the Bank President and other senior staff, there is no evidence of speechwriting activities contained in the records of this series. Additionally, EXT staff were regularly responsible for fielding requests for appearances and speeches by Bank Presidents and managing logistics related to those appearances; records related to these activities are likewise not included in this series.

Speeches of Bank Presidents

Speeches made by every Bank President from 1946 to 1999 are included. Presidential speeches contained in this series were delivered to a variety of audiences, both internally and externally, although the latter is more common. The most frequent audience is the Board of Governors at the Bank's Annual Meetings. Other external audiences include international organizations (including the United Nations and its various councils, divisions, and conferences), clubs, associations, and academic institutions.

The speeches of Bank Presidents contained in this series are often small pamphlet-sized publications. This is most commonly the case with the annual Address to the Board of Governors given at the Bank's Annual Meetings. Other formats include photocopies and press releases.

Only three speeches made by President Eugene Meyer are included in this series. Two of the speeches, both dating from 1946, are from: the Annual Meeting of the Academy of Political Science; and a dinner in honor of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund's (IMF) Boards of Governors. The third speech, from 13 January 1947, was given to the Canadian Club subsequent to Meyer's resignation as Bank President.

President John J. McCloy's speeches date from April 1947 to June 1949. In addition to speech transcripts and the scripts of two television programs McCloy participated in, the script for his three-part lecture given at John B. Stetson University in February 1949 is also included. Statements made by McCloy to the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations in January 1948 and the House Committee on Bank and Currency in May 1949 are also included.

The speeches of President Eugene Black date from 1947 to 1962. These include speeches from 1947 and 1948 made by Black while serving as the U.S. Executive Director to the Bank. In addition to his speeches, a single folder includes Bank press releases related to Black's appointment as President of the Bank and to other matters. A small number of photocopied magazine articles profiling Black are also included.

President George D. Woods' speeches date from January 1963 to May 1968. In addition to speeches, a small amount of Bank press releases related to Woods' appointment as Bank President as well as magazine articles related to Woods and the World Bank are included; the latter includes a copy of Forbes magazine dated 15 December 1963 featuring Woods on the cover. An article authored by Woods and published in Foreign Affairs magazine in January 1966 is also included.

The majority of President Robert S. McNamara's speeches are in published form and date from 1968 to 1981. Three speeches given by McNamara following his departure from the World Bank are also included: the Sir John Crawford Memorial Lecture (1 November 1985); the Africa Leadership Forum (21 June 1990); and the Annual Conference on Development Economics (25 April 1991).

President A. W. Clausen's speeches date from 1981 to 1986. Clausen's addresses to the Board of Governors are available in published pamphlet form as are a small number of other speeches. The remainder are photocopies.

President Barber Conable's speeches date from 1986 to 1991. Conable's addresses to the Board of Governors at the Annual Meetings from 1988 to 1990 include translations in a number of languages, including: Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, Spanish, Portuguese, German, and French.

President Lewis Preston's speeches date from 1991 to 1994. Only talking points are included for a number of his speeches.

President James D. Wolfensohn's speeches date from 1997 and are relatively few in number. Speeches are filed alongside those of other Bank staff and external political figures.

Bank staff (non-President) and other speeches

This series also contains speeches made by Bank Group staff (including International Finance Corporation [IFC] staff) and, in far less number, Bank consultants, Executive Directors of the Bank, country leaders and ministers, and other prominent external figures. The majority of the speeches are by International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) staff. Speeches date from 1946 to 1993. In addition to speeches, a small number of interview transcripts, statements, and published articles are included. In most cases, there are between one and three speeches per individual, although in the case of more senior staff, the number of items can exceed a dozen. Drafts of speeches are included, although in very small number. Translations of speeches are included for some speeches and in a few cases the speech exists only in a language other than English; in the case of the latter, the most common languages are French and Spanish.

Note that some speeches by senior External Relations staff that were filed alongside the speeches of other senior Bank staff are included in this series. These include speeches, lecture and press conference transcripts, speech notes (with hand-written annotations), and published articles dating from 1996 to 1999 by EXTVP Mark Molloch Brown.

EXT speechwriters' reference collection

A group of speeches maintained as reference copies by EXT speechwriters from 1981 to 1989 are also included in this series. Speeches made by Presidents Clausen and Conable are the most common in this collection. Conable's speeches from August 1987 to September 1989 are interfiled with speeches made by other senior Bank staff and prominent external figures. Conable's speeches, however, still make up the majority of the records during this period.

Photograph library

This series consists of photographs created by or for departments responsible for the external affairs function in the World Bank. The majority of the photographs included here were managed by Information and Public Affairs Department (IPA) staff responsible for the Photograph Library. Photographs were taken by Bank staff or were received from other sources, including contracted photographers, country representatives, among others. The Photo Library loaned or provided copies of photographs to external organizations, including publishing companies, newspapers, magazines, governments, and academic institutions. Photographs were also used in Bank publications and other promotional displays and projects in the World Bank Group headquarters and field offices.

This series contains an extensive collection of country photographs documenting project sites, and loan and credit signing events. The majority of these photos document International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and International Development Association (IDA) projects from 1946 to 2001, but projects financed by the International Finance Corporation (IFC) between 1962 and 1981 (predominant 1978-1980) are also represented. Country photos may also include images of cities, villages, dwellings, people, streets and markets, transportation, and water supply. Photographs documenting membership signings of the IDA and the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) are also included. The majority of these photographs are 8x10black and white prints mounted on cardboard, often with captions on the reverse. More recent images are 35mm color slides often contained in binders. Some of the IFC project images are black and white negatives.

Photographs of World Bank staff, including Bank Presidents, as well as Executive Directors are included in this series. Photographs are generally portraits but, in the case of senior staff and, especially, Bank presidents, images documenting activities, meetings, trips, and other important events are also included. Photographs are 8x10 black and white prints and are, in most cases, mounted on cardboard, occasionally with captions on the reverse.

Photographs of Bank-owned buildings, including those in Washington DC and, in lesser number, Paris, France, are included. Images are of building exteriors and also include building interiors and the office of President Robert McNamara. Photographs date from 1946 to 1982 and are black and white prints of various size, some of which are mounted on cardboard.

Photographs from the Bretton Woods Conference held at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire in July 1944 are also included. Photographs include images of various national delegations as well as notable attendees. A small number of group photos and photos of country representatives signing International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) Articles of Agreement are also included. Note that these photographs were originally taken by press sources and by the Office of War Information of the United States Government. Photographs are black and white prints of various size, some of which are mounted on cardboard with captions on the reverse.

Photographs documenting the Bank's Annual Meetings are also included in this series. These photographs show prominent guests, Bank staff, speakers, and events and are included for every year between 1946 and 1986 with the exception of 1976. Annual Meetings from 1994 to1996 and 1998 are also included. The majority of photographs are black and white prints of various size, some of which are mounted on cardboard with captions on the reverse. Some of the photographs from the 1990s are color prints or slides.

A small amount of textual records relating to the management of the photograph library and procurement of photographs are also included. These records, dating from 1959 to 1968, primarily relate to hiring photographers to travel to Bank member countries and photograph ongoing Bank-funded projects. Many of these contracts are with photographers represented by Black Star Publishing Co., Inc., in New York, New York. Much of the series contains correspondence with Black Star as well as with the photographers themselves discussing contracts, logistics, and related matters.

Textual records in this series also include correspondence between staff in the Bank's Information Department responsible for photograph lending and external correspondents representing publishing companies, academic institutions, international organizations, etc. Correspondence generally concerns requests and logistics related to the loan of photographs from the World Bank photo library. These records date from 1966 to 1968.

The series also contains single copies of the Bank publication "Loans at Work". Included are copies from 1950 through 1967 with the exception of 1951, 1956, and 1966. These publications, which provide country and regional lending information but primarily consist of photographs, were maintained by the Photo Library staff. Some of the publications contain annotations next to photographs indicating where in their library the photograph was stored.

Slides and black and white prints of images used in the 1984 to 1986 World Bank Group Annual Reports are also included in this series. A folder containing prints of diagrams and charts as well as a folder containing notes related to the creation and publication of the reports are are also included.

A small number of Photo Library brochures dating from 1983 and 1984 are also included in this series.

Media relations

The media relations series includes press releases disseminated by the World Bank Group relating to operations and activities from the founding of the World Bank in 1946 through 1995. Press releases of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), International Development Association (IDA), and the International Finance Corporation (IFC) are included in this series.

The series consists of IBRD numbered press releases relating to Bank Group operations and activities dating from 1946 to1995. Press releases document country membership admission to the Bank and announce staff appointments in various member countries and other promotions within the Bank. The majority of IBRD press releases relate to IBRD loans, including applications, agreements, and issuances. Other topics of press releases include organizational changes (including reorganizations, retirements, and staff and Executive Director appointments), country membership, bond issuances, Resident Mission developments, speeches by senior management, report publications, conference attendance, consultative group meetings, mission travel undertaken by senior management, and Spring and Annual meetings. Early press releases were numbered consecutively. Beginning in 1962, press releases were numbered according to the year of release. Numbered press releases are missing from the following years: 1982, 1983, 1985, and 1986.

Series also includes press releases relating to IDA operations and activities from its creation in 1960 to 1994. The majority of IDA press releases relate to the funding of projects through IDA credits. Other topics of press releases include organizational changes (including reorganizations, retirements, and staff appointments), country membership, IDA replenishments, consultative group meetings, conference attendance, and Spring and Annual meetings. The press releases are arranged consecutively by number from 1960 through December 1961, numerically by calendar year from 1962 to June 1976, and numerically by fiscal year from July 1976.

An index for IBRD and IDA press releases from 1946 to 1994 is included. Indexes provide a brief descriptive subject title along with press release number and date. A separate index for IDA records for the years 1962 to 1979 is also included and contains the same information.

A portion of IBRD and IDA press releases dating from 1946 to 1994 are unnumbered and arranged chronologically. Unnumbered press releases are included in the file indexes as "unnum" or "unnumbered" but are not filed withthe numbered press releases. Some press releases have published informational supplements attached; supplements originated in both the Bank and in other organizations.

The series also contains translations of some of the IBRD and IDA press releases from 1948 to 1994. French and Spanish translations are most common but translations into Chinese, German, Italian, Arabic, Japanese and Portuguese are also included. A number of smaller series of press releases dating from 1987 through 1994 that relate to specific World Bank agencies or topics are also included. The financial series describes general World Bank finances, currency issues, and bonds. The larger special series details World Bank presidents' visits to member countries, staff appointments, and new Bank initiatives. A small number of press releases from the early 1990s relate to the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), and the impact of development on particular US states export growth are also included.

The series also includes versions of speeches and addresses by Bank Group officials that were disseminated as press releases. These date from 1946 to 1965. The majority of the speeches are by Bank presidents Eugene Meyer, George Woods, and Robert McNamara. Speeches by other Bank officials include: J. Burke Knapp; Sir Denis Rickett; Mohamed Shoaib; Siem Alderweld; and Irving Freidman. These speeches include commencement addresses, Annual Meetings addresses to the Board of Governors, remarks during sessions of Economic and Social Council of the United Nations, and addresses to various bank associations and conferences.

The series also contains IFC press releases relating to operations and activities dating from 1956 to 1979. Topics include external operations as well as organizational changes, activities and events. Responsibility for writing and disseminating IFC press releases was the responsibility of various departments within the Information and Public Affairs Department (IPA) between IFC's creation in 1956 and 1979. In 1979, this activity was transferred to IFC's new Information Office. A small number of press releases dating from 1965 to 1974 include IPA correspondence relating to the authorship and dissemination of both press releases and photographs from the Bank's photograph library. These files are titled according to either the name of the company that received the investment or by country, thereunder by name of company.

The series also contains records relatingto press tours organized and facilitated by the Bank and governments and institutions of member countries. Press tours included media from around the world. Participants visited sites of projects funded by the Bank, partook in talks and discussions related to development, and met with government officials. Records include memoranda related to the planning of the trip, programs and itineraries, and background publications for participants.

Support and communications of the Office of the President and senior staff

The staff support and communications of the Office of the President and senior staff series includes records related to a variety of activities undertaken by External Relations (EXT) departments. These include: authoring correspondence for senior staff and Bank presidents; scheduling and managing logistics for media relations and speaking engagements; liaising with the press with regard to publication requests; and authoring briefing books for mission travel and meetings. This series contains records related to these activities in addition to subject and reference files.

Series contains records related to the authorship of correspondence for the Office of the President (EXC). The correspondence was authored for Bank Presidents Robert McNamara (1968 to 1981), A. W. Clausen (1981 to 1986), and Barber Conable (1986 to 1991). The records include correspondence received by EXC and forwarded to EXT for response. Forwarded correspondence is accompanied by EXC's forms for requests of action (i.e. author a response,file with EXT records, provide advice, etc.) Topics of correspondence are wide ranging and include: requests for interviews; invitations to conferences and meetings; research proposals; and letters of introduction.

Also included in this series are records related to the scheduling and logistics planning provided by EXT for media interviews in which Bank presidents participated. Records relate to interviews with Presidents McNamara and to a lesser extent, Conable. Records include: correspondence leading upto the interview; internal memoranda concerning logistics; proposed questions and answers; and a clipping or a full transcript of the actual interview. Records relate to print interviews with the Wall Street Journal, Newsweek, Washington Post, New York Times and Life magazine. Television interviews include the BBC, Italian television, and McNamara's appearance on NBC's Meet the Press in 1974. The records related to McNamara's Meet the Press appearance include preparation notes, transcripts from the episode, and correspondence from viewers.

Records relating to EXT's support of press conferences in which President Conable participated are also included. Records include transcripts of press conferences and press interviews for the years covering 1986 to 1989. Topics include: Bank's 1987 Reorganization; Annual Meetings; annual reports; the establishment of the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA); Bank policies on the environment; a 1988 loan package to Argentina; indebtedness; adjustment lending; and a 1989 loan package to Mexico. Series also includes records related to press conferences involving Sir William Ryrie (International Finance Corporation [IFC] Executive Vice President), Yoshio Terasawa (Executive Vice President of MIGA), and Ibrahim F. I. Shihata (World Bank Vice President).

Also included in this series are records related to the requests for speeches by Bank senior staff including the president. The majority of these records consist of correspondence with external organizations that are requesting participation by Bank staff in their conferences, meetings, and other events. In the cases where invitations were accepted, a transcript of the speech given is often included. In addition to requests to Presidents Black, Woods, and McNamara, requests are also made to a number of other World Bank vice presidents. A small amount of records related to World Bank policy with regard to speaking events is also included. Records date from 1950 to 1968.

Records relating to requests for article submission to periodicals and other publications are also included in this series. Records relate to requests made to Presidents Woods and McNamara. Records include correspondence with media representatives in which requests for articles are made. Records also relate to the submission of articles, including drafts (often with hand-written annotations) and final versions as well as correspondence with the publisher.

The series also includes records relating to logistical and program support for tours of member countries made by senior Bank staff including Presidents McCloy, Woods, and McNamara. Records date from 1947 to 1968 and consist of internal memoranda, correspondence (including invitations), and itineraries.

The series also contains briefing books prepared by EXT staff for President James Wolfensohn between 1996 and 2005 in support of his various trips and conferences. The briefing books include event background, speaking points, transcripts of speeches, meeting notes, agendas, itineraries, biographical and relevant information on meeting participants, and media biographies. Briefing papers relate to: Wolfensohn's visits to Geneva, Spain, and Switzerland; UN Special Representative Secretary General seminars; Annual Meeting seminars; and the 2002 Monterrey Mexico conference on development financing. There are also briefing papers and supporting materials for Wolfensohn and other staff members related to G-7 meetings from 1995 through 1997. A small number of briefing papers for Mats Karlsson (Vice President of External and United Nations Affairs [EXTUN]) covering 1999 to 2001 are also included.

The series includes recordings and transcripts (including physical and electronic formats) of President Wolfensohn's various internal addresses to staff. These include: high-level workshops, end of year messages, senior management meetings, townhalls, and, most voluminously, his semi-regular "journal" recordings that update staff on Bank operations and activities. This collection of speeches was to be included in Wolfensohn's online "Speech Bank" and incorporated into the Renewal website. The versions in this series were maintained by EXT as a reference collection.

Records also relate to EXT's involvement in the management of internal facing World Bank Group websites. Specifically, records relate to the creation of the Renewal website, a staff-focused resource providing updates on the 1997-1998 reorganization as well as other ongoing administrative and operational initiatives. Records include: email correspondence; materials related to the testing and creation of website content; reports created by the Planning and Budgeting Department; and printouts of pages from the Renewal site. The series also includes materials related to the creation and management of the EXC website from 1998 to 2000. These records include internal correspondence within the department for updates, requests for approval of information to be included on the website, drafts of page content, requests for images for website use, and printout copies of webpages.

The series also includes memoranda summarizing recommendations made by the Pearson Commission on International Development which investigated the effectiveness of the World Bank's first 20 years of operation. These memoranda, dated from 1969 to 1970 and authored by EXT staff for review by the Executive Directors, address specific topics such as education, population, economic reports, debt relief, and aid coordination. The memorandum has handwritten notes written on them by President McNamarato members of the Board.

Internal communication and staff engagement

This series consists of internal Bank staff publications and newsletters as well as photographs and negatives used in those publications. Also included are records relating to internal communications strategies. A small amount of records related to community relations programs is also included.

Records include copies of the various iterations of the World Bank's internal staff publications. These include: "International Bank Notes" (1947 - 1971); "Bank Notes" (1971 - 1981); and "Bank's World" (1982 - 2000). Series contains a full collection of these publications with only a few exceptions.

Bank newsletters started with the publication of International Bank Notes in 1947. International Bank Notes was published out of the Bank's Personnel Division. The newsletter was intended to foster a sense of community among staff and provide information of a personal nature to Bank staff rather than duplicating material from press releases and official memorandum. The publication highlights social events, marriages, births, and the arrival of new staff. It also reports on recreational events and offers favorite cooking recipes submitted by staff. The publication started out with a 2-page format but soon after transformed into a small booklet with photos. By the end of its run, International Bank Notes had a more polished look and tone including a table of contents, multi-page interviews with Bank staff, and articles about Bank activities and projects. International Bank Notes Supplements were also published in six monthintervals. These were subtitled "Introducing New Professional Staff", and include a biography and picture of new staff.

In 1971 the staff newsletter publication function was moved to the Information and Public Affairs (IPA) Department and was renamed Bank Notes. It took on a larger physical format with the look and feel of a newspaper. Its content, however, did not change significantly. In addition to the combination of staff- and operations-focused content, the publication included a Bank Calendar of upcoming social events and meetings, a column entitled Women's Information and Volunteer Service (or "WIVES"), a Cross Currents page containing classified ads, as well as humor and food columns.

The next and final version of the physical staff newsletter was titled Bank's World. It was a glossy color magazine and was published from 1982 through 2000. Each issue included a cover story article, articles about development projects, reports from various Country Departments, and a new column called AnswerLine that provided answers to questions of broad interest concerning the Bank Group's policies and procedures. Other features included multipage in-depth articles called On the Record which were often written by the Bank President and a space entitled Around the Bank which detailed news from Executive Directors and Vice Presidents. Some issues have indexes of stories. A special June/July 1987 issue titled The Reorganized Bank: Managers and Senior Staff is also included. In 2000 the print version of "Bank's World" was discontinued and replaced with an online intranet version called "Bank's World Today".

An index of articles in these three publications from 1947 to 1993 is also included.

The series also includes photographs and negatives from 1952 through 1983 that were created for use in staff newsletter publications. Image formats consist of negatives, transparencies, prints, and color photocopies of photographs taken or acquired by the Bank's Photolab. It also includes photographs of projects, staff events, headquarters' activities, and staff portraits.

The series also contains a variety of other newsletter-type publications intended for Bank staff. This includes copies of "Report - News of the World Bank Group" from 1973 to 1982, complete except for a small number of missing issues. The publication was produced by the IPA and the Publications Department (PUB) for both internal and external audiences. It provided general news of economic development as well as reports on World Bank Group activities.

There are also printouts of "Updates on the Bank Renewal" (or its informal name "Manager's Updates"), an electronic newsletter that was produced and sent bi-monthly by the Chief of Internal Communications from June 20, 1997 to December 1998. The updates shared Bank-wide news from the Board; summaries of the President and Managing Directors' town halls and senior management meetings; and progress on change initiatives.

Also included is a newsletter created by the Development Services Department (DSD) that was intended to be sent to field staff to keep them abreast of current activities in the Bank such as Bank membership, borrowing, IDA financing, and staff and organizational news. While DSD existed from 1961 to 1973, this series only includes issues of the DSD newsletter from 1966 to 1973; it is unclear if the Department published this newsletter prior to 1966.

Also included in this series are copies of the EXT-produced Development News Weekly Supplement from 1981 to 1990 and Development News Daily Summary from 1995 to 1998. Both are bound collated supplements of external press clippings related to the Bank and its activities. The articles range from governmental news, various developmental projects, and financial activities of the Bank.

Records related to EXT's internal communication support and engagement activities from 1988 to 1999 are also included. Records document communication strategies developed for internal programs and change initiatives as well as the dissemination of information and documentation about the initiatives, and research methods measuring staff response to initiatives. Internal communication records include correspondence and other materials primarily created by Internal Communications Division Chief, Rachel Weaving, and other senior staff. There are emails and facsimiles sent between the division and EXT Director, Managing Director's staff and other Bank departments. Correspondence is filed with summaries of Bank meetings given by the Bank Group President and global offices or meetings led by other senior staff, draft outlines, statements and emails, questionnaires and surveys, reports, external reference material, briefing material for senior management, and handwritten notes.

Many records relate to the 1997 Bank-wide reorganization and the 1997 Staff Survey and follow-up, as well as the Bank's 1997 Strategic Compact, a reform and renewal plan intended to increase Bank efficiency and effectiveness. There are files, 4 audiocassettes and a floppy disk relating to Managing Director Sandstrom's Open Forum, February to October 1997.

Other records relating to internal communications include: the development of a comprehensive Bank-wide communications strategy for fiscal year 1989; logistics and communications for Annual Meetings including briefings and broadcasting; 11-17 Network Launch and its steering committee; Knowledge Management Board (KMB); Human Resources Reform and Cost-Effectiveness; and photograph displays and exhibits including a World Bank mission photograph exhibit at the Bank and IFC between 1998 and 1999 and the Greening the Bank fair and exhibit. The exhibit files contain copies of emails, facsimiles, copies for displays, working documents, and reference material related to planning and content creation for the Bank exhibits.

A small volume of records related to Bank community relations programs are also included in this series. Records consist of administrative materials for charity programs such as the United Way campaign and other charitable fundraisers.

Communications with financial and business community

Series consists of records relating to communications with those members of the business and financial community that might support, invest in, or seek information about the Bank. These include financial institutions such as regional banks and the Federal Reserve district banks as well as the financial editors of newspapers. Most of the series is comprised of records belonging to William Bennett, the Bank's Financial Relations Advisor within the Information and Public Affairs Department (IPA) from 1949 to 1978. Bennett came to the Bank in 1949 as a Financial Editor on loan from the New York Herald Tribune to help publicize the Bank and assist with the rating services assessing the quality of the Bank's securities. That same year he was offered a full-time position and would remain with the Bank in IPA until 1978.

Records include the chronological files and "Loan Books" of William Bennett related to Bank operations from 1947 to 1971 and Bank bond issues from 1947 to 1965. Records consist of: press releases; statement of loans and credits; official memoranda; correspondence with various city and national newspapers; internal memoranda with other Bank staff members; and articles and speeches. "Loan Books" cover the dates from 1954 to 1971 and relate to the lending operations of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), International Development Agency (IDA), and International Finance Corporation (IFC). Loan Books include current lists of country assignments, summaries of loan amounts, monthly operational summaries, and notices of significant decisions and loan approvals.

This series also contains Bennett's collection of published articles authored by Bank staff and externally. Articles relate to the World Bank and Bank-funded projects. Topics include the history of the Bank, international economic situation predominantly from the 1950s through the 1960s, the Bank's role in the economy, and description of Bank projects. Articles are in a variety of languages and appear in a variety of scholarly, specialized, and popular publications. Many of the articles are authored by Bank officials including Presidents John McCloy, Eugene Black, and George Woods. William Bennett also authored some of the articles. Articles often include typescript drafts as well as the published versions. The articles are in various formats, including pamphlets, clippings, and portions of magazines. These records date from 1946 through 1977.

Reference materials related to foreign and international bonds and equities for the years 1972 to 1976 are also included. Records include summaries of foreign and international bonds in multiple formats covering various annual and quarterly periods. Summaries of ammortization are also included.

This series contains records dating from 1965 to 1977 that relate to information seminars sponsored by the Bank offered to economic and financial experts. The purpose of the seminars was to explain the Bank's mission and operations. These experts included high ranking banking officials, retirement and pension fund operators, state level financial leaders, and prominent business leaders. The series includes guest lists, acceptances and regrets correspondence, memoranda on event plans between EXC and EXT, and correspondence related to participation at past and future seminars. Formal event programs and dinner menus are also included.

Publishing

This series contains records relating to the World Bank's publication function while it was located in or reported to the Bank's External Relations unit or its predecessors. The Bank's earliest publication activities occurred in the Public Relations Department from 1947 to 1955; a division dedicated to the publications of Bank-authored materials was established in 1949. With the termination of the Public Relations Department in 1955, the Bank's publishing function was transferred to the new Information Department (INFO). The publication of Bank-authored and Bank-sponsored materials increased rapidly over the subsequent decade. The publishing function was moved to the new Information and Public Affairs Department (IPA) in 1968 where it remained through 1980. In that year it was removed from IPA and upgraded to a separate department called the Publications Department (PUB); it reported to various iterations of the External Affairs Vice Presidency through 1992. In that year, PUB was downgraded to a division, but continued to report to the External Affairs Department.

The Bank's publications function is responsible for the publication of Bank-authored and, in some cases, Bank-sponsored informational materials for a variety of audiences, including: the broader public (speeches, regional and country booklets, press releases, fact sheets, informational pamphlets, educational materials); members and partners (Annual Report, World Development Report, Policies and Operations, various guidelines and handbooks); development practitioners (sector papers, Country Economic Reports, occasional papers); and the academic community (monographs and articles). Its activities have generally involved: selection of Bank-authored materials for publication; editing and design of publications; supervision of the production process; and promotion, marketing and distribution of Bank publications throughout the world.

Records relating to the publication and distribution of Bank-authored and Bank-sponsored materials include correspondencerelating to the various phases of the publication cycle. Correspondence is between the publishing unit and various stakeholders including: authors, relevant Bank units, external publishers and distributors, and members of the public or organizations. Correspondence relates to: submission of manuscripts; editing of manuscripts; translation of manuscript; solicitation of comments on drafts; determining the design aspects of the publications; budgeting matters; and marketing and distribution of publications. Records relating to editorial activities include drafts of manuscripts and page proofs that were published by the Bank; records relating to manuscripts that were reviewed for publication but ultimately not published by the Bank are also included. Records are primarily grouped into folders based on publication title. A small number of folders from the 1970s are titled by activity (budget, translation, etc.) or publication type (sector papers, country economic reports, etc.). Subject files relating to specific publication topics or authors are also included as are chronological files relating to publishing activities of a number of IPA staff: Donald Pryor (1973-9174); Brian J. Svikhart (1974-1976); and Goddard G. Winterbottom (1974-1976).

Records relating to the editorial decision-making and selection process of the Bank's Publication Committee are also included in this series. The Publication Committee was established in 1957 by President Black to develop and review policies and procedures with respect to the preparation, editing, approval and production of Bank publications. However, the committee's proceedings were, at least initially, devoted almost entirely to the consideration of specific proposals for publication submitted by staff including, especially, the Economic Development Institute. In addition to the director of the Information and Public Affairs Department (IPA), the committee members included vice presidents and department heads from throughout the Bank, including operations, EDI, administration, and the economics (or research) department. Records relating to the Publication Committee date from 1957 to 1978 and include meeting agendas and minutes as well as correspondence supporting the work of the committee.

This series also contains a large amount of material published by the Bank and maintained by publishing units as reference. These include: a copy of each World Bank Annual Report published between 1946 and 2003; copies of Annual Meeting Summary Proceedings from 1950 to 1991; and Development News - Daily Summary/Weekly Supplement from 1994 to 1999. A collection of "Finance and Development" is also included. "Finance and Development" was published quarterly by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) from June 1964 until June 1998 when the IMF became the sole publisher. English, Spanish, French and German language issues are included. Also included is a reference collection of "World Bank Loans at Work" for the years 1950 through 1967 except for a few missing issues. The publication was created for an external audience and contain photographs and descriptions of a variety of World Bank projects. Published versions of the World Bank Staff Working Papers series published between 1976 and 1986 are also included.

The series also contains a small amount of educational materials authored by the World Bank Group. The materials, which date from 1984 to 1986, were developed for secondary schools with the title "Toward a Better Tomorrow." Records include textual guides and reference materials as well as five film strips.

Records from a bibliographic project undertaken in 1970 are also included. The project aimed to compile a list of all Bank publications from 1946 to 1973. Records related to the bibliography include publication lists containing publication titles, dates, translations, quantities and distribution numbers for each publication. Other supporting material is also included although a final version of the bibliography is not.

Liaison with external organizations

karThis series contains records relating to the World Bank's liaison with external organizations. Records in this series originated in the various units responsible for liaison with external organizations in the External Relations department/vice presidency. However, due to records management practices in the Bank between 1946 and 1978, some of the records in this series originated in departments other than those focused exclusively on liaison activities. This is described in more detail below. Also note that, beginning in 1987, most of the liaison functions in the Bank were removed from the External Relations vice presidency for two brief periods: 1987 to 1990, and 1993 to 2002. Please see the Administrative History field in the Records of the Office of External Relations fonds description for more information on the organizational history of the liaison function in the Bank. Also see the Related Units of Description field below for the location of those post-1987 records related to the liaison function created in units outside of External Relations that are not contained in this series.

This series consists of records that were classified as "liaison files" or "United Nations liaison files" in the Bank's 'General' or 'Central' filing systems. These records date from 1946 to 1978 (with the exception of 1969 to 1971; please see Related Units of Description below). While records classified in this manner originated in departments from across the Bank (including the Office of the President), the majority of the 'General' and 'Central' files originated in the Technical Assistance and Liaison Staff (TAL, 1946-1961), Development Services Department (DSD, 1961-1973), and International Relations Department (IRD, 1973-1978).

Note that, from the beginning of the Bank's General Files classification system in 1946, "liaison files" and "United Nations liaison files" were classified separately. This likely occurred because the Bank's relationship with the UN and its agencies was more involved than with any other external organization. In 1964, as the Bank's collaboration with the UN in fields like agriculture and education was increasing, the Bank created a separate position called the Special Representative to the United Nations within DSD separate from staff responsible for liaison with non-UN external organizations. In 1965 the Special Representative moved to New York and opened an office at the United Nations headquarters. In 1978 a second World Bank UN Office was opened in Geneva, Switzerland.

Both the "liaison files" or "United Nations liaison files" consist of communications with external organizations with whom the Bank had a relationship. Organizations include governmental and international agencies, development banks, religious groups, academic institutions, and private foundations. Records relating to communications with the United Nations and its many agencies (United Nations Development Program [UNDP], Food and Agriculture Organizations [FAO], etc.) are the most voluminous in this series. The volume of records relating to communications with non-UN organizations and governments can be sizable (the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development [OECD] or the United States government and its legislators, for example) or as small as a single folder.

The most common correspondence in this series are invitations to or requests for participation in meetings, conferences, seminars, workshops, training courses, and similar events. In addition to correspondence with external organizations, records related to event participation and coordination also include internal memoranda, Terms of Reference, back-to-office reports, meeting agendas, conference programs, and press releases.

Records relating to collaboration or partnership on joint projects, research, and missions are also common, particularly in those records relating to the UN and its agencies. These records are generally limited to work program development, information sharing,and logistical planning. The records also relate to the exchange of information (including mission schedules, policy proposals, sector studies, etc., most of which are not included with the correspondence), and request for comment.

The Bank-wide 'General' and 'Central' filing practice was discontinued in 1978, and a new Non-Regional Information Center (NRIC) was created to manage records created by non-operational units including the External Relations' International Relations Department (IRD). Unlike therecords of the 'General' and 'Central' files, records from the NRIC, which existed from 1978 to 1986, and those subsequently transferred to the World Bank Group Archives directly from units responsible for external liaison include only those that originated in units responsible for the function. The exceptions are those records that were shared with these departments by other Bank units. Note that most of the records relating to external liaison that were created while the external liaison function was housed outside of the External Relations Vice Presidency from 1987 to 1990 and 1993 to 2002 are included. To locate those arranged in other fonds, please see the Related Units of Description field below.

Topics contained in the NRIC and subsequent records are similar to those in the 'General' or 'Central' files, but with some additions. Beginning around 1980, the Bank's engagement with non-governmental organizations (NGOs) intensified. Records relating to the Bank's communication and collaboration with NGOs as well as the development of policy for interacting with NGOs are contained in this series. Likewise, records relating to the Bank's interaction with civil society also become more numerous throughout the 1980s and 1990s.

Records relating to external meeting and conference attendance are also included as are records related to external liaison staff's participation in World Bank Group spring and annual meetings. Background and briefing materials for senior Bank management prepared by EXT units responsiblefor meetings with external organizations are contained in this series. Many of these briefing materials were prepared for World Bank Group presidents Lewis Preston, James Wolfensohn, Paul Wolfowitz, and Robert Zoellick. Finally, a small amount of records relating to the organization and management of the units responsible for external liaison over time, including the New York and Geneva offices, are contained in this series. These records primarily relate to staff retreats where strategy and work programs were developed.

Records relating to the Bank's European field office in Paris, France, are also included in this series. The records date from 1949, when Drew Dudley, Director of Public Relations for Europe, arrived in Paris, to 1980. The records of the European office relate to its primary role as Bank representative to European governments, central banks and other financial institutions, international organizations, and the European media, academic institutions, and business community. Records also relate to other activities, including the arrangement for the sale of Bank securities in Europe, carrying out information programs, and performing administrative functions. Records consist of correspondence with Bank staff, including Bank presidents, in Washington, DC. Topics include logistical matters, reports on meetings, and exchange of information.

Records relating to the Tokyo office, which opened in November 1970, are also included in this series. The office was concerned with facilitating liaison between the Bank and the Japanese government and the Japanese financial community. It also served as a source of information for the Japanese press and public. Tokyo office records date from 1974 to 1975 and relate to communications with the Japanese government and media, administrative functions, and information exchange and publication.

The series also contains records from 1983 to 1987 relating to general policy and analysis undertaken by IRD in support of liaison with NGOs and other external organizations. Records relate to food security, poverty, debt, and the environment and contain reports, internal memoranda, communications with external organizations, logistical plans for meetings, and back-to-office reports.

The series also contains thematic subject files created and used by EXT units responsible for liaison with external organizations. Topics include gender, human rights, indigenous peoples, partnerships, structural adjustment, private sector investment, etc. These types of records generally date from the 1980s through 2010 and contain a variety of materials, such as: correspondence and internal memoranda; conference materials; and external publications.

The records of the World Bank's Grant Committee are also contained in this series. In 1981, the Bank's system for making grants to development institutions and conferences was streamlined and consolidated within the External Relations Department. From 1981 to 1987, IRD provided the staff for the roles of chairman and secretary. Records include meetingminutes, internal memoranda, and correspondence with external organizations relating to their requests for funding. Records date from 1981 to 1987 and 1990 to 1993.

Records related to the Robert S. McNamara Fellowship Fund are also included in this series. The fund was proposed in 1981 and awarded its first fellowships in 1983. Records relate to the setting up of the fund, raising funds from Bank members, the establishment of a selection committee, and the awarding of fellowships. Records date from 1981 to 1986.

Unit budgeting and administration

Series contains records related to the budgeting and administration of the Office of the Vice President and its departments responsible for the external relations function in the World Bank. Records are predominantly from the 1970s and 1990s and include outgoing memoranda, reports, handwritten notes and ledger sheets in preparation for fiscal year business planning. The series also contains memoranda and notes relating to personnel administration and budget correspondence files of Information and Public Affairs (IPA) Directors Lars J. Lind (1967 to 1972), and John Merriam (1973 to 1974), which provides contextual information about IPA's organization and activities.

Technical assistance

The series contains records relating to technical assistance projects that were managed by the International Relations Department's Technical Assistance Division (TAD) and its predecessors. The functions of technical assistance coordination and United Nations liaison were the responsibility of the Technical Assistance and Liaison Department (TAL) from 1946 to 1961. TAL was terminated in 1961 and these functions were transferred to the Technical Assistance Division (TAD) of the Development Services Department and subsequently to the External Relations Vice Presidency as part of the newly formed International Relations Department (IRD) in 1973. Records in this series are predominantly from 1973 to 1983.

The majority of the records in this series relate to technical assistance projects that are almost entirely funded by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) or its predecessor, the UN Special Fund (UNSF), but administered and executed by the Bank. A very small portion of the series relates to technical assistance directly supporting Bank Group lending operations.

Records document TAD and its successor TAL's role in coordinating technical assistance between the Bank's operating departments and UNDP and UN or, for Bank-funded projects, between project consultants and Bank departments. Records consists of correspondence and supporting documents that cover the appraisal and negotiation of proposed projects in addition to the project's administration. Topics include: payments and use of funds; budget revisions; TA consultants contract arrangements; and project evaluation and reporting.

Correspondence is between TAD and the respective World Bank regional or sector departments or vice presidencies, UNDP and other UN officials, senior government officials, and project manager consultants and includes copies of outgoing memoranda, letters, telexes and cables. The correspondence is filed with project documents and includes: proposals and plan of operation; contracts; externally-produced reports, many issued by UNDP; Bank project evaluation draft reports and final reports; newspaper clippings; and occasionally plans and diagrams. A portion of country files that are labelled 'Miscellaneous' contain correspondence and supporting proposals for projects requested by the government for UNDP assistance and were sent by UNDP officials for Bank comment.

Also included in the series are IRD correspondence files relating to general technical assistance administration and procedures. Records include copiesof outgoing memoranda between IRD senior staff including Director Shirley Boskey and successor Shahid Javed Burk as well as TAD Chief Vincent J. Riley, senior advisors, and other Bank staff. Some correspondence is authored by IRD Directors or other senior staff to be sent by World Bank President McNamara or Clausen, or Vice President of External Relations Jose Botafogo. A portion of the correspondence is also with external bodies including UNDP officials. Series also contains semi-annual reports on the Bank's technical assistance activities and other ad hoc reports as well as files related to UNDP's annual General Council meetings (1975-1976).

Although the technical assistance function was transferred from IRD to the regional vice presidencies in 1981, a few correspondence files in this series extend to 1986 and reflect IRD's continuing function in advising on operational activities with UNDP and UN bodies. Files from this period contain copies of outgoing memoranda and reports about technical assistance projects managed by UNDP, discussion of the relationship of technical assistance advisors with UN Resident Coordinators, and communication on country projects as well as a copy of World Bank Technical Paper WTP23 "Twinning of Institutions: Its Use as a Technical Assistance Delivery System", released in 1984.

External communication and production

Series contains sound recordings and films intended for public audiences that promote the World Bank Group or provide information about its operations. The series also contains a small amount of textual records relating to the production and distribution of films and radio programs by the External Relations (EXT) Vice Presidency and its predecessors. In most cases, EXT units were responsible for producing the material for radio, film and television.

The Bank's Public Relations Department (PRD) began producing documentary films about the Bank's work in 1951. These early films were circulated broadly to movie theaters, television stations, schools, universities, and adult discussion clubs. These earliest films are not contained in this series, presumably because they were discontinued after 2 to 3 years in circulation and may have been destroyed by the Office of Information.

With regard to radio programs, PRD's successor, the Office of Information (INFO), began creating and distributing recorded interviews with or speeches by Bank staff or senior country officials in 1955. These segments were used and distributed by the United Nations and carried to numerous radio stations in the United States.

The series is predominantly comprised of documentary or informational videos produced or co-produced by World Bank for international television media outlets or for development education. Videos date from 1984 to 2005 but are mostly from 1990 to early 2000. They document: development activities in various countries; interviews with government officials, citizens and workers; and raw footage shot in various countries including city, village and industrial scenes. Themes and topics include: first loans signed; Uganda education reform; industry in Russia; the aftermath of the 2005 tsunami in Asia; World Bank corporate videos; Young Professionals program; and World Development Report press briefings.

There is also a large volume of videos of the Bank's Public Service Announcements (PSAs) from 1997 to 2004, produced for television broadcasting, several of which aired on CNN (Cable News Network). Most of the PSAs are compilations and relate to more than one topic on each video. They cover issues such as governance, global hunger, the environment and sustainability, natural disasters, safe motherhood, AIDS, water, GEF, reconstruction in Bosnia, the southeast Asia financial crisis, transparency, slum upgrading, tropical diseases, and disability. Some of the individual item titles in the inventory do not indicate that they are PSA but were identified as such by relating their titles to others in the PSA inventory. PSA videos are primarily in English but also include Arabic, French, Chinese, Spanish, Russian, and numerous other languages.

The series also contains joint-productions of the Bank including Staying Alive and two sequels, a documentary produced in partnership with UNAIDS and MTV (Music Television) that launched on World AIDS day, December 1, 1998. There are also several videos relating to the GlobalLinks documentary series produced by World Bank Institute (WBI) for educational purposes that was also licensed to broadcast on television, as well as the Azimuths video series, a co-production with United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the Information and Public Affairs Department's Production Services Section.

The series also contains film reels (predominantly 16mm) created in 1980 to 1985 and which relate to the work of the Bank. Titles include: Plague Upon the Land; Dandora; Seeds of Progress; Reflections on the 21st Century; Development is People; IDA; Neighborhood of Coelhos; The World Bank; and World Bank Trade Women. Some films such as Plague Upon the Land, Dandora, and The World Bank were translated into multiple languages. There are copies of some of the film titles that were transferred to the archives with the masters.

The series also includes a small number of films developed around 1984 to 1986 about the World Bank and development issues geared toward secondary school or higher education audiences. Titles include: Toward a Better World; Some Big Questions; Many Steps, One Goal; and What Happens When a Desert Blooms.

The series also contains sound recordings, primarily audio reels of radio broadcasts from 1970 to 1979 produced by the Radio Services Unit of Information and Public Affairs (IPA). The bulk of the sound recordings are Special Reports, a program about World Bank activities, announcements of loans for country projects, Bank Annual Reports and development trends, and interviews of Bank staff. Special Reports also feature excerpts of President McNamara speaking at Annual Meetings and his speeches and addresses while visiting various countries or attending ministerial or UN meetings. Other radio programs from this period include Africa Today, Progressive Asia, Finance and Development, Pioneros del Siglo, and Comments from the Inside. These recordings also feature news about World Bank loans and development initiatives in various countries and other economic and social development issues. British film actor, barrister and World Bank consultant Paul Danquah is featured in the various broadcasts as interviewer or host as are other IPA senior staff including Peter L. Chatenay, Garry Lightowler, and Pastor B. Siston.

The earliest sound recordings dating 1955-1967 comprise the Mallon Series interviews on World Bank and country development activities. Topics discussed include the building of a new railroad through Rhodesia and electric power plant in the Brazilian jungle (1955). There are also sound recordings narrating IPA Advisor William Bennett's flight from Egypt (1967). More recent radio broadcasts in the series include Challenges on World Development (1980) focused on rural development issues and two audio reels entitled The African Dilemma (1991). Most of the radio broadcasts are in English, but a considerable amount are also translated into several other languages. Arabic, Spanish and French are the other predominant languages.

Textual records in this series consist of original letters, copies of outgoing memoranda, and cables addressed to and sent by the Director or senior staff of IPA and its predecessors, PRD and INFO between 1951 to 1974. The correspondence primarily relates to the production, distribution and use of the earliest Bank films such as Power Changes Mexico (1951), India Fights Kans (1952), and On the Road (1955) as well as television broadcasts. Although some files are labelled "TV and Radio" there is very little information about the Bank's radio programs and broadcasting. Correspondence is authored by Directors Harold N. Graves and William Clark, Lars Lind, Public Affairs Chief David C. Fulton, and Tom Noone of the Office of Information, and addresses production and broadcast company executives, United Nations information officers, and government officials. Topics include: planning and budgeting of films; contracts with film production and distribution companies; technical production and editing; costs of printing for distribution; collaboration with USID (United States Information Agency), the National Council of Churches in Canada and ABC television; and occasional requests for interviews or television appearances from President McNamara or Vice President Garner. Correspondence occasionally includes attachments such as brochures, articles, and tables or figure sheets relating to budgets and audience screenings. A file containing the script and proposal for the development of the World Bank film Bank at Work (1957) is also included. The correspondence is in English, French, German, Spanish.

Documentation of institutional meetings, press conferences, and other events

Series contains sound recordings and videos created by External Relations and its predecessor units documenting World Bank meetings and other events organized, sponsored, or attended by Bank units. The series primarily contains audio reels of Annual Meeting speeches by Bank Presidents, Governors and world leaders as well as various Annual Meetings sessions. These materials date from 1954 to 1999. Records from Annual Meetings from the years 1955, 1961, 1964 and 1967 are missing from this series. Audio reelsof consultative group, consortia, and aid meetings, from 1965 to 1980, are also included.

The series also contains a collection of recorded speeches, press conferences, and interviews, primarily of Bank Presidents but also featuring other Bank staff. These audio reels cover the period 1956 to 1987. Speeches given by President McNamara are the most common, but Presidents Clausen, Conable, Woods, and Black also appear in the recordings. There are audio reels recording President Black's television addressto the National Farm Institute in 1956 and a press conference in April 1957.

Other sound recordings consist of speeches given by various Bank staff, including Vice President Robert L. Garner, at conferences, seminars, and other forums, audio reels relating to the Orangi Pilot Project in Pakistan which was launched in 1980, and audio cassettes of various Bank press conferences from 1997 to 1999.

Videos included in this series contain Bank Presidents' speeches, addresses, press conferences, and interviews covering the period 1985 to 2010 but are predominantly from President Wolfensohn's tenure from 1995 to 2005. Videos include: speeches and press conferences at Annual Meetings by Presidents Conable, Preston, Wolfensohn, Wolfowitz and Zoellick; World Development Report (WDR) press conferences; town halls; President Wolfensohn's speeches and addresses given at high-level meetings, conferences, or trips to countries; and international media interviews of Bank presidents. Other videos document interviews with other World Bank staff. A small number of videos relate to orientation for new staff (1988) and proceedings of meetings such as Second Africa Regional Workshop on Harmonization, Alignment and Results for Development Effectiveness (2004), and the Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics (ABCDE) in 2006.

External Relations Vice President and Director records

Series contains records of the front offices of External Relations Vice Presidency (EXTVP) and Directors of EXT units and EXT predecessor units, including Development Services Department (DSD). EXTVP records include chronological and subject files documenting the unit's strategic management of World Bank Group's communications and relationships with donor countries, international organizations, media, and the private sector as well as internal communication within the Bank.

Records include the chronological files of Mark Malloch Brown, 1994 to 1999, while he was first Director of External Affairs (1994-1995) and then Vice President when EXT was elevated again to a Vice Presidency in January 1996. Chronological files of Brown's successor, Vice President Mats Karlsson, date from 1999 to 2001. Both Vice Presidents chronological files contain copies of outgoing memoranda, letters and printed emails, often with attached incoming letters, facsimiles, reports and external documents. Many of the files also contain the Vice Presidents' handwritten notes and drafts of replies. Correspondence addressees include Managing Director Sven Sandstrom and other Bank senior staff as well as representatives and senior officials of various United Nations (UN) agencies and other international organizations. Chronological files document the day to day management of the Bank-wide external relations program, including the arrangement of speaking engagements and meetings, notes and statements drafted for President Wolfensohn, and cooperation with UN agencies including comments on external papers and collaboration on development operations.

Other chronological files included in the series are those of: Rachel Weaving (Chief, EXT Internal Communications Division) dating from 1998 to 1999; Judith Maguire (Senior Advisor to the EXT Vice President) dating from 1996 to 1998; J. William Stanton (Senior Advisor to the EXT Vice President) dating from 1992 to 1994; and Timothy Cullen (various EXT positions including Senior Advisor to EXT Vice President and Chief of Information and Public Affairs) dating from 1980 to 1999.

Subject files included in this series date from 1984 to 2003. The majority were created and accumulated between 1994 and 2003 by Vice Presidents Mark Malloch Brown (1994-1999), and Mats Karlsson (1999-2003). Other subject files were created by Tim Cullen when he was Senior Advisor, EXTVP responsible for media (1996-1999) and also between 1989 and 1993 when he was Chief, Information and Public Affairs.

With one exception, the subject files in this series were created beginning in 1984. The files between 1984 and 1994 were created primarily by Alexander Shakow while he was Senior Adviser, International Relations Department (1984-1987) then Director, Strategic Planning and Review Department (SPR) (1987-1990) until SPR's termination in 1990 after which Shakow became Director of External Affairs Department (EXT) around July 1990. A small portion of the subject files from this period were also created by the International Relations Department (IRD) Director's Office under Shahid Javed Burki and IRD's United Nations Affairs unit.

EXTVP subject files cover the broad range of the office's responsibilities and are filed by organization or institution, country, region, issue or theme. Files document activities including: the front office's comments on papers; information about Bank and joint meetings; the Vice President's advice and support to the Bank President regarding Bank publicity; development of communications strategies and communication plans including responses prepared for the Bank on sensitive or politically-charged topics and planning and execution of campaigns on Bank-wide issues and outreach; writing, or clearance, of letters to the editor of major publications relating to articles involving the Bank; internal communications products such as Bank's World, and communications support for the Bank-wide change initiatives; internal publications; film and video projects; administration and organization of EXT and its units; Annual Meeting preparations and drafting of the meeting speech for President; and the Bank's relationships with UN institutions including United Nations Development Program (UNDP), United Nations Exchange Program, United Nations Foundation, and other intergovernmental or international institutions such as International Monetary Fund (IMF), International Labor Organization (ILO), World Trade Organization (WTO), Oxfam, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The more voluminous subject files includecorruption, dams and the World Conference on Dams, IDA lending and replenishments, poverty, debt and the Heavily Indebted Countries Initiative (HIPC), Group of Seven (G7) summits, the Chad-Cameroon pipeline project; and planning of events and publicity for the Bank's 50th anniversary in 1994.

Subject files contain correspondence including copies of outgoing memoranda, emails and facsimiles, as well as original memoranda, and incoming letters. Addressees include EXTVP staff and EXT senior staff inthe European offices and Tokyo, Bank President and Vice Presidents, Managing Directors, country or sector directors, other Bank senior staff, and external organizations. The correspondence is often attached to final and draft papers, draft letters and statements, talking points, concept notes, reports and memoranda authored by UN agencies, articles, press releases, press clippings, transcripts, and handwritten notes of the Vice President.

Subject files also document the Vice President's input provided to the Bank President and drafting of statements or letters to be sent by the President, or briefing material for the President or occasionally Managing Directors.

Correspondence between EXTVP and EXT European and Tokyo offices primarily relates to visits of delegations, summaries of meetings attended by Bank President or EXT senior staff, relations with external organizations, feedback from member countries (on IDA and G7), and the Bank's coverage in the press or summaries of press conferences attended by EXT personnel.

There are also files relating to EXTVP retreats that took place in 1996 to 1997 and a 1988 press briefing speech by EXT Director Francisco J. Aguirre-Sacasa, as well as five photographs of World Bank-Switzerland signing agreement in April 1997 attended by President James Wolfensohn.

Among the earlier records of the series are those of William Clark who served as Director of Information and Public Affairs from 1967 to 1973 while reporting to the Development Services Department (DSD) and then as Director of External Affairs from 1973 to 1974 in the newly established External Affairs Staff (ERS) complex following the Bank's 1973 reorganization. When External Affairs was elevated to the status of a Vice Presidency in 1974, William Clark was promoted to Vice President, External Affairs (VPE). Clark's records relate to the Pearson Commission on International Development from 1968 to 1970 and include correspondence on the selection of Commission members, copies of statements of various national and international development agencies, as well as a copy of the President's memoranda on the report's recommendations.

Clark's records related to the Independent Commission on International Development Issues, also known as the Brandt Commission, date from 1976 to 1981. The records primarily contain chronological files of memoranda, letters and cables between the organizers and candidates/members of the Commission, as well as press clippings, reports and notes on conversations and meetings. Clark's Brandt Commission chronological files are accompanied by several subject files on the establishment and membership of the Commission; public reaction to its establishment; the Bank's follow-up on its conclusions, including lists of Commission proposals to be reviewed by the Board (some of which are heavily annotated by Bank President McNamara); and correspondence handled by Clark for President McNamara.

The series also contains records of the International Relations Department (IRD) Director's Officepredominantly dating from 1973 to 1983 during Director Shirley Boskey's tenure. Records created by Boskey's predecessors, Richard H. Demuth, Director of Development Services Department (DSD) dating 1965 to 1973, and Michael Hoffman, Director of IRD from 1973 to 1975 are also included. The records of Directors Boskey, Hoffman and Demuth are mainly comprised of subject files related to the management of the Bank's relationships with intergovernmental organizations and international institutions, primarily UN institutions (including the United Nations Development Programme [UNDP] and the International Labour Organization [ILO]) on development issues, meetings, arrangement of visits, comments on UN papers; and internal meetings attended by the Director. There are also several files dating from 1969 to 1970 and 1978 related to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Development Assistance Committee (DAC) and its working parties, in which the Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF)were observers. Correspondence contains copies of outgoing memoranda, letters, and telexes, and is often filed with: minutes or summaries of external meetings; reports and proposals intended for presentation by Bank staff; annotated copies of draft speeches or letters to UN officials prepared for Bank President McNamara along with the original addressed to President; articles; and Boskey's handwritten notes. There are also copies of memoranda and letters on which the Director was copied, particularly regarding the Publication Committee chaired by the Vice President of External Relations.

The series also contains separate chronological files of Assistants to the Development Services Director, Max Ebstein (1972, 1974) and Pastor B. Sison (1972 to 1975), and consist of copies of memoranda and cables.

Also included in the series is a small number of 'General' correspondence files including outgoing memos and letters written by Special Advisor Peter L. Chatenay on behalf of the IRD Director to other IRD staff, Bank staff or external addressees including UNDP. Correspondence relates to meetings of the President, dignitary visits, UNDP projects and financing and Bank-UN relations.

Public Relations subject files and media monitoring

Series consists of a variety of records created and used by External Relations units and its predecessors over time to monitor press coverage of World Bank Group news and events and, if necessary, to formulate responses to that press coverage.

A large portion of the records are press clippings or photocopies of clippings dating from 1949 to 1998, however, there is a gap in the clippings from 1962 to 1972 and 1980 to 1993. Press clippings were primarily collected from American newspaper outlets including the Washington Post, Washington Star, New York Times and others, as well as foreign print media such as the London Financial Times. The clippings cover Bank activities and developments, global economic and development events, Annual Meetings and Annual Reports, statements, speeches and trips of the Bank Presidents beginning with President Eugene Black, IDA, Bank personnel, and World Bank anniversaries beginning with its tenth anniversary. There are weekly press reports containing clippings beginning fromNovember 1976 to 1979. The earlier press clippings dating from 1949 were created by the Public Relations Department led by Director Harold N. Graves who served from November 1950 to 1967. Another set of photocopied press clippings relating to Bank activities and its major meetings and conferences were maintained by the News Bureau of the EXT Media Division. These files predominantly date from 1994 to 1998, however, there are two files with information on IDA from 1962 to 1996, and World Bank project summaries from 1977 to 1979. Press clipping files also include a scrapbook on various Bank issues in India in 1957, and press reports, also referred to as news bureau dissemination reports, dating from 1994 to 1998, that provide summaries of news articles, editorials or letters to the editor about the Bank and its activities. Many of the dissemination reports include an attached memo from the Media Division (EXTME) to the External Relations Vice Presidency (EXTVP) that reports on preparation, major EXT activities, media coverage, and lessons learned. The dissemination reports also contain all press releases, briefings, talking points, and letters to the editor, all related to the event, as well as an analysis of media coverage for internal use by EXT to provide a brief overview of media perception and to examine stories for accuracy and thoroughness. Press clipping files also occasionally contain typed translations of foreign news articles and World Bank news releases.

The series also contains compiled reference material including country articles, financial statements, and case books used for internal or public information, created by the Information and Public Affairs Unit (IPA) in the 1960s and 1970s. Country Article files, dating from 1967 to 1972 (predominantly 1970-1972), contain summaries or information reports appended with financial data about developed and developing countries, basic country data and background on its economy, history of Bank operations in the developing country, and figures on Bank loans and IDA credits. For developed countries, the report includes a summary of the country's history of its relationship with the World Bank Group, Bank's borrowings in the country, disbursements, and the country's goods/services contributed to Bank-funded projects and Bank loans.

Other reference files contain: financial statements for World Bank, IDA and IFC, 1966-1967; policy documents including Board papers 1973-1976; a file titled "Irreverent Inquiries" that provides responses to common Bank queriesand criticisms; and an IDA Briefing Book prepared in 1977 that explains Bank policies on a variety of topics. The IDA Case Books from 1961 to 1974 created by IPA include information on a variety of topics, including: IDA replenishment; health and nutrition; and IDA's relationship with the United States government. There is also a list of IDA publication credits from 1961 to 1969. The series also contains Annual Meeting files, 1966 to 1977, compiled for the Special Guests Office including lists of external and press attendees, as well as administrative correspondence on press attendees' attendance and accommodations.

Also included in the series are Public Relations general files, dating from 1947 to 1968, mostly containing correspondence of the Public Relations Department. Records include copies of memoranda and letters, meeting minutes and summaries, handwritten notes, and working documents relating to: the Bank's public relations-related activities such as articles and speeches given by the Bank President and senior staff; leaks in the press; marketing; film and radio production; the first meeting of the Committee on Information, February 20 1947, which examined the Bank's communications and relationship with the press, as well as the Ad Hoc Committee on Internal Information from 1951. There are also yearly reports outlining all publications, press releases, and speeches by Bank staff. A small volume of files relate to the production of Bank posters, Annual Meeting exhibits, and the Bank's participation at International Exhibitions (Expo) as part of the UN family pavilion. The exhibit files contain original invitations to the exhibition, copies of minutes of the UN Expo Committee meetings, copies of outgoing letters and cables to government organization officials and United Nations headquarters, and printed materials from external organizers. There are also two files relating to the Bank's participation in the Washington World Conference on World Peace Through Law held in Washington, DC in September 1965.