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Governance, management and oversight

Series contains records of the Industry and Energy Office of the Director (IENDR), its predecessors, and divisions that relate to planning, organizing, and directing subordinate units as well as developing business plans, work programs, and budgets. Most records were maintained by Director Richard Stern, Senior Adviser Dennis Anderson, and Division Chief Afsaneh Mashayekhi. The series also contains the chronological and subject files of Assistant Director Efrain Friedmann that represent the department's energy sector work in the early 1970s as well as subject files of the mining units under IEN and later, the joint Bank/International Finance Corporation (IFC) Oil, Gas, Mining and Chemicals Department (COC).

Strategic planning, business development, and management

Records in the series document changes in divisional structure, reporting lines, resources, and activities of the responsible units. Individual subject files relate to IEN reorganization (1993 - 1997), energy practice management (1993 - 1996), and others.

Specific types of records include internal memoranda, All-in-1 message hard copies, organizational charts, vision and mission statements, budget sheets, reports regarding IEN departmental structure, IEN background and staff profiles, job descriptions, functional descriptions (outlining organization, functional areas, reporting, division management) and reports on activities of the Oil and Gas Division (IENOG).

Another set of records (1990 - 1997) relate to the department's midyear review,retrospective review, portfolio management, business plan and budget, and preparation of the Annual Report on Portfolio Performance (ARPP). Record types include: copies of ARPP by the Operations Evaluation Department (OED); minutes of review meetings; drafts and final text of IEN divisions; and portfolio improvement program review reports by the Quality Assurance Group (EXCQA) unit.

Two correspondence files containing incoming and outgoing memoranda with FPDVP (1992 - 1997) cover the period when Richard D. Stern was ESMAP Manager (ESMMR), then IEN director. Some memos are in the form of briefing notes and background for meetings and discuss department activities, papers produced, reorganizations, ESMAP products, and private sector investment in infrastructure projects. Also in the files are sector papers on topics including industrial restructuring, and a comparative survey of public and private ownership of gas companies.

There are also files maintained by IEN divisions and predecessors regarding the organization and activities of divisions carrying out United Nations Development Programme / World Bank Group Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP). Included are: files related to ESMAP operations (1989 - 1993); Office of the ESMAP Manager (ESMMR, in existence from 1991 - 1992); ESMAP reorganization (1990 - 1992); ESMAP activities and schedules (1990 - 1991); and ESMAP procedures and guidelines for operations coordination (1991, 1993). General files (1986 - 1995) contain mostly internal memoranda and accompanying reports that cover a variety of topics such as meeting summaries, ESMAP operations, knowledge and learning events, sector work program, division status reports, recruitment, reporting to vice presidencies, and general administrative information such as for cross support activities.

Other files relate to industry and mining budgeting, work programs, and business planning (1994 - 2005), the latter maintained by unit staff of the Mining Department (CMN) and successor Oil, Gas, Mining and Chemical Department (COC) senior staff including Division Chief, later Manager Peter van der Veen. Also included is a briefing book prepared for IFC Vice President Peter L. Woicke related to a 2003 visit to Bolivia.

Operational support oversight

A smaller volume of files titled "cross support" created by IENDR (1992 - 1996) contain mostly internal memoranda between Director Stern, IEN divisions, Finance and Private Sector Development Vice Presidency (FPDVP), and regional units concerning projects and support to the regions in terms of delivery plans, allocation of tasks, and enhancing collaboration. Some memoranda also provide information about regional unit reorganizations, trust fund management issues, and network performance measures. Filed with the correspondence are back-to-office reports (BTORs), meeting minutes, data tables, and other records.

Another set of records document communications between Director Stern, IEN units, and Bank senior management regarding certain Bank projects (1980 - 1997), such as the Arun Hydroelectric Power Project in Nepal. Files include correspondence, draft discussion papers, external press articles, President's Memorandum, project documents (staff appraisal report, project agreement etc.), and other material.

Several files related to general energy and environmental sector work contain correspondence and other records (1994 - 1996) maintained by Senior Adviser Anderson (IENDR). Included are invitations and follow ups to meetings, events, publications and reviews written by Anderson, communication about the Bank's energy work, current and potential studies, comments on internal or external papers and reports, and other matters.

Efrain Friedmann chronological and subject files

The series contains records created and received by Efrain Friedmann during the period 1972 to 1980 when he held the following positions: energy specialist, then energy adviser in Public Utilities Department Director's Office (PBPDR, 1972 - 1977, later Energy, Water, Telecommunications Department [EWT]); assistant director, Energy and Fuels (EWTDR, 1977 - 1979); and senior adviser in the Energy Policy Advisory Staff (EGYEP, 1979 - 1980).

Chronological files span the periods from November 1972 to August 1974 and April 1977 to March 1980 and includes internal memoranda, cables, and incoming and outgoing correspondence with representatives of the United States government and other country or international organization officials, oil companies, engineers, and academics regarding the world energy situation and the Bank's mineral and energy programs. Correspondence covers topics such as oil surveys, energy projects and studies, research and policy development activities, department work program and budget, staff development seminars on energy planning, hiring of consultants, international conferences, meetings with oil companies, participation in missions, comments on draft correspondence to be sent by vice president, Operations Policy, and administrative matters. Also included among the correspondence is a paper prepared by Friedmann for Bank Group President Robert McNamara's meeting with U.N. General Secretary Waldheim in December 1979 which presents the Bank's views on energy conservation and the search for new energy supplies, and a memorandum on a White House meeting with President Carter, which indicates Carter's growing interest in developing oil reserves in developing countries.

Friedmann subject files represent his various activities such as: liaison with consultant O.B. Falls regarding Impact of Primary Energy Cost on Electric Power study (1974); liaison and meetings with banks and development banks (1977 - 1979); meeting on assistance to the energy sector in developing countries, Paris (1979), attendance at various conferences (1978 - 1979), and sector work (1979). There are also several files concerning nuclear power (1972 - 1976) and a nuclear study (1975 - 1976) which mostly contain memoranda and correspondence with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or national atomic energy agencies.

Record types in the Friedmann files include memoranda, cables, incoming and outgoing letters, summaries of meetings and consultations, Terms of Reference (TORs), BTORS including copies from regional staff, approach papers, briefing notes, sector reports, externally authored conference papers and reports, draft study outlines (some annotated), and press clippings. The Paris World Energy meeting files contain agenda and list of delegates, copy of "Program to Accelerate Petroleum Production in Developing Countries" Bank report, list of oil and gas production projects, summary of development partners' energy assistance and activities, and other items.

NRIC and EISIC correspondence and related records

Also included in the series are several correspondence files (1978 - 1986) sent and received by division chiefs, senior advisers or occasionally directors that were originally sent to the Non-Regional Information Center (NRIC) and arranged under the Bank-wide classification system. Files are titled "general" and include mostly internal memoranda (some in the form of BTORs), letters, and cables that cover management of the various sector activities and division objectives such as: workshop or roundtable preparation and participation; selection of consultants for projects; direction of energy policy and lending including comments on policy papers and draft guidelines for lending; ESMAP program; and collaboration with external organizations. Reports, discussion papers and other records are sometimesfiled with the related correspondence. Two files that are thin in volume relate to a proposed World Bank energy affiliate (1981 - 1982) and contains memoranda from Senior Vice President of Operations Ernest Stern to Bank Group President Clausen.

Series also contains a set of thematic, or subject files (1974 - 1987) that were originally maintained in the Energy and Industry Information Center (EISIC). Files contain internal memoranda and cables, many are copies sent by the Energy and Industry Vice Presidency (EISVP), the Office of the Senior Vice Presidency, Operations (SVPOP), by regional directors, and unit or sector staff. There are also some original incoming letters to industry and energy directors or division chiefs. Correspondence is occasionally attached to draft and final internal reports, discussion or issues papers, BTORs, Board reports, briefing notes, summary of discussions, and other items.

The more voluminous files relate to activities regarding petroleum, natural gas, environment, ecology, cofinancing, budget and work program, project implementation review, and project performance audit. Because of the EISIC filing system that interfiled sector records, these files also represent the industry sector including industrial development finance (IDF) operations. Files titled "general energy correspondence" cover a broad range of topics ranging from routine to substantive matters. The latter includes: confirmations on appointments and divisional assignments or responsibilities from regional chiefs copied to sector; Bank programs and activities in related sectors; procedural changes (i.e. project pre-briefs); training requirements, and Industry Department implementation review. Routine administrative matters cover staffing, Bank employment, word processing, travel schedules, and Board schedules.

A set of "energy and industry staff" files relate to the EIS departments that reported to EISVP under SVPOP between 1982 and 1987. These department files discuss recruitment, management and divisional retreat summaries, sector work, ESMAP tasks and country work, and assignment of responsibilities. Memoranda between Vice President Jean-Loup Dherse (EISVP), SVPOP, and Director Rovani and others discuss operational initiatives such as an issues paper regarding project financing on limited recourse basis in Bank projects, proposal of EIS support, and other business activities.

Liaison, partnerships and program collaboration

Series consists of records related to collaborative activities and partnerships between the Industry and Energy (IEN) Department units and mostly external organizations, but liaison with Bank Group institutions and internal committees as well. Records cover the period from 1975 to 2013 and provide information about common initiatives with partners, director and senior staff participation on high-level committees or events, and development of collaborative global programs. Most records relate to the energy sector, but content within certain files frequently includes the industry and mining sectors as well. See the arrangement note below for more information.

Liaison with external organizations

The series contains records organized by external organization or Bank Group body, including the International Energy Agency (IEA, 1993 - 1996), Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC, 1975, 1986 - 1988), non-governmental organizations including Bretton Woods Committee (1992 - 1997), Solar Development Corporation (1996 - 1997), the International Finance Corporation (IFC, 1991 - 1992), Economic Development Institute (EDI), now World Bank Institute (WBI, 1994 - 1996), Enron (1993 - 1996), Organizacion Latinoamericana de Energia (OLADE, or Latin American Energy Organization, 1988 - 1990), European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD, 1991), and other research institutions, private foundations, and United States government agencies. A file on the G7 Nuclear Safety Working Group discusses the Chernobyl, Ukraine nuclear plant closure and energy strategies.

These records were primarily maintained by the Power Development, Efficiency & Household Fuels Division (IENPD) and the Office of the Director (IENDR). Files contain internal memoranda, All-in-1 messages, and letters between IEN units and representatives of organizations regarding arrangement of and discussion at meetings, discussion of partnerships and current or potential collaborative activities preparation of implementing agreements, information about ESMAP activities, and knowledge sharing. Other memoranda are between IENDR and Finance and Private Sector Development Vice Presidency (FPD) and other Bank departments including the Office of External Relations. Memoranda are also occasionally in the form of Terms of Reference (TORs) and back-to-office reports, describing events attended. Some files only contain United Nations agency reports and other external annual reports, press clippings, or booklets as reference. A single file consists of a 1975 preliminary briefing note on OPEC regarding optimal pricing policies for OPEC among the records.

Also included in the series are a set of records originally maintained in the Energy and Industry Information Center (EISIC, 1975 - 1987). Most of the files concern the Bank's relationship with United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and contain general correspondence with UNDP (1975 - 1987). Some liaison files reflect joint initiatives between the EGY and Industry Department (IND) departments when they were two separate departments under Energy and Industry Staff Vice Presidency (EISVP).

Other record types consist of copies of Board documents, draft Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs), meeting and seminar agenda, meeting minutes and summaries, presentation slide hard copies, concept papers, TORs, curriculum vitae (CVs), external brochures and reports, and copies of Congressional committee papers.

Global Gas Flaring Reduction Partnership (GGFR)

A large volume of records in the series (2001 - 2013) relate to the Global Gas Flaring Reduction Public-Private Partnership (GGFR) that originated in 2002. Records document the origins of the Bank Group-led Gas Flaring Reduction Initiative in collaboration with the Government of Norway and the role played by the joint Bank and International Finance Company (IFC) department, the Oil, Gas, Mining and Chemicals Department (COC), and its Policy Division (COCPO), later the Sustainable Energy, Gas, Oil, Mining unit [SEGOM]). COCPO was central to planning and organizing the Oslo 2002 conference and discussion of the GGFR Terms of Reference (TORs), arranging subsequent conferences and stakeholder consultations, and preparing and disseminating GGFR studies and reports. Most records were maintained by GGFR Program Manager Bent Svensson who led the task team responsible for implementing GGFR activities and liaising with stakeholders in coordination with the GGFR secretariat.

Correspondence records consist of draft and final outgoing letters, facsimiles, and email hard copies, including invitations to GGFR members and facsimiles sent by IFC Executive Vice President Peter L. Woicke and jointly authored letters with partner European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) inviting attendees to workshops, forums, and similar events. Other correspondence is with consultants recruited to conduct gas flaring studies and internal hard copy emails regarding meeting planning, launching events, and press arrangements. Other records filed with correspondence include: draft and final TORs including for the GGFR partnership; summary action plans and activity descriptions; draft country profile information including summary of Bank work activities; progress and final reports; consultation briefing notes; agenda and meeting summaries with stakeholders and partners; data tables; budget sheets; GGFR promotional materials such as brochures; draft workshop session notes; speeches and talking points; presenter biographies; presentation slides; handwritten notes; and reference material suchas newsletters and webpage hard copies.

A small volume of records relate to financing GGFR activities through a multi-donor trust fund and include: agreements and amendments signed by COC director; initiating brief for trust funds (IBTFs); notice of contributions; letters and hard copy emails with donors or between COC units and GGFR secretariat regarding financing agreements and the transfer and use of funds; quarterly and annual financial reports, and other reports prepared and submitted by Svensson; GGFR steering committee minutes; briefing papers; and confidentiality agreements.

GGFR is governed by a Steering Committee that was chaired by COC Director Rashad-Rudolf Kaldany at its establishment. Steering Committee records (2002 - 2013) were maintained by COCPO and SEGOM in addition to International Gas Flaring Reduction conferences, GGFR regional conferences, and workshops on carbon credits and best practice, standards, and guidelines for flaring reduction. Records include invitation letters, quarterly updates to committee members, agenda, minutes, list of participants, briefing papers, and reports for review. Also included are two files related to the World Summit on Sustainable Development (2002).

Extractive Industries Review (EIR)

Series also contains records related to the Extractive Industries Review (EIR) to examine the role, and future of, the Bank Group in the oil, gas, and mining sectors that was established in July 2001 and led by Dr. Emil Salim. Salim, a former minister of the Government of Indonesia, was appointed by Bank Group President Wolfensohn. Records cover the period 2000 to 2004 and appear to be maintained by both the EIR secretariat and the joint Bank-IFC Oil, Gas, and Chemicals Department (COC), Policy Division, Oil and Gas (COCPO), and the Mining Department director (CMNDR) in support of planning and developing EIR activities. Files relate to EIR activities and events including the planning workshop in Brussels (2001), multistakeholder consultation workshops in Africa, Asia Pacific, Europe and Central Asia, and Middle East and North Africa (2003), advisory group feedback meetings and final workshop (2003), and other meetings. These files, as well as a set of chronological correspondence files, contain mostly email hard copies between the EIR secretariat, consultation participants, and consultants and between COC and IFC senior management and staff. Topics covered in the correspondence include comments on EIR drafts and submissions to the review, nominations for advisory group membership (with participant lists and CVs), representation of regions, comments on consultation workshop reports, budget and trust funds, communications strategy, planning and discussion around Bank Group oil and gas activities, and event administration and logistics. Correspondence between Salim and EIR secretariat discuss managing and planning EIR work, schedule, budget, consultants, sharing of information and articles, status of EIR recommendations and finalizing report, planning of meetings with Bank senior staff, country visits and itineraries, advisory group member selection, and withdrawals of EIR process. There is also correspondence between Salim and Bank Group President Wolfensohn, Director Kaldany, Mining Director James Bond, and IFC officials, discussing EIR activities, meetings, and an amendment to the EIR TORs.

Record types consist of: EIR executive summary recommendations draft outlines; meeting minutes or summaries; lists of participants; hard copies of slide presentations; draft and final EIR TORs; aide-memoire; consultation reports; testimonial reports and transcripts of regional and informal consultations; background papers including one on Bank Group activities in the extractive industries by COCPO; hard copies of slide presentations; handwritten notes; draft and final OED approach paper Evaluation of World Bank Group Activities in the Energy and Extractives sector; external reports, brochures, and articles regarding extractive industries; and more.

A smaller volume of files concerning Salim's project field visits (2000 - 2003) to Asia and Africa (Chad Cameroon oil pipeline project) include a briefing book, and planning records such as: email hard copies of travel arrangements discussion of case studies, outreach and workshops, and Bank group oil, gas and mining investments data; agenda and itineraries; EIR project sheets; country briefs; and external reports, press clippings, and other reference documentation on oil spills and pipelines.

Records are mostly in English with some correspondence and press clippings in French. EIR official reports and stakeholder letters are also in French, Russian, and Spanish.

Committees, task forces, and working groups

The series also contains records of energy sector management and senior staff participation in various external and Bank-wide committees. Most records relate to the International Gas Union (IGU) Council meetings and committees (1988 - 1994) that energy division chiefs participated in, on behalf of the Bank. Energy Development Division Chief Gunter Schramm (IENED) presented in 1989 on the Bank's work in hydrocarbons and future liaison with Bank-IGU. Included in the records are council agenda, minutes, reports, background papers, study proposals, BTORs following meetings, and mostly routine correspondence regarding administrative arrangements.

There are also files relating to the Energy Sector Board (1992 - 1996) created in 1993 and its sub-committee on staffing including meeting announcements and lists of participants, occasionallyagenda and minutes focusing on project updates, reports, position descriptions, and All-in-1 notes regarding board membership, energy policy strategy. Other files relate to the sector's participation in the Multilateral Development Bank Task Force (1995 - 1997), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 1995) and smaller files on Finance and Private Sector Development Vice Presidency (FPD) task forces, advisory committee, working groups on quality enhancement of projects and on large dams (1993 - 1997).

Trust fund program management

A small set of records relate to IENDR, its divisions, and successors' management of trust funds to support energy sector programs and activities in member countries. Three files document the establishment of the Danish Trust Fund for Rural and Renewable Energy and subsequent activities financed by the Government of Denmark (1997 - 2003) including the Africa Rural and Renewable Energy Initiative (AFRREI). Correspondence is filed with Bank-authored progress reports, financial statements, presentation slide hard copies, and other items. There is also an individual file related to an agreement and financial support between the Government of Israel and the Bank for a gas strategy study for Israel (1995).

Knowledge and learning events and products

Series consists of records related to conferences, symposia, seminars, workshops, roundtables, and similar knowledge and learning events that were developed and hosted by Industry and Energy Department (IEN) energy units or attended by sector directors and staff. A portion of files also relate to sector staff's participation in preparatory work for events such as conference steering committees and the vetting of papers submitted. The series also contains newsletters as well as published and unpublished articles and reports authored or co-authored by sector staff. The earliest records dated 1984 are copies of externally authored discussion and presentation papers. Records were created and maintained by various units such as: Industry and Energy Office of the Director (IENDR), Natural Gas Development Unit (IENGU), Power Development, Efficiency & Household Fuels Division (IENPD), and ESMAP Operations Division (ESMOD).

Conferences, seminars, and similar events that were organized as Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) technical assistance or relating to other ESMAP projects are not included in this series if there was a clear distinction. See the related units of description note below for more information.

Conferences, seminars, other knowledge and learning events

Records reflect IEN Director Richard Stern's attendance and or participation including as a panel member at various international conferences and symposia such as the World Energy Council Congress (1995) and World Economic Development Congress Power Project Finance Summit. Stern also maintained records of World Bank seminars conducted by his division chiefs and staff as reference (Seminar on Technical and Economic Nuclear Issues, 1994). There is also a small volume of files containing papers presented by IENDR Adviser Dennis Anderson on the Bank's solar initiative experience to date at the International Symposium on the Grand Solar Challenge (1995) with other event records. Also included are a draft and three computer disks relatedto Anderson's paper "Energy, Environment and Economy". Knowledge and learning event records were largely maintained by IEN divisions. The whole of the records of IENDR and divisions cover the period 1988 to 1998.

Records consist of facsimiles and letters sent to participants or organizers covering invitations to the event and preparation of the agenda, and internal memoranda between IENDR, division management, and staff discussing the organization of speakers, selection of panels and topics, administrative arrangements, and follow-up to various events. Memoranda are often in the form of Terms of Reference (TORs), back-to-office-reports, and summaries of discussions, together with an attached event program, drafts and final agenda, presentation slide hard copies, or the paper presented at the event, some of which are externally authored papers. Additional record types in the series include: conference session papers; lists of participants and speakers; program and presentation outlines and notes; papers prepared by sector staff or consultants; working papers and reports produced by participants or external authors; transparency slides; biographical sketches of presenters; and press clippings or articles.

Specific topics represented in the knowledge and learning events include, but are not limited to: seminars concerning power sector regulatory issues; structure and pricing; energy policy; power system planning; natural gas; electricity and gas trade; financing energy; roundtables on energy efficiency; independent power projects; or power supply in low- and lower-middle income countries; International Gas Trade Roundtable; and workshops on renewable energy; oil and gas; commercialization of natural gas; and annual World Bank Energy Workshops.

There are also individual files regarding Bank Group and International Monetary Fund Annual Meetings (1994 - 1996), IEN road shows and products (1992 - 1994), Task Managers' Workshop on Global Environment Facility Global Warming Projects sponsored by Global Environment Coordination Division (ENVCG) and partners, Mining and the Community for Asian and Pacific Nations (1998), China Coal Sector Development and Reform Conference World Bank and ESMAP (2003), and various other events.

Speeches, newsletters, publications, and other material

The series contains speeches of the first IEN Director, Anthony Churchill, given at various external conferences and events (1990 - 1993) and speeches on the topic of energy and the environment given at conferences and similar events by Churchill and others including Bank Group President Barber B. Conable and Energy Strategy, Management, and Assessment (IENES) Division Chief Robert J. Saunders at the ESMAP consultative meeting, 1988. A single file containing material for speeches on gas mostly contains papers authored by IENGU chief and draft papers used for the 1992 World Development Report (WDR) related to natural gas benefits to the environment, gas activities of ESMAP, and letters to external peers requesting review and comments.

Series also consists of two files of publications and computer disks maintained by Anderson on various energy and environment topics that he mostly authored and co-authored (1988 - 1996). Files contain an item list of papers, final drafts, final papers published in academic journals and at conferences, and a draft for the new Finance and Private Sector Development Vice Presidency (FPD) series on "Approaches to Private Power". Publication topics include: cost effectiveness in addressing the CO2 problem; cost of nuclear power and fossil fuels; sustainable development; energy efficiency and pollution; industry and the environment; and more. The files also contain some papers by other colleagues including "Transportation and CO2 Emissions: Flexing the Link - A Strategy for the World Bank".

There are also two files containing internally produced newsletters (1994 - 1996), including Oil and Gas, Energy Notes, FPD Notes about the activities of Finance and Private Sector Development Vice Presidency, internal memoranda about the publications, and external press articles about the Bank sectors.

Three training-related files relate to Monitoring Training Program and IEN Support Staff Workshop (1993 - 1995) as well as IENGU gas training (1989 - 1990).

Operational support and ESMAP project management

Series consists of records related to the Energy Department (EGY) and successor divisions and units' support to project lending, technical assistance, implementation of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)/World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) projects, economic and sector work (ESW), and other sector analyses. The earliest records in the series are externally produced geological maps (Ghana, 1958), seismic maps, and external technical reports starting from 1959 that were kept as reference mainly for ESMAP energy assessments and petroleum exploration projects.

Related sectors such as industry, forestry, and environment are occasionally represented in the project records, usually in the form of copies of staff appraisal reports, other sector project documents, or memoranda regarding collaboration and information sharing. The series also contains records created in support of mining operational activities primarily during the period of the Oil, Gas, Mining, and Chemicals Department (COC, 2002 - 2010).

The following are three major groupings of records: Energy Assessment Programme (EAP) and ESMAP projects; Bank project lending, cross support and ESW; and general country and topical files. These are described further below. Each grouping represents several different units that maintained the records and these units' separate recordkeeping systems over time.

EAP and ESMAP project records

The largest volume of records in the series (1958 - 2002) relate to energy sector projects to aid low- and lower-middle income countries, particularly oil-importing nations, that were carried out under ESMAP and its precursor program, EAP. In operation from 1980 to 1987, EAP was the technical assistance program co-sponsored by UNDP and the Bank to diagnose a country's most serious energy problems and evaluate options. Assessment missions produced reports for over 70 countries. ESMAP was created in 1983 as a trust-funded program to complement EAP and implement the assessment priorities. After EAP ended in 1987, ESMAP took over assessment work. As the executing agency for ESMAP and EAP, the Energy Department units and successor Industry and Energy Department (IEN) units were responsible for implementing the program and its projects, providing management and budgetary support, recruiting consultants, and preparing reports. From December 1991 to December 1992 when ESMAP was an independent department from IEN, the ESMAP Operations Division (ESMOD) and ESMAP Strategy and Programs Division (ESMPD) carried out ESMAP projects. Since ESMAP's establishment, projects were frequently undertaken in collaboration with consultants who visited project recipients and field sites, researched and collected data, and prepared reports.

ESMAP projects included various activities in the areas of: assessments, project formulation and justification (feasibility and prefeasibility studies), and institutional and policy support (technical assistance, strategies, etc.). Projects were financed or cofinanced by UNDP, theBank, and bilateral and multilateral donors.

The records document the initiation, analysis, preparation, and implementation stages of ESMAP projects in the energy subsectors in collaboration with the Bank's regional operational units, UNDP Division for Global and Interregional Projects, UNDP resident representatives, and occasionally the Bank's Industry Department units. Regional units were involved in the design, review, and dissemination of the country assessments and other ESMAP projects. Although a majority of projects are country-specific, a portion of records relate to regional and global projects. The records also provide insight into the program's evolution to meet the complex demands and diversity of the energy sector.

An early focus of ESMAP was household energy and a study series called ESMAP Household Energy Strategy Studies (HESS) was produced. These were country-based strategies to assist governments to improve capacity to transition from traditional to sustainable energy systems for households in urban and rural locations and establish regulatory reforms. Many, but not all, of the studies were conducted in African countries and published as ESMAP papers (ESM and other numbered reports) beginning in the early 1990s. There are also records from the early 1980s to the 1990s that are related to the Biomass Gasifier Monitoring Program.

Other ESMAP project topics and related research include: electricity; rural electrification; petroleum (oil and natural gas) development and conservation; improved stove; kerosene and liquified gas stoves; environment health and safety; power and gas pipelines; gas flaring reduction; greenhouse gas reduction; clean coal; heat supply restructuring and conservation; wind farm development; photovoltaic systems and technology; waste to energy; women in energy; and energy sector reform. Certain ESMAP project files also relate to the industry sector: industrial energy efficiency; industrial energy conservation (including Sri Lanka and Senegal); interfuel substitution and power generation; and energy efficiency in the fertilizer and cement industries (including Syria and Poland).

Record types include: ESMAP task descriptions; drafts and final Activity Initiation Briefs (AIB); AIB background and project proposals; initiating project memoranda; draft contracts; copies of regional unit back-to-office reports (BTORs) of project missions; BTORs of ESMAP assessment missions, project preparation, and follow-up missions; Terms of Reference (TORs); aide-memoires detailing conclusions of missions; final draft (yellow cover) Activity Completion Reports (ACRs) circulated for review and approval; approved draft (green cover) ACRs; project working papers; energy audit reports; consultant reports; agenda and minutes of internal meetings and with government officials and copies of review meetings prepared by regional units; budget sheets; final and draft ESMAP country assessment reports; assessment status reports; UNDP project documents; data tables, i.e. consumption calculations, conversion factors; handwritten notes and data; press clippings; and external reference material such as discussion and conference papers, government and corporate reports, guidelines, legislation, and equipment brochures. The reference materials were created and compiled by staff and consultants when conducting research work for ESMAP projects such as energy assessments, strategy studies, and surveys.

Correspondence consists of memoranda, letters, cables, facsimiles, or All-in-1 hard copy messages between the energy units and regional units or consultants, Bank resident missions, government officials, or UNDP representatives. Topics discussed in the correspondence include requests for ESMAP assistance, resource allocation, collaboration between energy sector units and regional units, sharing project information and updates, reporting on project issues or field investigations, data collection, financing and allocating resources for projects, dissemination of reports, recruitment and reporting of consultants, and other operational and administrative matters. In addition to textual records, there are also an undetermined number of technical drawings, geological and country maps, and computer disks.

ESMAP project records also relate to the organization and delivery of regional and country-based seminars, workshops, and conferences that were often included as a training component in the technical assistance projects as early as 1983. These workshops and similar events evolved into a knowledge dissemination function likely in the late 1990s or early 2000s. The events were organized by EGY and IEN division staff in coordination with regional staff, and often involved the recruitment of external consultants to develop materials or background papers or conduct the learning events. Specific conference or seminar topics include but are not limited to, energy efficiency, energy conservation, energy strategy for rural and low-income urban communities, reducing electric power system losses in Africa, and a global windmill testing program workshop.

Record types found in the seminar and workshop files are similar in content to other ESMAP operational files and include: draft and final AIB for the seminar or workshop; proceedings; speeches and addresses; conference agenda and program description with lists of participants; BTORs; TORs; aide-memoires; draft and final workshop reports; copies of consultant contracts; and evaluation summaries. Correspondence such as incoming and outgoing letters, cables, facsimiles, and hard copy emails between IEN staff, government officials, private sector, and consultants document administrative and financial arrangements, invitations, selection of speakers, participants and consultants, collaboration with Economic Development Institute (EDI), outreach, and event follow up. The correspondence also covers substantive matters such as roundtable discussions, policy, statistical data provided in support of a study or event, and sharing of country sector information.

Less commonly, ESMAP funds were also used for assistance in organizing energy sector donor meetings for specific countries such as Senegal (1985 - 1986); a very small volume of records relate to these meetings and preparations.

A small portion of correspondence and other records maintained in the Non-Regional Information Center (NRIC) indicate the UNDP project identifier number and are nearly all general files related to ESMAP (1981 - 1987) or assessments (1980 - 1986) and Biomass Gasifier Monitoring Program (1983 - 1987) that were financed, or partially financed, by UNDP under ESMAP. Other project files relating to testing and demonstration of solar pumping systems and renewable energy technologies do not always include mention of ESMAP and may be separate projects.

Project lending, cross support records, and Economic and Sector Work (ESW)

Records in the series also reflect EGY, IEN, and successor energy units' support to project identification, preparation, and supervision for investment, structural adjustment, and other development projects that were financed, cofinanced, or managed by the Bank's regional operations units (approximately 1980 - 2010) with reference material dating from the early 1960s. These include completed and dropped projects. Energy sector units aided project preparation by selecting and recruiting consultants and supporting consultant work and reports. They also reviewed operational documents and provided guidance, advice, or analytical tools to regional offices.

Projects involved, but are not limited to, petroleum exploration (both oil and natural gas), hydroelectric power, power distribution and efficiency, gas engineering, gas utilization, and energy sector rehabilitation. Specific projects supported by the COC mining and energy units that represent the more extensive files include: Mining Sector Capacity Building and Environmental Management Project - Burkina Faso P000283; Mine Closure and Social Mitigation Project - Romania P056337; Sustainable Management of Mineral Resources - Nigeria P086716; Mineral Resources Management Capacity Building Project - Mozambique P001808; Energy Conservation Project - China P003606; Coal Sector Rehabilitation Project - India P009979; and Environmental Management Capacity Building Pilot Project of the Hydrocarbon Sector - Bolivia P065902.

Record types include: memoranda sent and received by the energy units discussing project support, progress, or provision of comments on reports; minutes of meetings; notes for files; briefing papers; BTORs; aide-memoires; white cover reportcopies; supervision reports; project performance audit reports; aide-memories resulting from review missions by regional staff and or consultants; consultant proposals; CVs; draft reports, particularly from the gas industry; copies of loan agreements and related documents; and externally produced geological maps.

From time to time, ESMAP externally funded staff would provide cross support to the Bank's country departments on economic and sector work and technical assistance, as well as lending preparation and appraisal, at the financial expense of the country departments. Cross support records are also reflected in this series and include: ESMAP and consultant feasibility reports and studies; BTORs; curriculum vitaes of consultants; letters and facsimiles and other correspondence (between IEN, consultant, government officials) concerning progress on reports, project status and country energy situation, procurement matters; and internal memoranda or All-in-1 hard copy messages between IEN and regional units.

Series also contains records created and compiled by EGY and successor unit staff to produce the ESW analytical reports that helped direct development programs and project lending. Records span the period from approximately 1978 to 1996 and include: surveys; survey result reports; draft and final study reports, including World Bank Study of multiple country energy topics; working papers; TORs; Board documents; proposals; internal memoranda between IEN divisions and regional units; letters to and from external parties regarding collaboration on studies; statements and speeches of IEN director or Bank Group senior management; and background documents including external reports, national energy legislation, and supporting data such as pricing figures. Numerous files (for which approximate dates follow), relate to reviews of Bank lending for natural gas (approximately 1983 - 1992), petroleum, oil and gas contracts, privatization and other issues (1978 - 1991), Indonesia gas development planning (1988 - 1993), electricity (1989 - 1993), various environment matters (1988 - 1993), ESMAP, and files by country or region.

General country and topical files

General country and topical files in the series (1980s - 2005) are labeled as such and include a mix of reports, correspondence, and other records related to both ESMAP and Bank lending activities in oil, gas, and mining as well as country studies and reports in these sectors. A portion of the mining files titled "development activities" are organized by country. These records describe the status of mining projects, investments, and development activities, as well as discuss government policy in member countries and minerals and mining issues including conflict diamonds and coal. Other country and subject files (1992 - 2004), although fragmentary, contain mostly hard copy emails and related records maintained by Craig B. Andrews (Industry and Mining Division, IENIM) and Jeffrey Davidson (Policy Division, Industry and Mining (CMNPO), later the Policy Division, Oil, Gas and Mining (COCPO). These files relate to operational and project support of IFC/Bank projects in oil and gas and mining and mining activities in Nicaragua, Senegal, Burkina Faso, and Madagascar.

A set of IEN subject files (1987 - 1998) shared by the Power Development, Efficiency and Household Fuels Division (IENPD), Oil and Gas Division (IENOG) broadly cover project management and program support topics. The files were further classified into Country Area Programs (CAP) and Management or Program Support (MPS). There appears to be some overlap between the two. Many of the files relate to ESMAP projects including proposals, assessments, recruitment and reporting of consultants, and arrangement and delivery of ESMAP workshops. Other management or program support files relate to organization and delivery of Energy Week program, global themes such as energy efficiency and renewable energy, clean coal case studies, and country-level activities. Specific record types include many of those mentioned in the above sections.

Operations research and reference material

Series consists of records created and received by the Energy Department units, successors, and consultants in conducting research and analysis in support of operations projects, programs, initiatives, and sector topics. The results of research involving technical, economic, and environmental issues within the energy sector were often disseminated and published in the form of departmental working papers or ESMAP Papers.

Record types include: back-to-office reports (including copies of regional unit BTORs); Terms of Reference (TORs); ESMAP reports; proposals; staff appraisal reports; project completion reports (PCRs); consultant reports; statistical data tables and worksheets; background papers; handwritten notes; United Nations project documents; and external guidelines, reports, brochures, press clippings, and articles.

Research papers and studies

The largest volume of records in the series (1985 - 1992) are those concerning research related to the Electric Power Utility Efficiency Study (EPUES). EPUES was a research study funded by bilateral donors, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and the Bank that was organized in January 1989 to investigate the causes of poor power plant performance in developing countries, to measure related economic and financial costs, and prepare programs and guidelines to improve performance. As the executing agency on behalf of the Bank, records were created and received by Industry and Energy (IEN) unit staff including Energy Development Division (IENED) while managing the study and consultants. Records document the preparation of the study, development of guidelines, multilateral and research collaboration, and communication with donor agencies. There are also records concerning the EPUES Steering Committee such as draft and final minutes, and reports or summaries of UNDP and EPUES missions. The topicsexamined included power system efficiency, power transmission and distribution, power sector rehabilitation, power sector lending, and environmental and efficiency measures for diesel electric power plants. Several files relate to Somalia and general regions of Africa and Latin America.

Another set of records primarily maintained by Shigeru Kubota (Industry and Energy Division, EMTIE), relate to rural development, oil and gas, and energy situation in the Soviet Union and post-Soviet Russia (1991 - 1993).Several of the press clippings, articles, and reports are in Japanese language.

Two files relate to the research fellow program (1990 - 1991) that was launched by the Bank in 1989 to draw development research scholars into research activities. The file contains internal memoranda regarding nominations with curriculum vitae (CV)s, outline of proposed IEN study, and external reference material.

Reference material

Series also contains assorted reference materials maintained by the Natural Gas Development Unit, Industry and Energy Department (IENGU) and its successor, Oil and Gas Division (IENOG) concerning various oil and gas topics and information about Bank energy activities (1987 - 1993). There are several files of press clippings and articles from various international newspapers about the "new" natural gas unit (1989) and the petroleum industry. A portion of files also contain internal and external study papers, Policy Planning Review technical papers, memoranda regarding publication of papers andpeer review, and other items.

Another set of miscellaneous files (1990 - 1995) include worksheets, externally printed material of international oil companies, brochures, World Energy Council 15th Congress technical session bound reports, handwritten notes, and presentation slides of external presenters at the 1994 World Bank energy efficiency roundtable.

NRIC and EISIC correspondence and related records

A small portion of records originally maintained in the Non-Regional Information Center (NRIC) dated 1977 to 1984 are mostly comprised of internal memoranda between EGY assistant directors, division chiefs, advisers, and regional units. Topics include comments on EGY research proposals, internal EGY discussions on proposals, planning and preparation of studies, and research grants. Other records occasionally filed with the correspondence include study TORs and reports. Two of these files relate to a thermal generation study (1980).

Three files maintained in the Energy and Industry Information Center (EISIC) include mostly copies of memoranda between EGY director, division chiefs, and Central Projects Staff Vice Presidency discussing sector research priorities, the Bank's research program, quarterly progress report IDP policy and research functions, research activities on industry and trade, and Research Committee activities (1975 - 1986).

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