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Records of ESP, PSP, and PGP

This sub-fonds consists of records from the Education and Social Policy Department (ESP) and its successors the Poverty and Social Policy Department (PSP) and the Poverty, Gender, and Public Sector Management Department (PGP). Records include chronological files created by ESP, PSP, and PGP. Records related to the Annual Progress Report on Poverty (APPR) and the ESP/PSP Discussion Paper Series are also included. The sub-fonds additionally includes subject and activity files maintained for PSP/PGP Director Ishrat Husain. The sub-fonds also includes PSP briefing letters prepared for World Bank senior officials and records related to conferences, seminars, symposiums, workshops, and meetings organized and attended by PSP staff.

Transportation, telecommunication, water, and urban development

The sub-fonds includes operations policy and project support records from the following departments: the Transportation, Water, and Telecommunications Department (TWT) from 1978 to 1982; the Urban Projects Department (URB) from 1978 to 1982; the Water and Urban Development Department (WUD) from 1983 to 1986; and the Transportation Department (TRP) from 1983 to 1986. The sub-fonds also includes records related to liaison with external organizations, which were maintained by TWT from 1978 to 1983.

Johannes F. Linn files

This sub-fonds consists of chronological files created by Johannes Linn during his time in a variety of positions at the World Bank, including: the Urban and Regional Economics Division of the Economics Department (ECDRB) and its successor the Development Economics Department (DEDRB) of the Development Policy Vice Presidency (DPS); the East Asia and Pacific Vice Presidency (AENVP) and Asia Regional Vice Presidency (ASI); the Development Economist and Chief Economist Vice Presidency (DECVP); and the Vice President of the Financial Policy and Risk Management Vice Presidency (FPRVP). Note that this sub-fonds does not contain records from his time as Vice President of the Europe and Central Asia Regional Vice Presidency (ECAVP). Chronological files contain correspondence and memoranda primarily between Linn and World Bank colleagues; a smaller amount are between Linn and external individuals and institutions.

Jean-Francois Rischard files

Fonds contains chronological files created by Rischard throughout his career at the World Bank Group, excluding only his time as Vice President, Europe (EXTEU). This includes his positions as: Project officer, Industrial Projects Department (NDP/IPD/IND); Financial analyst and division chief, Financial Policy and Analysis Department (FPA); Director, Investment Department (INV); and Vice President, Finance and Private Sector Development Vice Presidency (FPD).

Callisto Madavo files

Fonds contains chronological correspondence files created by Madavo and his staff from 1991 to 2002 covering his time as Director in the Africa Regional Vice Presidency (AFRVP) and East Asia and Pacific Regional Vice Presidency (EAPVP) and as Regional Vice President of AFRVP. The fonds also contains speeches given by Madavo between 1996 and 2001 while serving as Regional Vice President of AFRVP.

Moeen Qureshi files

The majority of the subfonds consists of records created and maintained by Moeen Qureshi from the start of his career at the World Bank Group's International Finance Corporation (IFC) to his retirement from the Bank in 1991. Although the subfonds is most voluminous for the period during which Qureshi was Senior Vice President for Operations from 1987 to 1991, it also contains records accumulated during his various positions at IFC beginning from 1972 through his tenure as Senior Vice President of Finance (SVPFI) from 1980 to 1987.

Geoffrey Lamb files

Sub-fonds consists of chronological correspondence files for Geffrey Lamb for the following positions and years: Economist for the Development Research Department (DRD) from 1980 to 1982; Public Sector Management Adviser for the Public Management Unit (PPDPS) from 1983 to 1987; Adviser for the Strategic Planning Division (SPRSP) and the Policy Development Unit (PRDPD) from 1988 to 1991; and Unit Chief for the Public Sector Management Unit (EMTPM) within the ECA/MENA Technical Department of the Europe and Central Asia Vice Presidency (ECA) for 1992. The sub-fonds also includes: DRD country strategy papers, study papers, and policy papers maintained and created by Lamb from 1980 to 1981; policy papers focused on institutional reform maintained by Lamb during his time in PPDPS from 1982 to 1987; records related to policy papers prepared by Lamb prior to his employment at the Bank; records related to papers prepared for and involvement in conferences and seminars from 1987 to 1991; and records related to Lamb's involvement with PRDPD work program planning and working group participation from 1990 to 1991.

Gautam Kaji files

Sub-fonds consists of incoming and outgoing chronological correspondence files and accompanying attachments maintained by Gautam Kaji during his time as East Asia and Pacific Region Vice President, and during his time as Managing Director of the World Bank.

Attila Karaosmanoglu files

The sub-fonds consists of chronological correspondence files from when Karaosmanoglu served in the following positions: Director for Development Policy Vice Presidency (VPD) from 1975 to 1979; Director for the Country Programs Department 1, Europe, Middle East, and North Africa Region (EM1DR) from 1979 to 1982; Vice President for the East Asia and Pacific Vice Presidency (AENVP) from 1982 to 1987; Vice President for the Asia Vice Presidency (ASIVP) from 1987 to 1991; and Managing Director for Bank President Lewis T. Preston from 1991 to 1994. The subfonds also includes speech, presentation, statement, and interview files for when he served in the following positions: Director of Development Policy (VPD); Director of the Country Programs Department 1 of the Europe, Middle East, and North Africa Region (EM1DR); Vice-President East Asia and Pacific Region (AENVP); and Managing Director (MDS).

Syed Shahid Husain files

Sub-fonds consists of incoming and outgoing correspondence files maintained by or for Syed Shahid Husain during his employment as Vice President for the Latin America and the Caribbean Region (LACVP) from 1987 to 1994, and Vice President for Management and Personnel Services (MPSVP) from 1994 to 1995.

Heywood Fleisig files

Sub-fonds consists of incoming and outgoing chronological correspondence files maintained by Heywood Fleisig during his employment in the following positions: Senior Economist in the East Asia and Pacific Vice Presidency (AENVP); Principal Economist in the Asia Vice Presidency (ASIVP); Principal Economist in the Country Operations Division, Asia-Country Department II (AS2CO); and Principal Economist in the Office of the Chief Economist, Latin America and Caribbean Region (LACCE).

Joseph Wood files

This sub-fonds consists of the records generated by Joseph Wood in numerous positions at the World Bank. Included are subject and activity files from when Wood served as Division Chief and later Assistant Director for the Programming and Budget Department Office (PAB). Subject and activity files are also included for Wood's role as the Vice President for the Financial Policy, Planning, and Budgeting Vice Presidency (FPBVP), and Vice President for the Financial Policy and Risk Management Vice Presidency (FPRVP), the successor to FPBVP. Chronological correspondence files are also included for his time in FPBVP and FPRVP, and for when Wood served as Vice President for the South Asia Region (SASVP).

Masood Ahmed files

The sub-fonds consist of chronological correspondence records from different units throughout Masood Ahmed's World Bank career. The series additionally includes speech and presentation records from his time in IEC and PREM, and records related to his involvement with the Economic Development Institute (EDI, now renamed the World Bank Institute [WBI]).

Shelton H. Davis files

The sub-fonds consists of records related to Davis's early operational work as a Bank Sociologist on impacts of development on indigenous communities, primarily in the Latin America and Caribbean Region, Environment Unit (LATEN). It also contains records related to Davis's work in the Bank's Environment (ENV) and Social Development (SDV) departments developing social safeguard policies for indigenous peoples, and to his training initiatives on policy implementation. External research, reference, and conference materials highlight Davis's diverse research interests and collaboration with agencies outside the Bank to raise awareness on indigenous issues. Lastly, records related to project support and training outline the role Davis played as the Sector Manager in the Latin America and Caribbean Region in implementing safeguard policies in regional units.

L. Peter Chatenay files

This sub-fonds contains memoranda and reports compiled by L. Peter Chatenay that primarily relate to the World Bank's early organization and staffing. It would seem that these materials were prepared in support of Chatenay's participation in the Organization Study Team which was created in support of the 1972 Bank-wide reorganization.

Vinod Dubey files

The series consists of records collected and maintained by Vinod Dubey during his time at the World Bank. The majority of the records were created during Dubey's time in CPD and EAS.

Ian Johnson files

Fonds consists of records created and received by Ian Johnson during his employment at the World Bank. The fonds consists of records created and received by Johnson while serving in various departments and units and in various capacities. They are not, however, comprehensive. Those units in which Johnson served and are represented in this fonds include: the Europe, Middle East and North Africa (EMENA) in the Projects Department, Power and Energy Division (EMPPE) as an energy economist (records from 1985 to1986); as Assistant Chief Executive Officer in the GEF Secretariat (records from 1996); as Vice President of ESSD (records from 2001 to 2005); and as Chairman of CGIAR (records from 2000 to 2004). The majority of the records in this fonds are chronological files containing correspondence. Records created during his time as ESSD Vice President are the most numerous and diverse. In addition to chronological files, the fonds contains: programme and project funding agreements and work program agreements involving ESSD; spring and annual meeting records; briefings for Johnson prepared by his staff; and briefings prepared by Johnson and ESSDVP staff for upper-management including Bank President Wolfensohn.

Timothy Campbell files

Fonds consists of chronological files created by Timothy Campbell during his employment in the Latin America and Caribbean Region and Transportation, Water and Urban Development Department. Records from his time in the World Bank Institute (WBI) are not present. The majority of the records in this fonds provide evidence of Campbell's research activities and his communication and collaboration with agencies and institutions external to the Bank. As such, the majority of the records take the form of researchmaterials, drafts of articles and reports, and correspondence.

Zmarak Shalizi files

The records are largely electrostatic copies of correspondence and papers, filed by the type of function that generated the records. The majority of the records date from 1992-1995 when Shalizi was chief of the Transport Division.

The records are arranged in four sections. The first section has administrative records; the conference files include the background readings for a 1991 seminar for Bank staff on air quality in urban transportation.

The second section is records of research projects funded by the regular budget, trust funds or other special funds. Four of the research proposal files consist primarily of reviews of proposed Bank positions on taxation policies and on poverty lending in the urban sector, 1980-1991, and three additional files concern Bank transport sector policy and performance reviews, 1992-1995. The chronological file consists principally of notes and correspondence regarding the review of taxation and poverty policies found in the research proposals. The papers and a small quantity of correspondence were written by persons other than Shalizi and sent to him for his comments or use. The topics range from road pricing to automotive emissions in developing countries to railways to informal gold mining and mercury pollution in Brazil. The publications are primarily those produced by the Bank, although a few others from sources such as the Journal of Transport Economics and Policy are included. The principal topics are railways and transport-related air pollution; some correspondence related to the publications is included.

The third section consists of records of operational support for projects. One of the four files consists of country studies of taxation in Mexico, Brazil, Nigeria, Indonesia, and Malawi. This is followed by three files of correspondence, arranged chronologically, commenting on projects and studies, proposed and ongoing.

The fourth section is records of research projects funded by the Bank's Research Support Budget. The majority of the files relate to Shalizi's 1989-1991 project on a "Practical framework for evaluating mineral payment/taxation schemes" and are linked to the taxation files found in the second section. In the publications file is a copy of the project document on "Trade and transport in West and Central African States" dated April 1993, while the files of original research data include two papers co-authored by Shalizi, "Contract Policy and the Variability of Government Revenue form Mining Projects" (1990, with R. Conrad and J. Syme) and "The Role of Extraction Charges in Mineral Contracts (1991, with R. Conrad and M. Engers). The research files also include three files on the project on taxation in developing countries, one file on a framework for tax policy analysis in Sub-Saharan Africa, two files on uniform rates of effective protection and efficient taxes, and three files on an analysis of the tax system in developing countries as applied to Pakistan and Mexico.

Ernest Stern files

The majority of the subfonds consists of chronological correspondence records sent and received by Stern from the start of his World Bank career in 1972 to his retirement as a Managing Director in 1995. The subfonds also contains speeches given by Stern while serving in various positions from 1973 to 1995 and records relating to committees in which he participated.

Léonard B. Rist files

Fonds consists of records maintained by Léonard B. Rist from the early period of IBRD history primarily when he first served as Director of the Research Department, later Economics Department beginning in 1946 and printed material that Rist collected relating to Bretton Woods.

Pedro-Pablo Kuczynski files

Sub-fonds consists of records created and received by Pedro-Pablo Kuczynski during his employment at the World Bank between 1971 and 1973. Records were filed according to subject title and record types, including: Latin American development; seminars; commodity trading and development; general economics; Bank operations and planning; speechwriting for the Office of the President; seminars; Country Program Papers (CPPs); and World Tables. Records related to the Bank's Research Committee are also included.

Jochen Kraske files

The records contain both correspondence and reference material maintained by Kraske relating to India. They include correspondence and draft papers from Kraske's period as chief of the Resident Mission in New Delhi; an historical reminiscence The New Delhi Office written by Kraske in 1993; copies of correspondence, memoranda, and draft papers on the history of the New Delhi office; copies of extracts from the debates in the Indian Parliament about the World Bank; clippings from the Asian Recorder on the Bank in India; two papers by Kraske on India, Some thoughts on the role of the New Delhi Office (1987) and The role of field-based staff in maintaining portfolio quality: The case of agriculture and the New Delhi Office (1992) and drafts of three speeches to African audiences; and publications by S.R. Sen, M. Narasimham, A.V. Desai, R. Mohan and others. Although quite small, this series is a rich source for the history of the World Bank in India.

John A. King files

The first series of records are King's files on Bank studies in which he participated. These include a review by the Projects Staff of completed sector and feasibility studies in order to improve the Bank's technical assistance to developing countries, a study of project management, and the studies undertaken as part of the 1972 Bank reorganization. The files include minutes of meetings, correspondence, memoranda, background data, and successive drafts of the final report. The files on the 1972 reorganization also include staff opinion surveys and reviews of the implementation of the reorganization plan.

The second series is a subject file that relates principally to King's work as the Assistant to the Vice President, Projects. The records include a number of files from Charles A. Morse, who was the procurement adviser to the Vice President. The majority of the records relate to procurement policy, but they also include correspondence with Executive Directors (clearly a fragment, as a list of items included in the file says Vol. IV), minutes and agendas from Program Coordinators' meetings, records on project preparation and project insurance, drafts of speeches and articles by both Morse and King, and memos and reports relating to the 1976-1977 Arab boycott of U.S. goods.

Benjamin B. King files

Benjamin King retained a copy of papers he wrote and correspondence he drafted, both for his signature and for the signature of other Bank officials. Although there are gaps in the records, the chronological series provides a good overview of the interests of King and the issues with which he dealt as a staff member of the Bank.

The first part of the chronological file, dating from 1952-1967, includes items relating to King's missions to the Gold Coast, Germany, and Norway and contains notes on the status of operations, planning and procedures, currency, lending resources, and external debt. King also wrote notes on the General Training Committee and a 1955 draft curriculum for the Economic Development Institute, which King joined in 1957. The second part of the chronological file includes papers on the economic work in the Bank; comments on economic reports; drafts of the Charter of the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA); materials relating to external debt in Iran, India and Pakistan; a study of the feasibility of using computers in the Bank; and a paper on allocation of funds to the International Development Association. The final part of the chronological file includes memoranda and letters to members of the Research Committee and to external research institutions commenting on research proposals and reports. After King was appointed as Director of the Development Economics Department in 1978, the file includes documents on personnel, recruitment, plan, project evaluations, comments on economic reports and clearances for publications. Of particular interest are a March 1979 memo on the Department and King's summaries of the Board meetings he attended The subject files are clearly a fragment of a larger file, because they include only files with subject headings A-E. Many of the same issues found in the chronological file material area found here, including investment criteria, creditworthiness, terms of aid, program lending, and the use of computers. Two files on the Bernard Bell study on India and an agriculture file on India are useful supplements to the official records on the Bell study and to the Bernard R. Bell files. The External Debt Review Committee was established at the end of 1967 to investigate the collection, processing and use of international debt statistics by the Bank. King chaired the Committee in 1967-1968, and his subject files contain memoranda regarding the Committee meetings, the operations of the External Debt Section, material relating to a questionnaire on statistics, and comments on the Committee report.

The country files contain Economic Committee documents, interspersed with some original material of King's regarding economic missions and economic reports.

W. David Hopper files

The small correspondence series from 1986 includes files on many of the countries in the South Asia region. The files include correspondence with leaders in the countries and internal Bank memoranda on projects, planned or in operation. This is clearly a fragment of a larger chronological series that was maintained for Hopper by the office staff.

The bulk of the sub-fonds consists of the office correspondence file from Hopper's period as Senior Vice President for Policy Planning and Research; it is arranged chronologically. The series apparently was begun by L. Richard Meyers, who was Special Assistant to Hopper, as the early files are marked DM Chron. The topics in the records include poverty and family planning programs focusing on women, the Bank's new environmental initiative, appreciation and criticism of the Bank's environmental role, especially with regard to rain forests and indigenous peoples, agricultural development, including genetic research and application of developmental agriculture in Africa, and administrative details of the new Policy Planning and Research Department.

The series on the Senior Management Council and the series on the Personnel and Administration Committee both begin with a set of minutes, followed by agendas and reports and memos. The series on the SMC also includes a set of monthly financial reports. Records are missing for several months in both series. The topics in the records include personnel policies, the Disaster Recovery Plan, security, long-term facilities planning, and information resources management.

The file unit on the work of the Operations Managers Review Group contains six items on the selection of operations managers.

Bernard R. Bell files

Subfonds consists of records created by Bernard R. Bell primarily when he was the economic advisor to the representative resident in India during which time he examined Indian economic policy and the proposed Fourth Five-Year Plan during 1966 to 1967. Subfonds also contains subject files and correspondence kept while he served as Director, Resident Staff Indonesia and Regional Vice President, East Asia and Pacific Region.

Richard E. Barry files

The first set of records relates to the fifth session of the UN Advisory Committee for Coordination of Information systems, held in Geneva, Switzerland, September 18-21, 1989. The second set of records consists primarily of memoranda, papers and minutes of the Personnel and Administration Committee and the Managing Committee. Topics include systems development in the Finance complex, the budgets for fiscal years 1986 and 1987, the establishment of a facility in the Washington suburbs, cost effectiveness indicators, the Howard Baker proposal for the Bank, data security, a disaster recovery plan, institutional information technology standards and information resources management strategy. The third set of records is related to the 1972 reorganization of the Bank, conducted by McKinsey & Company, during which Barry was a member of the Bank study team. The record include copies of the discussion drafts of the recommended organization structure and the recommended program of changes, a set of interviews conducted by Barry and a McKinsey staff member on external perceptions of the Bank, and a file on planning and control functions. The final set of records relates to the 1987 reorganization. The records include the final report of the Information Technology and Facilities (ITF) support units task force, information for the President's task force from the ITF Office Systems Division, and a report on strategic options for meeting management information needs, with a report of the Information Systems Planning Study Team attached.

Records of the Director-General, Operations Evaluation (DGO)

The sub-fonds consists of records related to the functions of the Directors-General, Operations Evaluation (DGO). Included are records evidencing the DGO's role in the administrative and operational activities of the OED as well as the development of OED policies and procedures. Activities related to OED reporting to the Bank's Executive Board as well as to the Joint Audit Committee (JAC) and, later, the Committee on Development Effectiveness (CODE) are evidenced through correspondence, meeting minutes, and reports. The OED's role in the oversight of the International Finance Corporation (IFC) is also documented here. Interaction with external bilateral, multilateral, international development and aid organizations is included in the form of correspondence, reports, memoranda, meeting minutes, and trip planning records; of note are records related to the DGO's interaction with the United Nations and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

Much of the files in this sub-fonds are related to specific Directors-General. Chronological files containing correspondence and accompanying memoranda and reports of DGOs Mervyn L. Weiner and Shiv S. Kapur are included. However, records created or received by DGO Robert Picciotto are the most abundant and diverse. Picciotto's chronological files are included, as are records related to committees, commissions, boards, and projects on which he served. Working files for OED studies, reports, and reviews created during Picciotto's time as DGO are also included.

Records of Sir Denis Rickett

Sir Denis Rickett was Vice President of the World Bank from 1968 until 1974. The records are a series of subject files that include copies of reports and memos and well as personal correspondence and notes.

The Committee of Twenty, formally the Committee of the Board of Governors on Reform of the International Monetary System and Related issues, was established in 1972. Rickett served as the Bank's representative to the Committee from March 1973 until June 1974, and the files consist of Rickett's correspondence, memos and reports of the meetings of the committee as well as memos and documents from the Committee's Technical Group on the SDR Link.

The Council of Europe files contain Rickett's correspondence as well as agendas, reports and the records of the January 1970 convention on development in which Rickett participated as a discussant. Files on conferences contain correspondence and reports relating to conferences to which Rickett was invited and copies of speeches he delivered.

The Pearson Commission on development issues was established in 1968 under the chairmanship of Lester B. Pearson. Rickett's files on the Pearson commission consist of copies of J. Burke Knapp's correspondence (Knapp was also a Vice President of the Bank during this period), memos and reports on the Commission as well as the original letters Lester Pearson received from heads of states and other VIPS in response to his report Partners in Development. The Canadian International Development Authority commissioned a study in 1971 to look at the World Bank over the next decade. Written by Escott Reid, the draft of the study is in the Rickett files, along with a summary of the report and copies of comments on the draft by Bank staff members.

Other files contain memos and Bank reports on debt problems and energy and oil issues during the 1973-1974 oil crisis.

Records of Mohamed Shoaib

Mohamed Shoaib was Vice President of the World Bank from 1966-1976, having previously served as the Alternate Executive Director, Executive Director, and Governor of the Bank from Pakistan. The documents in this file concern the Williamsburg II meeting held in Jogjakarta, Indonesia, in 1972. The meeting was a continuation of a previous meeting at which high-level officials from the Bank, other international organizations, and foreign governments discussed development issues for a particular region in itsbroad political and security context. The Williamsburg II meeting focused on Southeast Asia, the balance of power in the region after the Vietnam war, the role of China in the region, and the special problems of the overseas Chinese. The file contains an informal running account of the discussions, the program and a list of participants, a summary, and what appear to be Shoaib's handwritten notes during the meeting.

Records of Robert L. Garner

Robert L. Garner was Vice President of the World Bank from 1947-1956. The documents in this file concern the trip that Garner made to the Middle East and North Africa on behalf of the Bank in the spring of 1949. Although fragmentary, they convey a sense of the issues Garner discussed with the leaders in the countries visited, particularly in Turkey. The notes of Garner's report to a staff meeting provide an overview of the trip. Also interesting is Garner's report to Bank President John J. McCloy on Garner's visit to Egypt.

Records of the World Bank History Project

This sub-fonds contains records related to the research, writing, and review of the book, The World Bank: Its First Half Century.

Research records include: audio interviews of former bank employees, persons from related institutions, and prominent external observers of the Bank; transcripts of interviews; subject files; and correspondence with Bank alumni, present and former Executive Directors, and present and former members of the Development Committee.

Records relating to the writing of the book include drafts of Volume I written by members of the Brookings Institution project and drafts of Volume II written by external authors. A small amount of background and related reports accompany the latter. Audio recordings from a conference in which many of the authors of Volume II presented their drafts is also included. Records related to the review and verification of the book are also contained in this sub-fonds. This includes correspondence between project staff, Volume II authors, and external reviewers as well as annotated copies of chapter drafts.

Records related to the verification of facts, sources, and citations are included as are records related to the project's three advisory committees.

Records of President Lewis T. Preston

Lewis T. Preston became President of the World Bank on 1 September 1991 and resigned on 4 May 1995. Relatively few records from his term exist. One of Preston's first decisions was to suspend the President's Council, and as a result there are no formal records of the interaction of the highest levels of management. Furthermore, Preston was in ill health and retired before finishing his term. He continued to make speeches and undertook some business travel, but the files on those activities are noticeably fuller in the early years of his tenure. No subject files exist, nor do files on his liaison activities with United Nations organizations, non-government institutions, and international banks. The few files on liaison with the U.S. Government are thin, but there is additional information on this relationship in the records of the Counselor to the President, Matthew F. McHugh.

The most complete files are those on Member countries. These include information on Bank projects in the countries, reports of discussions with country representatives, agendas for meetings, and other representational matters. The files on the Annual Meetings have some unusually interesting briefings for Preston's meetings with financial and other institutions.

The important records of the Portfolio Management Task Force (Wapenhans Report) and the follow-up to it are part of the records of the Special Adviser to the President, Visvanathan Rajagopalan.

Note that a small portion of the Chronological File series contains correspondence and executive memoranda records from the period when Ernest Stern served as acting President. These date from February 1 to May 31 of 1995.

Records of President Barber B. Conable

Barber B. Conable's term as President was noted for the major reorganization of the Bank he directed in 1987 and the emphasis on poverty reduction as a central mission of the Bank. He identified environmental protection as an important goal, culminating in the Bank joining with the UN Development Program and the UN Environment Program to establish the Global Environment Facility in 1991. Conable supported an increased role for women in development and he appointed a woman, Marianne Haug, to his senior staff. Broad political changes occurred in Eastern Europe during his tenure, and he maintained extensive liaisons with international organizations including the increasingly influential NGO community. Conable also authorized the project to write a history of the Bank; Brookings Institution was given the contract for the study which resulted in the two volume The World Bank: Its First Half Century. Conable gave the authors access to his Presidential files, and the use of some of the files by the Brookings team is noted in the series descriptions.

The records of President and his staff are extensive. The minutes of his President's Council reveal the mechanisms of Bank management. The usual Annual Meeting files are supplemented by his country files and the records of his travels around the globe. The two series of liaison files show his political skills with varied constituencies.

The records of the Office of the President also include separate series of records of the Executive Counselor to the President, J. William Stanton; the Executive Assistant, Marianne Haug; and the Special Assistant, Anapum Khanna. The file of Conable's Executive Assistant, Jennifer A. Volk, on the lunches between Conable and Michel Camdessus, the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund, is a separate series, while within the President's files on travel and Annual Meetings are other files that Volk maintained.

Records of President Robert S. McNamara

Robert S. McNamara became World Bank President on April 1, 1968 and served 2 full five year terms and a partial term, leaving on June 30, 1981. The records are a very full account of his long and active presidency. Every part of the world is reflected in these records, as well as virtually every economic issue of the 1970s. Any student of the Bank during the McNamara years will find reading these records an essential first step for research.

When McNamara came to the World Bank, it was lending about $1 billion per year. When he left in 1981, Bank lending stood at about $12 billion a year. In addition to the dramatic increase in volume of loans, he refocused Bank lending beyond infrastructure and projects to basic human needs and poverty reduction. Using the term absolute poverty, his annual meeting speech in Nairobi in 1973 marked a turning point by identifying promoting rural development and alleviating the conditions of life to the poor as crucial development goals. He identified population growth as a major issue for the Bank to address and the Bank began proving support for family planning programs. The Bank also began providing loans for pollution control.

McNamara proposed the formation of the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), which makes major contributions to increasing global food production and reducing hunger. He mobilized Bank resources to launch an international onchocercieasis (river blindness) control program. He initiated two international commissions to examine world development: the Pearson Commission in 1968 and the Brandt Commission in 1977. The Joint Ministerial Committee of the Board of Governors of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund on the Transfer of Real Resources to Developing Countries, usually known as the Development Committee, was established in 1974 to support international cooperation in development activities and coordination of international efforts in finance development, and to provide advice to the Board of Governors of the Bank and the Fund on all aspects of the transfer of real resources to developing countries. And in 1978 the World Development Report was launched, the Bank's flagship publication on development issues.

Records of all these activities can be found in the records of the McNamara presidency. An unusually large number of records are annotated by McNamara, providing unparalleled insight into the thinking and decision-making processes of the president.

The records also include files form assistants to the President, notably two series from economic adviser Irving S. Friedman that include his correspondence with both President George Woods and President McNamara.

Records of President A. W. Clausen

A. W. Clausen became World Bank President in July 1981 and served a full five year term. Shortly after he became President, Clausen established a Managing Committee to provide overall administrative and programmatic control of the Bank's activities. The records of the Clausen presidency are best approached through the official files of this Managing Committee, which provide comprehensive documentation on virtually all issues before the Bank during those years. Both Clausen's personal records of the Committee as well as the Committee's official records are part of this sub-fonds.

Clausen was President during the world debt crisis of the early 1980s, and throughout the files are documents about the issues of debt management and the Bank's programs of sectoral and structural adjustment. Discussions of a multilateral investment insurance program began during the Clausen years, which culminated in the establishment of the Multilateral Investments Guarantee Agency (MIGA) after Clausen left office. Both the Special Assistance Program for countries coping with the global recession and the Special Facility for Africa to provide policy reform assistance in sub-Saharan Africa were launched during Clausen's tenure, and the Clausen years saw a growing emphasis on programs in agricultural and rural development and environmental management, among others. Evidence of Clausen's personal interest in these issues can be found throughout the records, but particularly in the extensive set of alphabetical subject files that show Clausen's involvement with issues and organizations. Clausen's views are also evident in the chronological file of his outgoing correspondence during his entire time in office.

The country files and the itinerary files on official trips are good sources of information on the Bank's relationship with and the economic situation in the member countries. The records include photographs of Clausen's visits to countries and to World Bank projects.

Records of President George D. Woods

The records of the Presidency of George D. Woods (January 1963 until April 1968) primarily concern international relations, including both briefings and travel. The correspondence file, while small, has several unusually revealing items, as do the retained copies of outgoing letters and memoranda. The background papers on each country that are found in the annual meeting briefing files provide useful snapshots of the situation of that country at that time.

Records of President Eugene R. Black

This series contains the records of Eugene R. Black as U.S. Executive Director at the World Bank, 1947-1949, and President, 1949-1962. They are arranged in five file categories: general correspondence, congratulatory correspondence, honorary degrees, speeches, and travel.

The general correspondence file contains exchanges with U.S. and foreign government officials (especially U.K. officials), private bankers, lawyers, foundation officials and friends, arranged alphabetically by surname of correspondent. Among the notable correspondents are U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower, U.S. Senators J.W. Fulbright and Hubert Humphrey, British Prime Minister Harold McMillan, and U.N. Secretary General Dag Hammerskjold. The alphabetical correspondence file is followed by one file marked personal action covering the period from September through December 1960; it contains letters congratulating Black on the publication of his book, The Diplomacy of Economic Development, and wishing him recovery from surgery.

The congratulatory correspondence concerns Black's appointment as Executive Director and subsequent appointment and reappointments as President of the World Bank.

A single file contains correspondence on honorary degrees awarded to Black.

The speech file contains letters of invitation and appreciation and, in some cases, the texts of the speeches. Speeches given include commencement addresses, lectures to professional associations and private organizations, and addresses to the UN Economic and Social Council.

Thetravel file contains correspondence relating to tours Black took as U.S. Executive Director and as Bank President to familiarize himself with present and future member countries' economic and political situations and to meet national leaders. It includes letters of invitation, itineraries, thank you notes, as well as letters and memoranda on the purposes and results of particular trips. Two files contain the records of Black's 1948 trip to Indonesia (then the Netherlands East Indies) shortly before it obtained independence, including background material on Indonesia's economy and recent political developments, newspaper articles, UN documents, photographs, and letters from government officials, business executives and Black evaluating the situation in Indonesia. Other travel files contain information on the Bank's role in the settlement of the Suez Canal dispute (1958-1959).

Records of President John J. McCloy

The records of President McCloy consist of incoming and outgoing correspondence between President McCloy, the U.S. Executive Director of the Bank, U.S. political leaders, U.S. public officials, and prominent business leaders. The correspondence address topics of Bank operations and lending.

Records of the Office of the Vice President, Development Economics and Chief Economist and later Senior Vice President, Development Economics and Chief Economist (DECVP)

Sub-fonds consists of the records of the Office of the Vice President, Development Economics (DECVP) and Chief Economist and the Senior Vice President, Development Economics and Chief Economist. These records take the form of Vice President's chronological and subject files as well as briefing books and travel documents. Records of DEC's Front Office staff included in this sub-fonds include reading files, work program and budget records, and reports of periodic review. Records of numerous DEC units are also included in this sub-fonds. They include: the Policy and Review Department (PRD); Development Policy Group (DPG, and its predecessor units: the Economic Advisory Staff [EAS] and the Country Policy Department [CPD]); the International Economics Department (IEC); the Country Economics Department (CEC); the Development Research Group (DECRG); the Policy Review Department (PRD); the Research Advisory Staff (RAD); and the Economic Developing Institute (EDI). The records of noted economist Bela Balassa who served as a consultant with DEC and predecessor organizations from 1966 to 1991 are also included.

Records of the Economics and Research Staff (ERS)

Sub-fonds consists of the records of Economics and Research Staff (ERS) department and division records, including the Economic Analysis and Projects Department (EPD). Records of the Research Policy Council (RPC), the Bank Research Advisory Group (BRAG), and the Research Projects Approval Committee (REPAC) are also included. Records related to the research, publication, and dissemination of research papers and other products are included as are articles, lectures and speeches authored by Vice President of ERS Anne Krueger.

Records of the Office of the Vice President, Development Policy (VPD) and the Development Policy Staff

Sub-fonds consists of records created in the Development Policy Vice Presidency (VPD). Many of the records were created by the Director, Development Policy; these relate to the Development Committee; the Policy Review Committee, and commodity policy work in the department. Other records in this sub-fonds relate to specific research projects and, generally, the World Bank's research program. Also included are records related to the external General Research Advisory Panel (GRAP). Correspondence and other records of the Development Policy Staff, Departments, and Divisions are also included in this sub-fonds.

Records of the Task Force on Local Cost Financing under Adjustment Operations

The sub-fonds consists of records related to the Task Force on Local Cost Financing under Adjustment. The records were maintained by Salah El Serafy, Economic Adviser in Economic Advisory Staff (EAS), who served as chairman of theTask Force on Local Cost Financing Under Adjustment Operations.