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Correspondence of Masood Ahmed, Director, International Economics Department (IEC) Concerning Joint World Bank-IMF Development Committees, Annual Meetings , and Seminars

This series consists of five parts and includes records related to the Joint World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) committees, meetings, and seminars in which Masood Ahmed participated during his time as Director of the International Economics Department (IEC). IEC played a key role in joint Bank-IMF initiatives by providing statistical data and publications on macroeconomic projections, multilateral-debt, and trade forecasting. Much of this was done in collaboration with the IMF's Statistical Department, where IEC and the IMF shared and reviewed data and publications such as the IEC Global Economic Prospects (GEP), World Debt Tables (WDT), and the IMF Statistical Department's World Economic Outlook (WEO). The data provided by IEC and IMF Statistical Department helped to set the agenda for Joint IMF-Bank meetings, and informed subsequent policy development. In addition, IEC senior officials directly participated and advised Bank-IMF efforts, and helped develop the joint Bank-IMF board papers eventually produced by the Development Committee.

The first part of this series includes records from Ahmed's involvement with the joint Bank-IMF Development Committee from January 1994 to December 1997. The records consist of agenda and minutes of meetings, memoranda, and correspondence; copies of statements given by participants in committees; and published reports and joint Bank-IMF papers. Some of the correspondence is internal Bank communications to the Office of the President (EXC), DEC staff, and IEC staff reporting on Committee meetings, or discussing issues or actions related to the meetings. The records primarily focus on the topic of Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and the joint Bank-IMF HIPC Initiative of 1996. Ahmed played a key role in policy advisement for the HIPC Initiative and its subsequent implementation and policy revisions.

The second part of the series consists of files from the joint Bank-IMF Annual Meetings Ahmed attended from 1994 to 1997, including meetings held in: Madrid, 1994; Washington, DC, 1995 and 1996; and Hong Kong, 1997. The records include: briefing books outlining events, topics, and background information; briefs for ad hoc meetings or smaller committee meetings; delegation lists and biographies of participating agencies and individuals; handwritten notes; speech transcripts by Masood Ahmed and others; and correspondence and memoranda related to involvement by IEC units for the Annual Meetings, and related to subsequent reporting in the Annual Meetings to Officeof the President (EXC), the DEC Vice President, IEC officials, or other internal Bank staff.

The third segment of this series is records from the IMF Interim Committee meetings Ahmed attended from 1994 to 1997. The Interim Committee meetings were IMF member only meetings, but the Bank President and other senior officials were invited as observers for each meeting. The Office of the President (EXC) usually had the DEC Vice President or Ahmed attend these meetings in the President's absence. The records consist of agenda and meeting minutes and correspondence sent from the IMF and correspondence and memoranda sent internally between EXC, DEC, and IEC regarding arrangements or attendance at the meeting, and reporting of the meeting.

The fourth part of the series includes records from joint Bank-IMF organized seminars and workshops in which Ahmed participated. These records consist of Severely Indebted Low Income Countries (SILIC) seminars and workshops Ahmed attended from 1994 to 1995 where he helped develop a joint IMF-Bank SILIC paper. Memoranda, correspondence, and drafts document Ahmed's collaboration with the IMF to develop SILIC policy, and also his reporting of his work to the Office of the President (EXC), the DEC Vice President, and other internal Bank staff. Similar records contain transcripts for the Workshop on the Analytical Aspects of the Debt Problems of Heavily-Indebted Countries, 7 February 1996. Agenda, memoranda, correspondence, and copies of presentation speeches are also included for the IMF/Bank Seminar on External Financing for Low Income Countries, 9-12 December 1996.

The last part of the series consists of correspondence, memoranda, and photo static copies of statistical reports and publications sent from the IMF to Ahmed from January 1995 to December 1997. The records document the collaboration between IEC and the IMF Statistical Department.

Correspondence of the Directors, International Economic Department (IECDR) Concerning GATT and WTO

The first part of the series consists primarily of correspondence (1994 - 1996) of Director Masood Ahmed (IECDR) concerning Bank preparations for drafting an agreement between the World Bank and World Trade Organization (WTO). It includes Ahmed's correspondence with Michael Bruno, Vice President and Chief Economist (DECVP), L. Alan Winters, Chief, International Trade Division (IECIT), and other Bank officials throughout the lengthy process of developing a document describing the parameters for a relationship between the Bank and WTO. Comments received from Bank offices on various versions of the document, including the version of the document circulated to the Board on 7 February 1995; a copy of the IMF paper on collaboration with the WTO presented to its Board on 15 February 1995; and the final version of the Agreement between the WTO and World Bank are part of the files. Correspondence concerning a Board Seminar on Bank relations with WTO held in 1995 includes Michael Bruno's 28 July 1995 report to Bank President Wolfensohn on the outcome of the seminar. The first part of the series also includes correspondence and briefing papers prepared for meetings of the Bank and IMF heads (Wolfensohn, Camdessus) with the newly appointed Director, WTO (Ruggiero) in 1995 and a Wolfensohn-Ruggiero meeting in 1996.

The second part of the series contains a copy of a 13 September 1993 letter from IECDR (D.C. Rao) to the Deputy Director General, General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade (GATT, Jesus de Seade) informing him of the closure of the Bank's Geneva Office and the appointment of consultant John Croome to represent the Bank in GATT and Uruguay Round meetings. Copies of Croome's faxed reports to IECIT regarding meetings of the GATT Council, formal Council committees (Trade Policy Review, Trade Negotiations, Market Access, balance-of-Payments), and other formal and informal meetings he attended as the Bank's representative are in both parts of the series.

Correspondence of the Directors-General with the International Finance Corporation (IFC)

The series consists of correspondence primarily between DGO Yves Rovani and IFC Chief Evaluation Officer Walter I. Cohn, and relates to the DGO's responsibility for oversight of IFC's operations evaluation activities. An Operations Evalution Unit (OEU) was established within the Development Department of IFC in 1984. Included are drafts of IFC operations evaluation work programs for fiscal years 1986-1993 forwarded by Cohn to Rovani and to his successor Robert Picciotto for review and comment. Accompanying many of the work programs are proposals for special studies. Draft approach papers for those studies, also forwarded to DGO for review, include those prepared for the following studies: IFC's experience in the tourism sector (1989); performance of IFC's oil and gas exploration program (1991); successful IFC investments in Sub-Saharan Africa (1991); lending for industrial technology development (1992); IFC's market assessments (1992); and IFC's experience in the privatization of State-owned enterprises (1992). Comments prepared by the Country Policy, Industry and Finance Division (OEDD2) on some of the approach papers are included.

Also among the correspondence are comments from the DGOs to Cohn on OEU work programs and use of resources along with notes from the first meeting (July 16, 1986) at which the role of DGO in operations evaluation in IFC was discussed. Also included are: minutes of special meetings of the Portfolio Committee at which IFC evaluation studies were discussed; a list of IFC project completion reports for fiscal year 1982 to fiscal year 1986; a copy of a May 20, 1987, memo distributed to all IFC high level staff on new procedures for project completion reports; and Cohn's February 21, 1991, memorandum copied to Rovani in which he responds extensively to issues raised at an earlier Joint Audit Committee (JAC) Sub-Committee on Operations Evaluation meeting regarding IFC's evaluation capacity, IFC evaluation work, and the relationship between IFC and DGO and OED. In this memo he also responds to issues surrounding a report prepared by OEU on IFC's experience in the agricultural production sector.

A small amount of miscellaneous correspondence arranged by subject (1983 - 1995) includes: formal and informal memoranda and other correspondence between the Director, OEU, Walter I. Cohn and DGO's Mervyn Weiner, Yves Rovani, and Robert Picciotto; approach papers for studies forwarded for approval to DGO before being sent to the JAC, copies of IFC policy papers, and draft IFC evaluation reports, workprograms, and budgets. Also included are an Annual Portfolio Evaluation Report for FY 1983 and an updated mandate statement for evaluation in the Bank and IFC that reflects findings of the March 1995 report of the review of evaluation in IFC.

Subject files (1980 - 1995) found with the correspondence include the report of IFC's first evaluation of a segment of its portfolio of investments, IFC Hotel Portfolio Review, forwarded by DGO Mervyn Wiener to the Joint Audit Committee (JAC) for review on May 11, 1981. Also included are reports of IFC evaluations in the agricultural, mining, and petrochemical sectors completed between 1983 and 1994 and in the cement and textile industries sectors between 1983 and 1989. There are also files containing correspondence and reports relating to: evaluations of successful investments in Sub-Saharan Africa (1994); support for small and medium scale enterprises (1995); investment assessments performed by OED (1992 - 1994); IFC's Five Year Program for fiscal years 1985 - 1989; and the review of evaluation in IFC (1994 - 1995).

A small amount of miscellaneous IFC and OEU reports (1979 - 1989), some of which are annotated, forwarded to DGOs Mervyn Weiner, Yves Rovani, and Robert Picciotto are in the series. A number of these reports were distributed to the Board of Directors including three confidential Project Completion Reports (PCRs) on three IFC investments in Guatemala (1979), Brazil (1979), and Indonesia (1979). These three reports were distributed in January 1980 to the Board based on a decision made at an October 30, 1979, Board meeting. Each director was to receive a copy to indicate the type of PCR IFC had been preparing and to illustrate why caution was necessary when disseminating information contained in the reports. Other IFC reports included are: Annual Portfolio Evaluation Reports for fiscal years 1984 and 1986 - 1988; a report entitled Deterioration in IFC's Portfolio: An Analysis (March 1985); and a report prepared by a consultant entitled IFC in Sub-Saharan Africa, Proposals for a New Approach (February 1987).

Correspondence of the Directors-General, Operations Evaluation with Bilateral and International Organizations

The series consists of letters, memoranda, and messages between the DGO and the heads of evaluation units of bilateral and international organizations. The series documents primarily the formulation, implementation, and impact of evaluations within these bilateral and international organizations. Some of the correspondence is with the Special Advisor and Assistant to the DGO and the Director, Operations Evaluation Department (OEDDR). The series also contains copies of studies, publications, and reports of audits and evaluations sent to DGO. A copy of a February 15, 1980 memorandum from President Robert S. McNamara to DGO Mervyn L. Weiner addresses Bank support for upgrading national audit institutions. With this memorandum is correspondence describing implementation actions taken by the Bank and cooperation with the International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions (INTOSA).

Correspondence with Executive Directors

Series contains primarily outgoing copies of memoranda and typewritten or handwritten notes sent or received by Stern relating to his business with Executive Directors. The records span the period when Stern was Senior President of Operations (SVPOP), Senior Vice President of Finance (FINSV), and Managing Director and therefore documents a crossover of operational, financial, and executive management matters. Correspondence is addressed to and from individual or all Executives Directors as a group, or is authored by other senior officials and sent to Stern for his consideration or comments. A significant volume of the correspondence contains attached letters, reports and telexes and covers issues including: county projects, loans and repayments; aid coordination; International Development Association (IDA) resources; and governance and operational policy and procedures such as Board management and overdue loans and arrears.

Correspondence with Volume II authors

The World Bank History Project commissioned essays for the second volume of the history. This series contains the correspondence between the project staff and the essay authors and some correspondence between readers of draft essays and the project staff. Also included is correspondence about essays that ultimately were not included in the volume.

Correspondence with World Bank President

Series contains Qureshi's correspondence with Bank Presidents Robert S. McNamara, Alden W. Clausen, and Barber Conable beginning when Qureshi was both Executive Vice President of the International Finance Corporation (IFC) and Vice President Finance, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) in 1979 to his retirement in 1991 as Senior Vice President for Operations.

Although Qureshi maintained this correspondence in a single chronological series, the nature of the files changes somewhatwith each president. Records from the McNamara era, 1979-1981, include: copies of notes and memoranda sent by or through Qureshi to McNamara; copies of letters forwarded by Qureshi to McNamara for his signature; letters forwarded to McNamara by others and copied to Qureshi; copies of letters and memoranda McNamara sent to others and copied to Qureshi; and memoranda "to the files" summarizing important meetings that McNamara held with others and that Qureshi attended as an observer and/or recorder. Many of Quresh's memoranda to McNamara were returned with extensive handwritten comments and/or replies from McNamara. In many cases, a typed version of McNamara's handwritten comments is also attached to the incoming correspondence.

Records from the Clausen era, 1981-1986, primarily consist of: copies of letters Clausen sent to others and copied to Qureshi; copies of memoranda and notes sent by or through Qureshi to Clausen; and copies of letters Qureshi and his staff prepared for Clausen's signature.

Topics covered in the files during the McNamara and Conable presidencies include (but are not limited to): draft Board papers; Bank borrowing operations; World Bank capital increases; International Development Association (IDA) replenishments; currency management; fiscal projections and monthly financial reports; work program and budget; and staffing requirements and personnel matters.

Records from the Conable era, 1986-1991, include: copies of letters Conable sent to others and copied to Qureshi; copies of memoranda and notes sent by or through Qureshi to Conable; and copies of correspondence Qureshi and his staff prepared for Conable's signature. None of Qureshi's correspondence to Conable were returned with the President's comments. Memoranda and notes that Conable sent directly to Qureshi are filed in Qureshi's subject files.

Most of the correspondence from Conable's era was sent when Qureshi was Senior Vice President for Operations (SVPOP) beginning in 1987. Correspondence covers subjects including: debt; Special Action Program for African countries; International Development Association (IDA) allocations; country lending and emergency situations; and adjustment lending and operations.

The series also contains an index of all of Qureshi's correspondence, 1979-1991, indicating the date, subject, and occasionally, the type of correspondence.

Correspondence with World Bank Presidents

The series consists of correspondence between Stern and World Bank Presidents McNamara, Clausen, Conable, and Preston accumulated over the course of his time at the Bank. Correspondence includes copies of memoranda and attachments authored by Stern and sent to the President as well as some of the President's incoming and outgoing correspondence from others, which was forwarded to Stern. Correspondence serves a variety of purposes: information dissemination; briefing for President's meetings; responding to requests for information; authoring correspondence for the President; and submitting reports, announcements, and correspondence for the President's approval. A small portion of the memoranda are originals sent by Stern or the President, and many also contain attached reports and papers or articles. Other record types include telexes and letters. The files document a broad range of policy and management issues during Stern's various appointments such as country economic issues, debt repayment, World Bank program review and budget, Bank-Fund relations, annual meetings, and women in development. One folder from 1987 to 1990 exclusively relates to activities of the Finance Vice Presidency.

Correspondence/manuscripts by former staff

When the Historian's office was established, a number of former Bank staff contributed documents or reminiscences to the office. This series includes the incoming correspondence and the enclosed papers, reports and manuscripts, some written by the sender and others written by colleagues of the sender. The items cover various topics, including: early Bank operations (William Katzenstein's Budgeting in the World Bank, 1947-1956); language training; and the Young Professionals program.

Items within this series may also be found among the records of the Bank, but these copies were regarded by their authors or possessors as so significant that the Historian's office needed to be made aware of them.

Country Assistance Evaluations

The series consists of Country Assistance Reviews (CARs), Country Assistance Notes (CANs), Country Assistance Evaluations (CAEs), and related records created by the OED. Country Assistance Reviews (CARs) were launched in 1994 when they were endorsed by the Joint Audit Committee (JAC) Subcommittee on OED Reports. OED's first CAR focused on Ghana and was completed late in FY 95. The CARs were, in essence, countrywide impact evaluations that concentrated on the overall impact and development effectiveness of the Bank's whole program of assistance (for both lending and non-lending activities) to a country over a number of years, usually a decade. They evaluated the Bank's overall assistance program to a country in the same way that performance audits evaluated individual projects. CARs processing schedules were eventually timed and designed so as to be useful inputs into the preparatory work for the corresponding Country Assistance Strategy by both Bank staff and government officials and to provide the ExecutiveBoard with an up-to-date, independent evaluation of past results of Bank assistance one to three months in advance of the scheduled CAS consideration.

Country Assistance Notes (CANs) were introduced in 1997 as a way to speed the process of country assistance evaluations. CANs were meant to be mini-CARs and thus were more limited in the scope and/or time frame covered. For example, CARs covered all relevant sectors of a country, whereas the CANs were more selective. The rationale for introducing the CANs was to achieve greater coverage of countries in the short term. After the introduction of CANs, CARs were limited to the largest borrowers, in total or per capita, or to outliers in terms of performance and GDP per capita. CANs were produced for countries undergoing a second evaluation and for which a CAR had previously been produced. The length of both the CARs and CANs changed over time. The first CARs were typically about 100 pages; later CARs were limited to 15 to 30 pages of main report. The CANs were shortened to 5 to 15 pages. As time went by, OED softened the distinction between CARs and CANs and by the late 1990s, the country-wide evaluations were simply referred to as Country Assistance Evaluations (CAEs), but OED did generate mini CAEs that were the equivalent of CANs.

CARs, CANs, and CAEs were based largely on a review of OED and Bank Reports available in Washington: Staff Appraisal Reports; Performance Audit and Implementation Completion Reports; Country Assistance Program/Strategy Papers; Country Briefs; Country Economic Memoranda; sector reports; Country Risk Assessments; management briefs for the Annual Meetings and for high-level field visits; and project and general country files. They also relied on direct interviews with key current and former government officials, other relevant national and/or association representatives, donor representatives, and current and former Bank staff members. CANs did not usually involve an OED mission to the client country and personal contact with other donors, whereas CARs may have involved more than one mission and increasingly included evaluation participants from other donor agencies. CARs, CANs, and CAEs were all prepared in close consultation with the Regional operational staff.

The content of the files for the country assistance evaluations varies somewhat but the more complete files contain: copies of the previous OED and Bank studies and reports for the country; Terms of Reference for the OED staff members and/or consultants assigned to the project team; drafts of the Approach Paper and Study Design Paper; memoranda and correspondence regarding the team's travel plans if a mission to the client country was required; a Back-to-Office Report regarding the mission; intra-OED correspondence regarding the format for the evaluation; various drafts of the evaluation; minutes of One-Stop Review Meetings at which the top OED managers evaluated progress on or reviewed a draft of the evaluation; comments on the drafts from OED and Regional staff, officials in the client country, and representatives from other aid/lending organization; drafts of the DGO's comments to CODE regarding the evaluation; minutes of CODE meetings at which the evaluation was discussed; drafts of the DGO's transmittal memorandum to the Executive Directors and the President; summaries of the Executive Directors' discussion of the report and copies of the chairman's published comments; drafts of the management response to the evaluation; a draft of the OED Fast Track Brief and Precis regarding the evaluation; the final, published (grey cover) evaluation; and letters transmitting the final, published evaluation to officials in the client country. A few files also contain questionnaires completed by stakeholders, paper copies made from computer-assisted presentations, and copies of records used in workshops held for various stakeholders.

All of the country assistance evaluations in this series were generated by the OED's Country Evaluation and Regional Relations Division/Group (OEDCR) and its predecessor, the Country Policy, Industry and Finance Division (OEDD2). The series contains reports and related working files for many countries, including: the Russian Federation, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Paraguay, El Salvador, Brazil, Peru, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Chile, Guinea, Niger, Eritrea, Zambia, Lesotho, Jordan, Mongolia, India, Zambia, Yemen, Tunisia, Nepal, Pakistan, Costa Rica, Malawi, Kenya, Thailand, Cameroon, Zimbabwe, Uruguay, Croatia, Uganda, Ghana, Cote D'Ivoire, Cambodia, Mozambique, West Bank and Gaza, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Ecuador, Tanzania, India, Poland, Ecuador, Argentina, Chile, Maldives, Kazakhstan, Indonesia, Morocco, Mexico, Albania, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Egypt, Jamaica, Sri Lanka, Tgo, Ukraine, Brazil, Armenia, Belarus, Bolivia, Nepal, China, and Turkey. Of special note in this series is the extensive documentation for the CAR for India completed by a team headed by Gianni Zanini and issued in 2001. In addition to the usual documentation generatedfor a country assistance evaluation, the files for the India CAR include an extensive collection of Bank reports on India, materials from workshops organized by OED and the South Asia Region from March to May 2000, and twenty or more background papers prepared by OED staff and consultants. Also of note are the voluminous files for the Russian Federation CAR which, in addition to the usual CAE records, include schedules and briefing papers for President Wolfensohn's visits to Moscow in May 1998 and February2000.

Country Director, Africa Regional Vice Presidency (AFRVP) chronological correspondence files

This series contains chronological correspondence files from the last three months of Madavo's time as Country Director in the Africa Regional Vice Presidency (AFRVP). Madavo oversaw the Country Department responsible for lending and country monitoring for Ethiopia, Kenya, Mauritius, Somalia, Sudan, and Uganda. The correspondence is between Madavo and: Bank member government officials including ministers and ambassadors; and Bank staff including the Africa Regional Vice President Kim Jaycox as well as the Bank resident missions of countries in Madavo's department. Topics of correspondence are various but include: proposed and ongoing country projects and technical assistance; country program development; country reports; portfolio review; and travel logistics and expenses.

Country Director, East Asia and Pacific Regional Vice Presidency (EAPVP) chronological correspondence files

This series contains chronological correspondence files from the first year and a half of Madavo's time as Country Director in the East Asia and Pacific Regional Vice Presidency (EAPVP). Madavo oversaw the Country Department responsible for lending and country monitoring for Cambodia, Korea, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Mekong Committee, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. The correspondence is between Madavo and: member government officials including ministers; Bank staff including the East Asia and Pacific Regional Vice President, department division chiefs, and Bank resident missions of countries in Madavo's department; and Bank executive directors. Topics of correspondence are various but include: visits to countries; proposed and ongoing country projects and technical assistance; country tariffs; conference attendance; portfolio review; Country Strategy Paper and sector paper preparation; debt reduction; regional budgeting; staffing; and travel logistics and expenses. In addition to correspondence, other records include: project proposals from countries; minutes of Loan Committee meetings; back-to-office reports; speeches and remarks made by Madavo; briefing notes; and updates on country economic and political developments.

Country Policy Department chronological files

Series consists of chronological files created during Chernick's time as Assistant Director of the Country Policy Department (CPD). The type of activities undertaken by Chernick in the CPD was quite similar to those during his years in PPPRD and, consequently, the types of records are also very similar. The majority of the records consist of correspondence in the form of carbon copies, paper copies, and telexes. Nearly all correspondence was authored by Chernick and there is very little incoming correspondence. Reports sometimes accompany correspondence or are included in the files without accompanying correspondence.

Records relating to country program papers (CPPs) are included in this series, but not in great number. Records generally discuss the scheduling of Regional Vice Presidents (RVP) and Management Review meetings. In addition, Chernick served as Secretariat of the Operations Policy Subcommittee (OPSC). The OPSC was also involved in the review of CPPs and records related to the OPSC in this seriesdiscuss this activity.

Series also consists of regular status reports on Structural Adjustment Lending (SAL) and Program Lending (PL) operations. Other SAL-related records are included, such as Proposed Structural Adjustment Loan and Related Technical Assistance Project reports and SAL Progress Reports.

Between 1982 and 1983, Chernick was on the Steering Group Committee for the Bank's 'Pioneers' of development economics lecture series. His responsibilities included booking guests/speakers, making announcements, booking rooms, and planning Steering Group Committee meetings. Records related to these activities are included in this series.

Records in this series also relate to a variety of other topics and activities, including: seminar attendance and planning; Department retreat planning; and publication of country Economic Memoranda. Other records include: Terms of Reference for Country and Economic and SAL Supervision missions; comments by Chernick on reports and project proposals; Country Economic and Sector Work quality control reports; and administrative and staffing records.

Country Programs Department 1, Europe, Middle East, and North Africa Region (EM1DR) chronological correspondence files

The series includes chronological correspondence files from when Attila Karaosmanoglu served as the Director in the Country Programs Department 1 of the Europe, Middle East, and North Africa Region (EM1DR). The records primarily include incoming and outgoing correspondence and memoranda between Karaosmanoglu and EM1 staff regarding the numerous activities of EM1. Correspondence and memoranda between Karaosmanoglu, the Office of the President (EXC), and members of the Executive Board of Directors are also included.

Country Strategy Papers

Series consists of Moeen Qureshi's set of Country Strategy Papers (CSP) and Country Strategy Notes (CSN), and their predecessor, Country Program Papers (CPP). While Qureshi was both Executive Vice President of the International Finance Corporation (IFC) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development's (IBRD) Vice President of Finance from 1979 to 1980 through his tenure as Senior Vice President, Finance (SVPFI, 1981-1987), the papers were copied to him for his information. The CPPs and CSPs map out the Bank's assistance strategy for a country and were submitted by the Regional Vice Presidencies (RVPs) to the Operations Committee (OC) or the Operations Policy Committee (OPC) for review and approval. Most of Qureshi's files contain copies of the postscripts, which summarize the action taken by the OC, the OPC, or the OPNSV, together with the CPP or CSP, and copies of memoranda to the Senior Vice President for Operations (SVPOP). In a few instances, the country papers maintained when Qureshi was Vice President then Senior Vice President of Finance include attached typewritten notes. The notes were addressed to Qureshi from IBRD/IFC senior staff or were prepared by Qureshi, to provide additional economic information or insight on the country. Some of the files created when Qureshi was SVPOP beginning in 1987 also contain original memos and both review drafts and final versions of CSPs. The few earliest files, from 1974 to 1977, were maintained by Qureshi's IFC predecessor, Ladislaus Von Hoffman.

Country correspondence

The country correspondence files contain miscellaneous correspondence with persons and businesses from particular countries, mostly for the period after Woods' tenure as Bank President. They include invitations, thank you letters,travel arrangements and some printed brochures. In the Pakistan file is a set of material relating to the groundbreaking ceremony for the Tarbela Dam in November 1968.

Country economic research and assessment

The records in this series primarily relate to the World Bank's involvement in the transition from planned to market economies in Russia immediately following the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Records specifically relate to missions made by Bank officials, including John Nellis, to the then Soviet Union in September and October 1990 and to Russia in November 1991 and August and September 1992. Series primarily consists of handwritten notes written by Nellis during these missions.

The 1990 mission to the Soviet Union was the World Bank's first and was undertaken with staff from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. The mission resulted in the publication of the joint authored 'The Economy of the USSR: Summary and Recommendations'. During the trip, John Nellis's role was to examine the prospects for enterprise reform and privatization primarily through interviews with Soviet ministries (including Ministry of Justice and various sector and union ministries), other government officials, companies, financial authorities, and academics.

Notes taken by Nellis during these interviews are included in this series. The handwritten notes are heavily annotated in Nellis's hand. A transcription of the notes is also included as is a brief summary of the trip authored by Nellis and submitted to a select number of Bank staff. Further, notes authored by Nellis for a presentation to Bank President Barber Conable are included. The presentation, dated November 10, 1990, is titled, "Soviet Economic Study: Enterprise Reform and Privatization Component" and summarizes what the mission to the Soviet Union learned about potential enterprise reform and suggests avenues for the Bank's involvement in the reform process. In addition, a World Bank Discussion Paper authored by Nellis entitled "Improving the Performance of Soviet Enterprises" is included. The paper is based on interviews undertaken by Nellis during the 1990 mission and was published in 1991.

Records relating to a second trip to Moscow by Bank officials in November 1991 are also included. The purpose of the trip was to gain knowledge about the state and its economy and advance the process of enterprise reform and privatization. Notes are, again, handwritten and heavily annotated by Nellis. The World Bank team also stopped in Hungary and notes from Nellis's meetings in Budapest are also included. A mission summary authored by Nellis entitled "Privatization in the Republic of Russia" is also included.

Records relating to a third trip to Moscow in August and September of 1992 are also included in this series. Nellis was charged with researching corporate governance and property funds. Again, records include handwritten notes made by Nellis during interviews with Russian government officials and other interested parties, both Russian and international. Topics include: economic and political developments in Russia; privatization efforts; voucher program; corporate governance; finance sector; energy sector; foreign investment; and inflation.

The series also contains a small amount of notes made by Nellis during a series of talks and meetings between May 18, 1992 and May 27, 1992. The notes appear to have come from the same notebook as the Soviet Union/Russia notes. These events include a number of Bank staff and external parties speaking on privatization in Russia and EasternEurope. A separate set of notes on a talk by World Bank staff member Qimiao Fan in April 1995 on restructuring of Russian enterprise is also included.

Country files

The series contains records of President Preston's briefings and talking points for meetings with Government leaders and representatives of member countries, background information on the country, country strategy papers, and internal memoranda. A few files contain items from the Conable Presidency. Many of the records in the files are memoranda and correspondence of the Managing Directors; however, the records were maintained as the record set of country files for the Office of the President.

The files cover only the first three years of the Preston term. Files on countries during the last part of the Preston years are found in the records of Matthew F. McHugh, who was appointed Counselor to the President in 1993. McHugh remained in the President's office for the first term of the Wolfensohn Presidency and he continued to use and file into the country files he maintained; these records are part of the Wolfensohn Presidential records.

Country files

This series contains records of President Conable's meetings with representatives, delegates, and heads of the member countries; briefing notes for meetings with country leaders; general background information on countries and governments; press releases; correspondence with government leaders; memoranda of advice from staff members; and congratulatory and thank you letters. Topics covered in the records include external debt; Bank lending operations and criteria, and environmental concerns. Three files cover regions in Africa - Eastern, Southern, and Sub-Saharan - rather than an individual country, in addition to individual files on most countries in those regions. No files on the United States are included.

The files on the USSR are significant, as the period of the Conable presidency covers the late twentieth century political changes in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Of particular interest are the files on a joint study that the 1990 economic summit in Houston, Texas, asked the Bank and the IMF toundertake. The study, completed between July 1990 and May 1991, surveyed the Soviet economy, made recommendations for its reform, and established criteria for Western economic assistance to support reform.

Many of the files contain records dating from the Clausen presidency, some as early as 1984; apparently Conable used the Clausen country records as building blocks for his information on the countries. Similarly, the files on the USSR contain some records that post-date the Conable administration by several months (until December 1991), as the incoming Preston administration continued to use them.

Country files

The Country files series contains the records of President Clausen's meetings with heads of states and organizations, representatives of member countries, government officials, Executive Directors, and Annual Meeting delegates. No files on the United States are included; these records are found primarily in the alphabetical files.

The files contain correspondence, memos, briefings, reports, opening remarks for the meetings, Country Program Papers, Annual Meeting country briefs, memoranda of the meetingswith the country delegates, press interviews, and background material. The records reflect the World Bank's issues with, concerns for, and activities in the country, region, or organization. The files on Algeria and Panama include photographs.

DECVP/IECDR/CECDR chronological files

Series consists of chronological files created by Johannes Linn while working in the Development Economist and Chief Economist Vice Presidency (DECVP) between 1988 and 1991. The series contains records Linn created and received while serving in three different positions: as Senior Economic Advisor in the DECVP reporting directly to World Bank Chief Economist Stanley Fischer; as Director of DECVP's International Economics Department (IEC, 1989-1990); and as Country Economics Department Director (CEC, 1990-1991).

Records contained in chronological files created during his time as Senior Economic Advisor primarily contain correspondence, memoranda, and notes between Linn and World Bank staff. Drafts of reports, papers, and speeches are also included, generally as attachments; Linn's handwritten comments are included on some. Topics include: publication of reports; DECVP budgeting; adjustment lending; Operations Committee procedures; private sector development; public sector finance; staffing; conference and seminar attendance and participation; dissemination of information, reports, and speeches; and World Development Report 1989 and 1990. Records also include presentations and responses to queries related to the World Development Report 1988, of which Linn was the Staff Director. World Bank Board meeting minutes and Annual Meeting briefs authored for senior DECVP staff are also included.

Records contained in chronological files created during Linn's time as Director of DECVP's International Economics Department (IEC) contain correspondence, memoranda, and notes between Linn and World Bank staff. Topics include: access to World Bank socio-economic data; world economic projections; departmental staffing and recruitment; world debt tables; debt forgiveness; IEC publications; structural adjustment; and World Development Indicators (WDI) collaboration. A single file containing correspondence with external individuals and institutions created during Linn's time as Director of IEC is also contained in this series. It primarily contains invitations to participate in conferences and letters from individuals seeking employment or information.

Records contained in chronological files created during Linn's time as Director of DECVP's Country Economics Department (CEC) contain correspondence, memoranda, and notes between Linn and World Bank staff. Topics include: departmental budget, staffing, and work program review; country strategy papers (CSPs); structural and sectoral adjustment; coordination and support of policy workand research; review of staff papers and reports; private sector development (PSD) policy brief and PSD Working Group; publication of Linn's and others' articles and monographs; Soviet Union and former Soviet republics membership in the World Bank; privatization in developing countries; and constraints on lending. A small amount of material in these files relate to Linn's role in supporting the incoming World Bank Chief Economist Larry Summers. Records include correspondence with Summers and briefing materials.

DRD country strategies, studies, and policy records

This series includes drafts of proposed country strategy papers, study papers, and policy papers maintained by Lamb when he served as Economist for the Development Research Department (DRD). This includes the following draft papers: African Development Strategy: Some Administrative Issues; Proposed Institutional Study of Kenya Tea Development Authority; Rapid Capitalist Development Model: a New Politics of Dependence?; and Market Surrogate Approaches to Institutional Development.

Development Committee files

This series contains Stern's records relating to the organization and functioning of the Joint Ministerial Committee of the Boards of Governors of the Bank and the Fund on the Transfer of Real Resources to developing countries, known as the Development Committee. The series includes Stern's correspondence regarding the Development Committee and the Draft Resolution establishing it, its initial work program, administrative arrangements, membership lists, and budget. Included in the administrative files are April and September 1974 reports from the Technical Group on the Transfer of Real Resources, the Committee of Twenty, as well as the September 1974 suggestions for the work program of the Development Committee. The bulk of the series are Stern's files on meetings of the Committee from its inaugural meeting in October 1974 through September 1981. The series also includes files on two working groups and a task force established by the Committee.

Development Committee files

This series contains President Clausen's records related to the Development Committee meetings from 1983 through 1986. Formally the Joint Ministerial Committee of the Boards of Governors of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund on the Transfer of Real Resources to Developing Countries, the Development Committee was established in 1974 with its own secretariat that maintained the official records of the Committee.

The records in this series, therefore, are Clausen's office files on the Development Committee meetings during his tenure (meetings 21-28). The records, organized by meeting, include correspondence, memoranda regarding the meetings, drafts of the President's opening remarks and the President's Report to the Development Committee, summaries of Committee discussions, and statements to the press. The files also contain papers and reports prepared for the Development Committee, including the Development Committee Annual Report, task force and working group reports, and papers on topics such as development in Sub-Saharan Africa, the world economic outlook, and external debt problems of developing countries.

Development Finance Companies Department (DFC) chronological files

Series consists of correspondence created and received by Frank Vita during his tenure as an Economist in the Development Finance Companies Department (DFC). Vita was placed in the Financial Development Unit (FDU) and the majority of the records in the series relate to its primary activity, namely the review of the World Bank's activities in the area of financial development. FDU records primarily relate to the research and authorship of the FDU report "The World Bank's Approach to Interest Rate and CreditAllocation Issues". Records include what appears to be the final version of the report presented to Bank President Robert McNamara as well as drafts of the report. Comments and research materials related to the report are also included. Research materials include reports on meetings with the Bank's regional staff and reports on regional and country finance development issues.

Records also include correspondence with development finance companies discussing the appraisal of projects submitted for financing by development finance companies. The majority of this correspondence is with the Industrial Development Bank (IDB).

Development Policy Vice Presidency (VPD) chronological correspondence files

The series includes chronological correspondence files from the period Attila Karaosmanoglu served as Director for Development Policy Vice Presidency (VPD). The correspondence is primarily between Karaosmanoglu, the Office of the President (EXC), and members of the Board of Executive Directors. The correspondence focuses on numerous topics, including: planning of the annual World Development Report (WDR) publication; world economic and social indicators forecasting; and budgeting and planning for research initiatives.

Development Research Department (DRD) chronological correspondence files

The series includes chronological correspondence, memoranda, and other records created or received by Geoffrey Lamb while serving as Economist for the Development Research Department (DRD). Records include incoming and outgoing correspondence and memoranda between Lamb, the DRD Director John Duloy, DRD staff, and staff from other Bank units, including the Development Economics Department (DED), the Projects Advisory Staff (PAS), the Policy, Planning, and Program Review Department (PPR), and economic staffin Bank Regions. The correspondence and memoranda primarily concern proposed country economic research and studies, seminar and workshop participation, and DRC Work Program proposals. Incoming and outgoing correspondence are also included from individuals and organizations external to the Bank. The series also includes travel and leave request records and back-to-office reports (BTOs).

Development Research Group's Reading File Relating to the World Trade Organization (WTO) Second Ministerial Conference and the 50th Anniversary of the Multilateral Trading System

This appears to be the reading file maintained in DECRG for the delegation representing the Bank at the Second WTO Ministerial Conference and the 50th Anniversary celebration of WTO in Geneva, 18 May 1998 - 20 May 1998. Members of the delegation were: Masood Ahmed, Vice President and Head of Network, Poverty Reduction and Economic Management (PRM), head of delegation; L. Alan Winters, Research Manager, Trade, DECRG; and John Croome, consultant, Permanent Observer to the WTO at Geneva.

Copies of schedules and programs of events; Croome's e-mails regarding arrangements for the conference and celebration; a number of background documents and reports including President Wolfensohn's 27 April 1998 memorandum and report on the WTO initiated Integrated Program for Least-Developed Countries Trade Development which was endorsed by the Executive Board; e-mails and other correspondence and papers exchanged between Ahmed and Winters regarding preparations for the Conference and the Wolfensohn report; and Ahmed's statement to the Second Ministerial Conference are part of the series. The reading file also includes: a copy of a summary of the one-day conference held on 21 May 1998 at Geneva on What About Regionalism hosted by Ahmed and the Graduate Institute for International Studies; a Back-to-Office Report for the Ministerial Conference and the 50th Anniversary celebration prepared by Gloria Bartoli, Senior Economist, Africa Region; copies of e-mails and other correspondence concerning the opening of a World Bank Frankfurt Office in June 1998 and the issue of reopening the Geneva office; and post-Conference/50th Anniversary correspondence relating to WTO.

Director, Development Policy Ernest Stern's Correspondence with President McNamara

This series contains the memoranda that Ernest Stern exchanged with President McNamara while he was Senior Adviser (later Research Adviser) and, beginning in April 1974, Director of Development Policy in the Office of the Vice President, Development Policy. The records consist of copies of Stern's memoranda to McNamara or to his immediate staff; copies of memoranda to McNamara from other Bank staff, especially VPD Hollis Chenery, that were copied to Stern; Stern's memoranda to Bank staff that were copied to McNamara; and memoranda and notes from McNamara or members of his staff to Stern. In many cases, Stern's original memoranda to McNamara were returned to him marked with the President's annotations or with a red stamp indicating President has seen. Stern's correspondence in this file predates his official appointment in VPD on November 1, 1972. Stern's memoranda transmit comments on papers prepared by Bank staff, suggestions for topics to be covered in briefing books prepared for the President, drafts of Presidential speeches, drafts of letters for the President's signature, and comments on correspondence received by McNamara.

The correspondence covers a wide-range of subjects: cooperation with the IMF; the establishment of the Development Committee and the Interim Committee; the Bank's response to the energy crisis; and the establishment of the Intermediate Financing Facility or Third Window. Filed at the end of the series are three items belonging to Stern's successor, Attila Karaosmanoglu: two October memoranda Chenery sent McNamara and copied to Karaosmanoglu and Karaosmanoglu's December 31 draft outlines for McNamara's annual speech.

Director, Investment Department (INV) chronological correspondence files

Series consists of the chronological files created by Rischard during his time as Director of the Investment Department (INV) in the Treasury Vice President (TREVP). Records relate to Rischard's position as director of the department and manager of its various units and their activities. The majority of the correspondence are in the form of office memoranda between Rischard and other Bank staff discussing: divisional work programs; specific topics related to unit activities; the creation of the new products and strategies division; staffing; workshop and meeting planning, scheduling, and attendance; and information sharing. Monthly portfolio and annual retrospective reports are also found amongst the office memoranda. A smaller amount of correspondence are letters between Rischard and external individuals and organizations primarily discussing meetings and the exchange of information.

Note that the series contains correspondence authored and received by Rischard's predecessor in the role of INV Director, Bernard Holland, from January 1989 to July 1989. Rischard became the INV Director in September of 1989. It appears that the correspondence of the new Director was added to the folder for the year 1989 initiated by Holland.

Director-General Robert Picciotto's Files Relating Primarily to Committees, Commissions, Task Forces, and Boards on which he served

The series consists of files compiled by DGO Robert Picciotto that relate to topics not directly connected with the work of OED; most of the files concern committees, commissions, task forces, or boards on which Picciotto served. The majority of files concerns the Bank-wide Social Development Task Force (SDTF) which was established early in 1996 as an acknowledgement of the social dimensions of development in project design and to take a considered look at the various initiatives and approaches underway onsocial development and to make recommendations on further actions to advance [that] work. Picciotto served as chair of the Task Force's Satellite Group 9 on Bank Instruments of Lending. Picciotto's Task Force records include: agenda for meetings and retreats; copies of and comments on the drafts of the Group 9 report; correspondence with other members of Group 9 and with other Task Force members; and copies of input from the other Task Force groups.

Related to the SDTF are records filed under Adapting Lending Products and Adaptable Lending Products. Picciotto was a member of the New Products Steering Committee which was organized to implement the recommendations of the SDTF. That led to the Adaptable Lending Group which first met in March 1997 to create a new line of lending products recommended for Bank-wide adaptation to implement SDTF goals. The Executive Directors approved the Adaptable Lending Instruments in September 1997. The files contain Picciotto's correspondence regarding the development of the new lending products.

Filed under Project Implementation Commission - Brazil are Picciotto's records, dated July 1999 - August 1996, for the Brazil/World Bank Commission on Improving the Developmental Effectiveness of World Bank Financial Projects. Picciotto was a member of the joint Bank/Brazil Commission which was created to improve the Bank's portfolio in three sectors (education, rural poverty, and health) in the Northeast Region of Brazil and in the environment sector across Brazil. Picciotto's recordsinclude: correspondence with Commission members; Terms of Reference for consultants assigned to work with the Commission; minutes of Commission meetings; intra-OED correspondence regarding audits of Brazilian projects and the establishment of new projects in Brazil; draft outlines of the Commission's final report; drafts of the Executive Summary of the report; and comments regarding drafts of the final report. Drafts of the entire report are not in the files.

Picciotto served on the Joint Fund-Bank Committee on Finance and Development which was the advisory board for Finance and Development (F and D), the quarterly publication of the International Monetary Fund and the Bank. His Board records (filed under Internal Correspondence - Finance and Development) date from December 1987 when he was Vice President for Corporate Planning and Budgeting. Included are: his correspondence with the editor of F and D; agenda and minutes of Board meetings; copies of book reviews he provided for publication; resumes of job applicants for positions with the publication; articles submitted for publication which were forwarded to Picciotto for comment; and a copy of an article, A New Project Cycle for the World Bank? which he and Rachel Weaving submitted for publication in October 1994.

In addition to board, task force, and committee records, this series includes files on several other non-OED topics. Filed under Socratic Seminar Files are Picciotto's records regarding his coordination work for a television program, Banking on the Poor, which was part of a public television series The Fred Friendly Seminars. Picciotto had the lead in planning for the October 1, 1994, program which took place in Madrid, Spain, at the time of the Bank's annual meeting. It was the third in a series sponsored by the Bank to examine the role of international finance in fighting poverty. The program followed the Socratic Seminar format, created in the 1970s by Fred Friendly and Stuart Sucherman. Picciotto's records are dated May to October 1994 and include concept papers and e-mails regarding logistical planning for the program.

This series also includes copies of June 1996 - June 1998 correspondence (filed under Knowledge Center - Management) Picciotto received regarding the Knowledge Management Board that was established in July 1997 as well as copies of his comments on proposals for knowledge management within the Bank.

Director-General Robert Picciotto's Files on the Independent Evaluation of the Pilot Phase of the Global Environment Facility (GEF)

The series consists of records related to the Global Environment Facility (GEF). The GEF was a three-year pilot program begun in 1991 to provide grants and low interest loans to developing countries for programs to relieve pressures on global ecosystems. The Facility was a co-operative venture among national governments, the World Bank, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP). In April 1992, GEF participants agreed that its structure should be modified, and at a subsequent meeting in December of that year in Abidjan the participants requested an independent evaluation of the Pilot Phase.

Correspondence regarding discussions held within the Bank regarding the GEF independent evaluation of the Pilot Phase are part of the series, including minutes of a January 25, 1993, meeting on the topic convened by the Chief, Infrastructure and Energy Division (OEDD3) at which ENVGE (Global Environment Facility Administration) was represented. Drafts of the Terms of Reference (TOR) to be presented at a GEF meeting in Rome on March 4-5, 1993, are part of the series. Drafts of the Inception Memorandum for the independent evaluation, the Inception Report, and the Terms of Reference prepared after the Rome meeting are also part of the series. Most of these records were prepared following a March 12, 1993, meeting attended by the Deputy Director of UNDP's Central Evaluation Office (CEO), the Chief of OEDD3, and an OEDD3 consultant (John Malone). Establishment of an Independent Panel of Experts for the GEF evaluation was discussed at this meeting. Copies of letters of invitation extended to individuals selected to serve on the panel are part of the series.

Memoranda, paper copies of electronic and facsimile messages, correspondence, newspaper articles, and news releases in the series document the work of the Independent Panel of Experts (Independent Evaluation Panel [IEP]) and the three Evaluation Managers (Robert Picciotto - DGO, World Bank, Gus Edgren - UNDP, and Nay Htun -UNEP) responsible for conduct of the evaluation. Also documented are the managers' contacts with the Chairperson of IEP (Dr. Alvaro Umata), the principal evaluators (Jim Kelly - UNDP, Andrea Matte-Bakers, and Stjepan Keckes - UNEP, John Malone - World Bank), and the Evaluation Staff Coordinator (W. Haven North - World Bank).

The series includes: the final Inception Memorandum; work plan outline and budget for the evaluation; agendas, discussion papers, and minutes of meetings of the IEP and of GEF participants; copies of the questionnaires distributed to GEF participants as part of the evaluation; a draft Project Evaluation Form (PEF) consisting of a summary of questionnaire responses; and the interim and final reports of the evaluation. A copy of Global Environment Facility-The Pilot Phase and Beyond, Working Paper Series, Number I, May 1992, contains the text on the restructuring of the GEF approved by participating governments on April 30, 1992. Also in the series is the July 20, 1993, Back-to-Office report of Hideki Mori (OEDD3), of a GEF evaluation mission to Japan, Thailand, and Lao People's Democratic Republic from June 16 to July 5, 1993.

Director-General Robert Picciotto's Working Files for OED Studies, Reports, and Reviews

This series contains the working files that Director-General Robert Picciotto and his assistant, Pablo Guerrero, maintained for OED's special evaluation studies, Annual Reviews (known as the Annual Review of Evaluation Results [ARER] until 1997 when they became the Annual Review of Development Effectiveness [ARDE]), impact evaluation reports, annual Process Reviews of Annual Reports on Portfolio Performance (ARPP), Country Assistance Reviews, and Country Assistance Notes. Also included are files for OED'sannual policy ledgers which compiled OED recommendations from its reports and management responses to those recommendations. Most of the documents in these files are presumably duplicated elsewhere among the OED records relating to Annual Reviews and to the creation of evaluation products, but many of the intra-OED memoranda and e-mail exchanges are originals, and a number of the documents are heavily annotated by DGO Picciotto. The records in the files relating to OED's 1993 - 1997 annual ARPPs are uniqueto this series.

The files on any given OED product generally contain: multiple drafts of the study, report, or review; intra-OED correspondence and e-mail exchanges; minutes of meetings of the Committee on Development Effectiveness (CODE) and of the Executive Directors at which the product was discussed; drafts of management responses to the OED product; comments on draft and final versions of the product; copies of OED presentation slides, agenda, and other documents from OED workshops related to a study; and clippings regarding OED issuances and Bank policies. Files for evaluation studies may also contain Terms of Reference for consultants assigned to the study, initiating memoranda, design and approach papers, and a copy of the printed study.

Dissertation and data collection sheets

Gloria Davis completed her Ph.D. in anthropology at Stanford University in 1976 with a dissertation titled, Parigi: A Social History of the Balinese Movement to Central Sulawesi, 1907-1974. The series consists of a copy of the dissertation and the data sheets that Davis compiled in preparing it.

As Davis describes in the introduction to the dissertation, In early 1973 I began a systematic census of the migrant area [Parigi, central Sulawesi], followed by a detailed questionnaire administered to 1,000 migrants. In this effort I was assisted by a number of school teachers in the various villages, and also by two assistants . . . who together administered about one-half the questionnaires and coded and compiled all the results. In early 1974 the three of us returned to Bali and gave the same questionnaire to 500 Balinese from sending areas for migrants in Sulawesi. The original questionnaires, filled out by hand and including the name of the person interviewed and the location, make up the series. Nine groups were surveyed in Sulawesi and six in Bali. Within each group, each survey sheet was numbered, and they are in numerical order. Appendix B of the dissertation provides an English translation of the survey form.

Because of the completeness of the survey data, the data sheets are an important resource for persons interested in tracing communities, families, or individuals in the survey area; reviewing the early stages of the transmigration program in Indonesia; or replicating the survey.

Divisional Reading File of the International Economics Department (IEC)

The series consists of documents sent electronically within IEC, to other parts of DEC, and to other Bank units on many subjects. A large proportion of the documents concern debt reporting, debt management operations, borrowing arrangements for countries, World Debt Tables, and World Development Indicators. Also included are comments on reports and papers, Unified Survey projects for various countries, Staff Appraisal Reports, and Draft Memoranda of the President for loans for projects. The series also includes requests for information in preparation for representation at Berne Union meetings and documents pertaining to modeling and analytical tools in IECIT [International Trade Division], external debt missions, and The Old Age Crisis Report. Summaries and reports of Bank Board meetings, comments on brainstorming sessions, and meeting announcements circulated by the Department Director or Division Chiefs are also part of the series.

Divisional Reading File of the Policy Research Department (PRD)

The series consists of documents sent electronically within PRD, to other parts of DEC, and to other Bank organizations. They include peer review comments and comments on other papers, sector reports, Country Assistance Strategy (CAS) documents, research design proposals, concept papers, and draft Final Executive Project Summaries (FEPS) sent to PRD divisions for review. These and other documents in the series reflect PRD divisions' involvement in research into aid effectiveness, poverty (including theold age security study and HIV/AIDS and STDs prevention and management), and the environment. Copies of Terms of Reference and Back-to-Office Reports for missions undertaken during this period and documents relating to establishment of a Research Advisory Group are part of the series. Also included are copies of reports from Bank Board meetings and DEC Senior Managers Meetings which were usually circulated to the divisions by the Department head or the Division Chiefs.

The documents dated August 1991 - January 1992 were created in the Policy and Review Department, which also had the acronym PRD and was abolished November 30, 1991. The few post-dated documents concern matters pertaining to the termination of that department. This reading file also includes copies of documents sent (4 January 1993 - 23 February 1993) by CECFP [Financial Policy and Systems], CECTM [Transition and Macro-Adjustment], and CECTP [Trade Policy] Division] staff short periods before and after 1 February 1993 when the Country Economics Department (CEC) was renamed the Policy Research Department (PRD). Three small subject files pertaining to a poverty handbook and budget matters are part of the series.

Documentation of institutional meetings, press conferences, and other events

Series contains sound recordings and videos created by External Relations and its predecessor units documenting World Bank meetings and other events organized, sponsored, or attended by Bank units. The series primarily contains audio reels of Annual Meeting speeches by Bank Presidents, Governors and world leaders as well as various Annual Meetings sessions. These materials date from 1954 to 1999. Records from Annual Meetings from the years 1955, 1961, 1964 and 1967 are missing from this series. Audio reelsof consultative group, consortia, and aid meetings, from 1965 to 1980, are also included.

The series also contains a collection of recorded speeches, press conferences, and interviews, primarily of Bank Presidents but also featuring other Bank staff. These audio reels cover the period 1956 to 1987. Speeches given by President McNamara are the most common, but Presidents Clausen, Conable, Woods, and Black also appear in the recordings. There are audio reels recording President Black's television addressto the National Farm Institute in 1956 and a press conference in April 1957.

Other sound recordings consist of speeches given by various Bank staff, including Vice President Robert L. Garner, at conferences, seminars, and other forums, audio reels relating to the Orangi Pilot Project in Pakistan which was launched in 1980, and audio cassettes of various Bank press conferences from 1997 to 1999.

Videos included in this series contain Bank Presidents' speeches, addresses, press conferences, and interviews covering the period 1985 to 2010 but are predominantly from President Wolfensohn's tenure from 1995 to 2005. Videos include: speeches and press conferences at Annual Meetings by Presidents Conable, Preston, Wolfensohn, Wolfowitz and Zoellick; World Development Report (WDR) press conferences; town halls; President Wolfensohn's speeches and addresses given at high-level meetings, conferences, or trips to countries; and international media interviews of Bank presidents. Other videos document interviews with other World Bank staff. A small number of videos relate to orientation for new staff (1988) and proceedings of meetings such as Second Africa Regional Workshop on Harmonization, Alignment and Results for Development Effectiveness (2004), and the Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics (ABCDE) in 2006.

EAS Working Group and Task Force files

This series includes records related to Economic Advisory Staff (EAS)participation in Bank working groups and task forces. This includes records related to the Country Risk Management and Portfolio Review Working Group from 1989 to 1991. The Working Group was led by the Bank's Risk Management and Financial Policy Department (FRS), but the Working Group consisted of representatives from EAS, and many other units in the Bank. The records relate to review of country risk monitoring and financial risk assessment functions performed by FRS. The records include: correspondence and memoranda from EAS staff, FRS staff, Working Group representatives, and senior Bank officials; meeting minutes and agenda from the Working Group, the Operations Committee (OC)of the Operations Senior Vice Presidency (OPNSV), and the Finance Committee of the Finance Senior Vice Presidency (FINSV); and reports with comments produced in support of the Working Group, including copies of the Country Risk Management and Portfolio Review report.

The series also includes records from the Task Force on Exposure Guidelines from 1989 to 1990. The task force was led by EAS Director Enzo Grilli, and done in close collaboration with the Bank's regional units and FRS. The task force was formed to re-evaluate and review the Bank's exposure guidelines used to assess member countries and the Bank's exposure to major financial risks such as debt obligations. The records include: memoranda and correspondence; Task Force meeting minutes and agenda; recordsrelated to Country Robustness Analysis surveys performed as part of the Exposure Guidelines Task Force exercise; and draft and final Exposure Guidelines reports with comments.

ECDRB/DEDRB chronological files

Series consists of chronological files created by Johannes Linn while serving in the Urban and Regional Economics Division of the Economics Department (ECDRB) and its successor the Development Economics Department (DEDRB) of the Development Policy Vice Presidency (DPS). Correspondence and memoranda contained in the chronological files generally relate to his work on urban development policy. Chronological files include those labeled "Chronological File - Official Correspondence" and labeled "Chronological File".

The "Official Correspondence" folders date from 1973 to 1981 and exclusively contain correspondence between Linn and individuals external to the World Bank. Most of the correspondence deals with the sharing of information (i.e. papers and reports), conference participation, and speech requests and logistical planning for conferences. A small number of papers and reports are included as attachments to correspondence. Correspondence is between Linn and academics, journalists, government officials, multilateral institutions, and other institutions and associations.

Other chronological files in this series primarily contain correspondence and memoranda between Linn and World Bank staff. Correspondence between Linn and external, non-Bank staff is more personal and substantive in nature than that found in the Official Correspondence files. Topics in these records include: project proposals; seminar and conference participation; research projects; work programs; economic analysis of Bank projects; and country and city studies.

EDI Task Force Secretary's records

This series consists of records related to the research and consultation undertaken by the task force. This includes the reports on consultations; some items relating to EDI and its programs that pre-date the task force (includinga copy of the Bank's 1976 EDI/20 : Memoir of a Fellowship); memoranda to and from the task force members; interim reprots; drafts; and a copy of the final report to the Board.

EMPPE chronological files

Series consists of records related to Johnson's work in the Europe, Middle East and North Africa Projects Department, Power and Energy Division (EMPPE) in 1984 and 1985. Much of the records in this series relate to Johnson's contribution to projects in Turkey. Records relating to Agricultural Sector Policy Loan to Turkey, the Thrace Gas Development project (Loan 2327-TU), and background reports relating to Turkey's energy sector are particularly plentiful. Included are: a working paper draft authored by Johnson entitled Turkey Agricultural Sector Policy Loan Village Electrification Program (1984); Terms of Reference and back-to-office reports related to Johnson's missions to Turkey; telexes between the World Bank and Turkey government officials; a report on Turkey's Energy Strategy Paper; technical notes; a back-to-office report authored by Johnson entitled Turkey: Public Investment Review Energy Sector Adjustment Loan (1985); a report authored by Johnson and others entitled Turkey Public Investment Review Energy Sector Outline of Draft Reports (1985); and a report authored by Johnson entitled Contribution to Turkey: Country Assistance Paper Energy Sector (1985).

Records related to Loans 1873-CY, 2286/2287-CY, Transmission & Distribution Project and Energy Planning and Conservation Project to Cyprus are included. Records related to projects in Jordan are also included: Energy Development Project I - Loan 2371-JO; Fourth Power Project - Loan 1986-JO; and Fifth Power Project - Loan 2162-JO. A back-to-office andfull report for Romania Power Subsector Loan (FY 88) are included.

The series contains records, memoranda and reports related to Johnson's activities in the EMPPE. Notably, drafts of a Europe, Middle East and North Africa Projects Department (EMENA) Regional Energy Strategy Paper are included; one of these drafts has Johnson's hand-written comments.

ESP and PSP Annual Progress Report on Poverty (APPR)

This series includes records related to the Annual Poverty Progress Report (APPR) prepared by the Education and Social Policy Department (ESP) and the Poverty and Social Policy Department (PSP). At the request of the Bank's Executive Board of Directors and the Office of the President (EXC), the ESP was given the responsibility of producing an annual report that gauged the progression of the Poverty Reduction Strategy outlined in the Bank's World Development Report (WDR) 1990: Poverty. The APPRs were scheduled to be published for the fiscal years 1993 to 1995. The reports were prepared by the Monitoring Unit of the Poverty Analysis and Policy team in ESP and later PSP. The bulk of poverty progress information was collected from the poverty assessment reports and assessment summaries produced by operational staff in the Regional Vice Presidencies. The APPRs were presented to the Executive Board, the Operational Policy Committee (OPC), and EXC for comment, review, and approval. The APPRs were then used as the official publication for dissemination to audiences external to the Bank, and were subsequently presented at Poverty Dissemination Seminars organized by the World Bank in partnership with various international development agencies, NGOs, government agencies, and academic institutions.

The records in this series includes background history and reference material on the Poverty Reduction Strategy and the 1990 WDR, including: a copy of the policy paper "Assistance Strategies to Reduce Poverty" (1991); and memoranda, agenda, meeting minutes, and a communiqu? related to the joint IMF and World Bank Development Committee from April 1992 regarding reporting on the Poverty Reduction Strategy. The records additionally consist of APPR drafts for 1992 to 1995, and a published APPR copy of the Poverty Reduction and the World Bank: Progress and Challenges in the 1990s for fiscal year 1995. Memoranda, correspondence, and back-to-office reports detail meetings with the Executive Board, OPC, and EXC related to the APPRs, and follow-up actions taken by ESP and PSP. Numerous World Bank press releases and external articles related to the APPRs are also included.

The series also includes records related to the Poverty Dissemination Seminars attended by World Bank staff in Europe from 1993 to 1994. These records consist of: memoranda; agenda and meeting minutes; correspondence; invitation letters to participants; speech transcripts of World Bank staff; external reports on poverty issues; and copies of the World Bank published APPRs. The memoranda and correspondence consist of planning arrangements between ESP/ PSP and other World Bank units for seminars. Other memoranda and correspondence are post--seminar reports or summaries of responses to the APPR from external organizations and individuals.

ESP and PSP Discussion Paper Series records

This series consists of discussion papers produced by staff in the Education and Social Policy Department (ESP) and the Poverty and Social Policy Department (PSP) for the departments Discussion Paper Series. The Discussion Paper Series includes papers on numerous topics related to the functions of ESP and PSP. The papers produced for this Series were not meant to be published as final products or reports, but were intended to stimulate discussion and comment internally among ESP and PSP staff, and provide up to date analysis to operational staff. The discussion papers also served as preliminary analysis for subsequent policy and best practice papers meant for publication and dissemination to an external audience.

ESP, PSP, and PGP chronological files

The series contains chronological files created by: the Education and Social Policy Department (ESP); the Poverty and Social Policy Department (PSP); and the Poverty, Gender, and Public Sector Management Department (PGP). Two separate sets of departmental chronological files are contained in this series: one for ESP; and another for PSP and PGP. The ESP chronological files consist of records related to: policy development; departmental contributions to external projects, reviews, and policy development; conference and seminar attendance and participation; and assistance to and collaboration with the Regions. Records include: memoranda; meeting briefing notes, agendas, and minutes; comments on research and policy papers and Country Assistance Strategy (CAS) papers; Terms of Reference; back-to-office reports; and progress reports. The ESP departmental chronological files are mostly correspondence with attachments and memoranda between ESP Director Kingsley Y. Amoako, ESP staff, and other World Bank units. Records within ESP departmental chronological files from July 1995 to December 1995 contain records created and received by both ESP and PSP, due to the transition period of ESP staff into PSP.

The separate PSP/PGP departmental chronological files consist of similar records between PSP/PGP Director Ishrat Husain, PSP staff, PGP staff, and other World Bank units. Additional PSP chronological files were also maintained for incoming and outgoing correspondence between Husain and external agencies and individuals from May 1995 to May 1997. Incoming and outgoing faxes and emails files between Husain, PSP staff, and other World Bank units are maintained from July 1995 to May 1997. PSP correspondence and memoranda from mid-1996 discuss the mapping of PSP Groups into the HD, ESSD, and PREM Networks. PGP related records are contained in chronological files dated January 1997 to May 1997 when PGP was temporarily created to transition into the PREM Network.

ESSD Vice President's conference attendance and participation

Series consists of records related to ESSD Vice President Ian Johnson's attendance and participation at various conferences, seminars, and workshops organized by governments, agencies, and institutions external to the Bank. Records include: correspondence; briefing notes; agendas; list of participants; presentation notes; background papers and speeches written by Johnson or by other attendees; pamphlets; travel itineraries; and speakers' biographies.

ESSD correspondence and internal memoranda

Series consists of correspondence and memoranda authored by or addressed to Johnson as Vice President of ESSD. Topics of external correspondence are from 2002 to 2004 and include invitations to participate in meetings and conference, and the exchange of information. Correspondence is with a variety of academic and research institutions, government agencies, and other external organizations.

Series also consists of memoranda from 2002 to 2004 authored by or addressed to Johnson to and from ESSD sector departments as well as other Bank units. Included are memoranda from Johnson to managing directors and Bank President Wolfensohn.

ESSDVP correspondence files

Series consists of correspondence files created by the ESSDVP. All of the correspondence in this series was authored by, addressed to, or forwarded to ESSD Vice Presidents Ismail Serageldin and Ian Johnson. There are, however, different forms of correspondence. Numbered correspondence in the form of a Lotus Notes log book is the most voluminous; these records span March 1998 to July 1999 and include correspondence to and from both Serageldin and Johnson. Correspondence of similar type, but that was not managed under the log book system, is included from 1999 to 2001 and is exclusively authored by or addressed to Johnson. Included in these records are a small number of short briefing notes authored by Johnson and/or the ESSDVP for the World Bank President. Memoranda files created in 2000 to 2001 are also included in this series as are a small number of records filed separately that only contain correspondence between the ESSDVP and the World Bank President between 1999 and 2001. The latter contains correspondence related to event and meeting attendance and planning, information exchange, briefing reports, and letters written by the ESSDVP for the President's signature.

East Asia and Pacific Vice Presidency (AENVP) chronological correspondence files

The series includes chronological correspondence files from when Attila Karaosmanoglu served as Vice President in the East Asia and Pacific Region (AENVP). The records include incoming and outgoing correspondence, memoranda, and other records related to support of AENVP operations, including: memoranda of country project loan signings; back-to-office reports; mission support records; briefing notes; and records related to numerous meetings, training seminars, and events held in the AEN region. Outgoing correspondence discussing ongoing projects and initiatives for particular countries sent from Karaosmanoglu to AEN country Executive Directors of the Bank are also included.

East Asia and Pacific Vice Presidency (AENVP) chronological correspondence files

The series includes chronological correspondence, memoranda, and other records of Heywood Fleisig created or received during his position as Senior Economist in the East Asia and Pacific Vice Presidency (AENVP). The correspondence and memoranda are primarily between Fleisig and regional economists and staff regarding economic and sector work (ESW) projects within the East Asia and Pacific Region (AEN). Draft research papers and reports are included, and contain comments and handwritten notes by Fleisig. Back-to-office reports, project proposal reports, and meeting minutes related to regional ESW projects are also included.

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