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Authority record

Africa Regional Vice Presidency

The operations function of the World Bank has, in one form or another, been organized by geographic region throughout the Bank's history. While the units responsible for World Bank lending and technical assistance have changed frequently in name and status since the Bank began operations in 1946, the Africa Region (AFR) has remained relatively constant. One exception is the permanent transfer of responsibility for Northern African countries (specifically, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, and Algeria) from AFR to the Middle East and North Africa Region (MNA) in 1968. Thus, from 1968 to the present the Bank's Africa Region consists exclusively of sub-Saharan African countries. Another exception was the separation of AFR into Eastern and Western African regions between 1968 and 1987.

1946 - 1952

Of the twenty-eight original International Bank of Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, also known as the World Bank) Articles of Agreement signatories, only three were African: South Africa, Ethiopia, and Egypt. While the Bank engaged with and, in a few instances, offered loans to non-member African countries over the next two decades, no other African countries joined the World Bank again until 1957 when the removal of colonial powers from the continent had begun.

Upon the Bank's opening in 1946, operational lending was executed out of the Loan Department (LOD). The LOD was responsible for developing loan operation policy, receiving and investigating loan inquiries, presenting loan inquiries to Bank management forconsideration, and negotiating loans. The organizational structure of LOD fluctuated over its seven year history but was, for the majority of the time, organized geographically. The Bank's focus in these early years was on post-World War II reconstruction - particularly in Europe - and this is reflected by the initial divisional organization of the LOD. Of the seven original divisions, four dealt with Europe and two with the Western Hemisphere. One division was responsible for the two continents of Asia and Africa: the Asiatic-African Division.

In 1948, the seven divisions were briefly consolidated into two (the European and United Kingdom Division and the Latin American, Asiatic and African Division). Then, in November of 1948, divisions were abolished altogether, as loans were assigned to loan officers on an ad hoc basis. In 1950, LOD was again divided into three geographical areas: Latin America Division; Asia and the Middle East Division; and European Division. Noticeably, the African region was not represented at this time.

Parallel to the LOD was the Economic Department (ECD) which conducted sector analysis and research work. Between 1946 and 1952, the ECD was responsible for both functional and geographic analyses, i.e. general economic studies and country specific studies. ECD supported the LOD and its loan administration and advised member countries on their economic and sector development plans. The ECD also liaised with international organizations on economic research. It alsoprovided staff forBank staff missions from the Bank's DC headquarters to countries to conduct both economic and project-focused research. Like the LOD, the organization of the ECD reflected the Bank's focus on post-war Europe. The Department initially consisted of three area divisions (with Africa located in its "Development Areas Division" alongside Latin America, the Middle East, and South Asia) and an Economic Technology Division responsible for specialized sector studies. In August 1948 a new organizational structure featuring two area divisions was installed. Area Division I was responsible for Europe and Area Division II was divided into four sections of which Africa and the Middle East was one. In March 1950 another reorganization divided the Department into an advisory staff and an area staff, the latter consisting of three divisions of which Europe and Africa was one.

While much of the Bank's initial attention was focused on post-war countries in Western Europe and the developing nations of South America, the Bank investigated possibilities for investment in Africa immediately upon beginning operations. The first mission to African countries occurred in March of 1950 when Vice President Robert Garner visited South Africa and Southern and Northern Rhodesia. That same month, the Bank sent a mission to Ethiopia to evaluate an application for funding. This six-week mission resulted in the first funding for an African country. Ethiopia received loans for two projects: Loan 0031 Highway Project (01) included $5 million for rehabilitation and maintenance of road system and Loan 0032 Development Bank Project included $2 million for a new development bank. World Bank loans for South Africa, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Southern Rhodesia followed in 1951 and 1952.

1952 - 1972

Largely due to an expansion in operations in less developed countries, a Bank-wide reorganization took effect in September of 1952. The new operational structure endured for the next twenty years. LOD staff were combined with the country-related staff from the ECD to form three distinct geographical Area Departments: Western Hemisphere (WHM); Europe, Africa and Australasia (EAA); and Asia and Middle East (AME). These units were primarily responsible for World Bank-member country relations. Functions included: loan policy and plan development; country development program appraisal and review; preparation of proposed loans; and country economic monitoring.

There was no formal divisional structure within EAA. The Department was led by A. S. G. Hoar between 1952 and 1955. Sydney Raymond Cope became Department Director in June of 1955. All three Area Departments reported to Vice President Robert Garner from 1952 to 1956. After Garner became President of the new International Finance Corporation (IFC) in 1956, the Area Departments reported to J. Burke Knapp and William Iliff.

As part of the1952 reorganization, the sector-oriented staff of the former ECD formed the Technical Operations Department (TOD) in the new Area Departments and was placed in charge of project appraisal and supervision. Specifically, the TOD was responsible for: the appraisal of proposed projects; advising Area Departments on proposed projects and assisting in negotiations; supervising approved projects and assisting borrowers in procurement efforts; and monitoring and reporting on member countries' sector economies.

Bank operations in Africa continued to expand in subsequent years. In September 1953 the Bank's first General Survey Mission to an African country - Nigeria - was undertaken. In March 1955, funding for the first regional project in Africa was agreed upon. "Loan 0110 Railways and Harbours Project": http://www.worldbank.org/projects/P000620/railways-harbours-project?lang=en financed harbor improvement of multiple ports on the east coast of the continent as well as four railway lines in the region. In 1960, the position of Special Representative for Africa was announced. The position, initially held by Henry R. Labouisse but replaced soon after by Leonard Rist, was responsible for maintaining liaison with governments, keeping the Bank informed about developments in Africa and recommending approaches to be taken.

As African countries began to achieve independence in the 1950s, the Bank enjoyed a dramatic increase in membership by African countries beginning in 1957. Between 1957, when there were still only two sub-Saharan members, and 1967, 32 African countries joined the World Bank. By 1962, this increase of member countries in Africa, together with the attendant increase in lending activities, necessitated the split of the EAA. Two new departments were created out of the former EAA: the Department of Operations - Europe (EUP) and the Department of Operations - Africa (AFR). Pierre L. Moussa was named department director of AFR.

In the early 1960s, the Bank received requests from the governments of Nigeria and Sudan for a Bank-sponsored consortium focused on pledging amounts of aid that could be provided by donor members. The Bank and its aid-providing members recommended that a consultative group was the appropriate mechanism for coordinating external aid to each of the countries. The group would meet informally as particular needs arose and provide a forum in which members could discuss the assistance they were considering, and recipient countries could keep the other members informed about development plans, policies and projects. The Nigeria Consultative Group was formally established in April 1962 and the Sudan Consultative Group was convened on November 27, 1963.

Most of the functions involved in the operation of a consultative group were already carried out by Bank department staff in its relations with countries, however they would perform these functions "more intensively or more frequently" when sponsoring groups. The operations of the groups varied according to its different circumstances but in most cases the Bank's responsibilities were, as defined in 1965: providing periodic, comprehensive reports on the country's development possibilities, problems, and performance as a basis for the consultative group's deliberations; analyzing the country's aid requirements and problematic debt commitments, and recommending types and terms of aid; assisting the recipient government to prepare or revise a development program or advise on problems in its implementation; assisting in identifying projects and other technical assistance and arranging for feasibility studies; and advising participants on which sectors and projects deserve priority for external funding. The role of the group?s chairman, typically the Area or Country Director, encouraged dialogue at meetings and coordinated donor efforts to meet the country's financing needs. The department also drafted the minutes or summary of proceedings and the list of delegates of group meetings. These functions essentially remained unchanged through 1999.

Resident country and regional missions were also established in Africa beginning in 1964. That year, the World Bank opened its first African Resident Mission office in Ethiopia. An office in Nairobi, Kenya followed in 1965. In 1965 a West African office in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, was opened; an East African office in Nairobi, Kenya, opened the following year. The principal function of these regional offices was to assist these new members with the identification and preparation of development projects.

In 1965 the World Bank implemented a major reorganization of country groupings in its regional departments. AFR was not effected with the exception that northern African countries (including Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco) were moved into the Europe and Middle East Department (EME). Note that these countries have since remained in regional units responsible for Middle East countries. In 1965 the Department of Operations - Africa was also renamed the Africa Department (AFR). Abdel G. El Emary served as Department Director from 1965 to 1968.

In October 1968, due to the increased volume of lending operations anticipated over the next several years, the World Bank executed a major reorganization of its regional departments. Due to the rapid increase in African member countries in the 1960s, AFR was divided into two separate departments: Eastern Africa Department (EAF) and Western Africa Department (WAF). The functions of the two units remained unchanged from their predecessor. Each new department was composed ofseveral divisions. EAF contained three divisions upon its creation and had increased to five by 1972. WAF contained five divisions during this period. EAF was led by Abdel G. El Emary from 1968 to 1970 and Michael L. Lejeune from 1970 to 1972. The Director of WAF was Roger Chaufournier from 1968 to 1972.

1972 - 1987

From the time he became World Bank president in 1968, President Robert McNamara led the Bank towards an increased focus on extreme poverty and an emphasis on the agricultural, rural, and transportation sectors. The agriculture sector had always been the primary focus of investment for the Bank in Africa, but in the 1970s this investment grew significantly. The types of agriculture, rural development, and transportation projects were also altered in terms of scope and scale. Whereas in the past many projects aimed to provide local and small-scale lending, in the 1970s lending began to support regional development projects, focusing on fertilizer use, the expansion of rural road networks, and agricultural research (often through the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research [CGIAR]).

McNamara's vision for the Bank was manifested in a massive, Bank-wide reorganization completed in 1972. As part of the reorganization, the geographic organization of the Regional units was again altered. The seven departments that made up the Area Departments were elevated to five Regional Vice Presidencies (RVP). The organization of Africa into two separate units was maintained in the form of the Eastern Africa Vice Presidency (EAN) and the Western Africa Vice Presidency (WAN). All RVPs reported to the new Senior Vice President, Operations (SVPOP).

A more significant aspect of the reorganization, however, was the integration of the former Technical Operations Department (renamed the Projects Division [PRJ] in 1965) with the new RVPs. The period between 1952 and 1972 had been characterized by frequent reorganizations of the geographically-based area units responsible for country liaison and loan policy and negotiation. However, the division of responsibility between these units and TOD/PRJ was maintained. But in 1972, in an attempt to more effectively fuse country knowledge and sectoral skills, the reorganization removed most of the Bank's operational project work from the Projects Department to the five new Regional Vice Presidencies. Staff from the former PRJ were distributed into the Regional Vice Presidencies and were organized into sector-oriented Project Departments and were known as Central Projects Staff. Thus, rather than one Projects Department that supported projects in countries on an ad hoc basis, each RVP would maintain its own projects staff. Each RVP was, in turn, given "line authority" to analyze, decide and act on country development operations. Each RVP was responsible for planning and executing IBRD/IDA development assistance programs subject to the overall framework of Bank policies, priorities, and operating procedures. The RVPs created regional plans and budgets, ensured the effective implementation of approved plans, created country economic and sector reports, and developed and implemented loan, credit, technical assistance, and other forms of development projects. The RVPs were also responsible for maintaining sound relations with governments of assigned countries and with aid organizations and donors involved in those countries.

Upon the completion of the 1972 reorganization, EAN and WAN consisted of two Country Program Departments in addition to the new Projects Department. TheCountry Program Departments were staffed by country economists and loan officers whose primary responsibilities were: conducting area reviews of Bank activities and countries' economic and political developments; formulating country lending and economic and sector work programs and implementing country programs; and reviewing loan applications, negotiating loans, and administering loans.

The Projects Department provided technical assistance and advice to members and borrowers on sectoral issues, countrypriorities, and project development from identification through implementation and review. It consisted of economists, financial analysts, and sector specialists, and was specifically responsible for: creating sector policies; assisting countries with the identification and preparation of projects; appraising potential projects and assisting the Country Program Departments in loan negotiation and credit agreements; and helping borrowers manage consultants and procurement. Both EAN and WAN's Project Departments were initially divided into four sector-based divisions: Agriculture; Education; Public Utilities; and Transportation. Over the next fifteen years, new divisions were created for sectors such as energy, water, telecommunications, industry, finance, and urban.

Note that not all staff and operational responsibility was transferred from the former PRJ to the RVPs. Staff in sectors too small to decentralize to the five regions continued to provide a complete "operational package" of technical services to the regions. These units, such as the Population and Nutrition sector and Urban Projects sector, were known as Central Operating Projects Departments and were located in the newly formed Vice President, Central Projects (CPSVP) which, like the RVPs, reported to the SVPOP. In addition, those former PRJ units which had their operational functions dispersed to the RVPs still maintained a core staff in the CPSVP with responsibility for policy and advisory work only.

Throughout the 1970s, Bank lending to Africaincreased, particularly in the agriculture and rural development sectors, but also in the urban development and industry sectors. However, by late in the decade many in the Bank and in member countries grew increasingly frustrated due to a lack of growth in many African countries. In 1979 the Bank's African governors asked for a special report describing the challenges of the region and the Bank's proposed solutions. In response the Bank published Accelerated Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Agenda for Action in August 1981. The report discussed factors that led to slow economic growth in Africa in the recent past, analyzed policy changes and program orientation needed to promote faster growth, and concluded with a set of recommendations to donors, including doubling aid to the continent and increased reliance on structural and sectoral adjustment lending.

In order to achieve the increase in investment prescribed by the 1981 report, the Bank integrated alternative ways to raise and inject funds into the region. This involved a greater reliance on cofinancing to the point that, by the middle of the decade, more than half of Bank-financed projects in Africa included cofinancing. A Special Facility for Sub-Saharan Africa meeting was also convened in Paris in January 1985 where over a billion dollars was raised for the provision of fast-disbursing and untied (i.e procurement is not contingent upon the purchase of goods and services from the donor country) financing for the continent. In 1987 the Special Program of Assistance to Africa (SPA) was launched. Its objectives included: mobilizing resources and coordinating support for economic reforms in Africa; streamlining donor procedures; and monitoring adjustment programs for efficacy.

Roger Chaufournier continued to serve as head of the new WAN following the 1972 reorganization and would do so until 1980. He was succeeded by A. David Knox, from1980 to 1984, and Wilfried A. Thalwitz, from 1984 to 1987. Bernard R. Bell was named the Regional Vice President of EAN in 1972. He was succeed by S. Shahid Husain, from 1974 to 1976, and Willi A. Wapenhans, from 1977 to 1984. In 1985, due to shifts in country memberships, EAN was renamed the Eastern and Southern Africa Vice Presidency (ESA). The division of African countries between WAN and the new ESA did not change. Edward V. K. Jaycox served as Vice President of ESA from 1985 until 1987.

1987 - 1996

While the composition of the Country Program Departments and Projects Department changed between 1972 and 1987 (most notably with a considerable increase in the number of Projects Department sector divisions), the organization and functions of the RVPs was consistent until 1987. In July of 1987, however, a Bank-wide reorganization under President Barber Conable altered the structure of the RVPs considerably. The changes were brought on by a desire to strengthen the Bank's country focus by making the Country Department the basic program and budget unit.

The new Country Departments that replaced the Country Program Departments combined the macro-economic work of the former Country Program Departments and the sector work of the former Regional Projects Department. Each Country Department would consist of a Country Operations Division (COD) as well as multiple Sectoral Operations Divisions (SOD) made up of staff from the former Regional Projects Departments. The COD was composed of lead, country, and specialized economists as well as country officers and was responsible for: liaising with state governments and developing knowledge of issues in the country; preparing and supervising the country's aid strategy; and providing full responsibility for certain country-wide operations such as Structural Adjustment Loans and country economic work. SODs were responsible for overall sectoral strategy and for planning, programming and implementing development activities for the countries in their respective sectoral specialties; this would include the provision of full lending project management as well as lending and sector evaluation work.

Not all staff was moved from each Region's Project Department into the Country Departments' SODs. Those remaining formed a new Regional Technical Department within each RVP. It was responsible for higher level knowledge collection, assessment, and dissemination. The Technical Department, which was organized into sector-focused divisions, was to stimulate innovation in operational work and undertake strategic thinking by providing advice, operational support, regional studies, staff training and the dissemination of materials to Bank staff, donors, and other institutions outside the Bank. The Department would continue to offer operational help in the form of task management, task support, and advice. They would also work closely with Policy, Planning and Research (PPR) staff in conducting regional studies and reviews and advising on sector policy and research priorities.

A subsequent reorganization in 1993 strengthened the Country Departments' SODs through unit reorganization and a transfer of staff from the Regional Technical Departments to the SODs. The Technical Departments were greatly reduced in size and were restructured to reflect the emphasis on sectoral and thematic responsibilities of the SODs. The Technical Departments operational support function was consequently reduced.

During the 1987 reorganization the number of RVPs was decreased from six to four. This involved the merger of the Eastern and Southern Africa Vice Presidency (ESA) and the Western Africa Vice Presidency (WAN) into a single Africa Vice Presidency (AFR). AFR initially contained six Country Departments and a single Technical Department. Another reorganization of the Bank's RVPs occurred in 1991 and involved the expansion of the four RVPs into six. However, AFR was not affected by the change. Edward V. K. Jaycox assumed the role of Vice President of AFR until 1996. Jean-Louis Sarbib replaced him in 1996.

1996 - 2014

In November 1996 the World Bank released "Taking Action to Reduce Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa": http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/1997/11/693921/taking-action-reduce-poverty-sub-saharan-africa. The document reported on the Africa Region's Poverty Task Force. It also outlined specific actions that the Bank should take, suggesting an intensified emphasis on poverty reduction in Bank programming and lending, and the establishment of stronger partnerships for poverty reduction.

Another reorganization in 1996-97 modified the changes made to the RVPs in 1987 and 1993. The RVP continued to be responsible for all aspects of country development assistance for its member countries, including: country assistance strategy; lending operations; technical assistance operations; and economic and sector work. However, the primary objective of the reorganization was to deepen the country focus and responsiveness to client needs. This was accomplished in a number of ways. The most striking changes concerned the new Country Management Units (CMUs) which replaced the former Country Departments. The CMUs were smaller than their predecessor (that is, each was responsible for a smaller number of countries) while their number correspondingly increased. The internal reorganization of AFR resulted in an increase from five Country Departments in May 1996 to sixteen CMUs in November of the same year.

In addition, an increased decentralization of CMU staff and country directors from Bank headquarters in Washington to locations within client countries was undertaken. At the same time, a strengthening of authority with regard to strategy and budget was given to the country directors. The CMUs continued to be responsible for overall preparation and supervision of the country's assistance strategy, full lending project management, and evaluation of lending and sector work.

During the reorganization, the former Technical Departments were changed into Sector or Technical Families. The role of the Technical Families, which consisted of sector and project economists and selected specialist staff, was to formulate knowledge on technical subjects and best practice and to suggest innovation through research and development. A Technical Families group was placed alongside a number of CMUs within each Regional Vice Presidency.

As part of the 1996 reorganization, Edward V. K. Jaycox was replaced by two co-Vice Presidents for the Africa Region: Jean-Louis Sarbib and Callisto E. Madavo. This new arrangement effectively split the region into West Africa and Eastern and Southern Africa with one new VP responsible for each. This arrangement lasted until 2000, when Sarbib became the new Regional Vice President of Middle East and North Africa (MNA), leaving Madavo as the sole VP for AFR. Madavo was subsequently replaced by Gobind Nankani in 2004. Obiageli Ezekwesili was appointed to the position in 2007 and was replaced by Makhtar Diop in 2012.

2014 - Present

In order to stimulate the sharing of knowledge and best practices across the Bank, President Jim Kim introduced a Bank-wide reorganization in 2014 that removed sector staff from the Regional Vice Presidencies and placed them in one of fourteen Global Practices (GPs) or five Cross-Cutting Solution Areas (CCSAs). The GPs are responsible for each of the major thematic areas that the Bank supports through projects, such as agriculture, water, and education. Each GP functions as a vertical pillar of technical expertise and is responsible for: defining the strategic direction and the World Bank's activity in their respective sector; developing and deploying expertise globally; delivering integrated solutions to client countries; and capturing and leveraging knowledge in their respective fields. The CCSAs, on the other hand, serve as horizontal pillars providing leadership in areas such as climate change, gender, and public-private partnerships and focusing on Bank-wide strategic goals and directions.

After the 2014 reorganization, the Regional Vice Presidencies exclusive function became the overall client engagement. Specifically, each RVP: sets and drives regional strategic direction; offers development solutions to clients; agrees on work program and budget with GPs and recruits expert GP staff to meet client needs; manages corporate and other stakeholder relationships; and oversees country programs. Each RVP retained multiple Country Management Unit (CMUs) responsible for one or more countries. The CMU is the primary interface with the country and is responsible for ensuring global solutions are applied to the local context. Specifically, the CMU: identifies client challenges and opportunities; sets country strategy and manages selectivity; develops work programs and provides solutions; manages client and stakeholder relationships; and manages the country office.

The number of RVPs did not change as a result of the 2014 reorganization nor did the country make-up of each RVP. Makhtar Diop served as Vice President of the Africa Region throughout the reorganization.

Agriculture and Rural Development Sector

The origins of agricultural and rural development sector work in the Bank began with the establishment of the Agriculture Division (TODAG) in the Technical Operations Department (TOD) in 1953. TODAG was created alongside the Transportation Division (TODTP), Industry Division (TODIN), and Public Utilities Division (TODPU). TOD responsibilities included:

  • investigating and appraising the development efforts of member countries and advising area departments of developmental priorities;

  • appraising proposed projects and advising area department on their organizational, managerial economic, financial and engineering feasibility;

  • assisting in the negotiation of projects;

  • supervising approved projects;

  • assisting borrowers in their procurement efforts;

  • monitoring developments in the various sectors of member countries' economies and preparing studies as required; and

  • selecting consultants for the examination of projects.

In 1965, the TOD was terminated and its divisions were transferred to the newly established Projects Department (PRJ) with division functions unchanged. TODAG became the Projects Department Agriculture Division (PRJAG).

In November 1968, PRJAG was upgraded to the Agriculture Projects Department (AGP). The AGP was created in a 1968 reorganization of all projects staff, which provided for the upgrading of the former projects divisions into projects departments. This was done to recognize their increased responsibilities and workload, and to strengthen the working relationship with the area departments responsible for project operations by according them equal status. AGP reported to the Office of the Director for the Projects Department (DRP). In November 1968, Lionel J. C. Evans assumed the role of AGP Director. The AGP responsibilities included:

  • providing advice on agriculture sector problems to the area departments;

  • preparing pre-investment studies to identify developmental priorities in the agriculture sector of member countries;

  • appraising proposed projects, or assisting in the preparation of projects for countries unable to do so;

  • providing operational support in the negotiation and administration of loans and credits, in procurement matters, in selecting consultants and in writing terms of reference;

  • supervising projects as regards their construction and operation; monitoring developments in the sectors of member countries' economies; and

  • cooperating with other international agencies on programs of common interest.

On the date of its establishment, the AGP consisted of the following divisions: the Irrigation Division I (AGPD1); the Irrigation Division II (AGPD2); the Agricultural Credit Division I (AGPC1); the General Agriculture Division (AGPG1); the Agricultural Industry Division (AGPND); the Livestock Division (AGPLK); the Economics Division (AGPED); and Technical Assistance Division (AGPTA). In late 1970, the AGPED and the AGPTA were merged into the Economics and Pre-Investment Division (AGPEC). In March 1971, the General Agriculture Division I(AGPG1) was split, and half of its staff transferred into the new General Agriculture Division II (AGPG2).

As part of the World Bank reorganization in October 1972, most of the AGP's staff was transferred to regional projects departments in the newly established Regional Vice Presidencies in order to more effectively fuse country knowledge and technical skills. This left AGP with a core staff performing essentially advisory services for the Regions at their request, in addition to ongoing operational policy development and research and quality control with regard to agriculture project and sector work. As a sector department, it was also responsible for the formulation of development policy and defining possible strategies for long-term growth in the agricultural sector. The AGP that emerged from the 1972 reorganization did not have any formal divisional structure, and reported to the Central Projects Vice Presidency (CPS). In 1973, Montague Yudelman replaced Lionel J. C. Evans, and assumed the role of AGPDirector.

On September 1, 1973, a Rural Development Division (AGPRD) was established in the renamed Agriculture and Rural Development Department (AGP). The new division was given the task of formulating and implementing new project concepts aimed at assisting the rural poor in developing countries. This new division was a response to a speech given by Bank President Robert McNamara in Nairobi, Kenya of the same year, which addressed the issues of the rural poor. Related to the new focus on rural poor,the Secretariat of the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (AGPCG) was also transferred in November 1973 from the International Relations Department (IRD) to the Agriculture Department, but removed shortly after in 1974 when it was upgraded to an independent department.

In early 1975, a new Economics and Resources Unit (AGPER) was established in the AGP. On November 1, 1975, the AGP absorbed the nutrition functions from the Population and Nutrition Department (PNP), and placed them in a new Nutrition Division (AGPNU). It also established a new Rural Operations Review and Support Unit (AGPOR) to monitor its rural development program and assist the Regions on rural development project missions through the provision of staff, consultants, and briefs.

On July 1, 1977, new acronyms were assigned to the Agriculture and Rural Development Department (AGR), and its subordinate divisions of the Rural Development Division (AGRRD), the Nutrition Division (AGRNU), the Rural Operations Review and Support Division (AGROR), and Economics and Policy Division (AGREP). On April 1, 1979, the support unit for the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) was transferred from the Front Office of the Vice President of Central Projects (CPSIF) to AGR, and retained its name with the new acronym AGRIF.

In October 1979, the Nutrition Division of the Agriculture Department (AGRNU) was closed and its staff transferred to the newly created Population, Health and Nutrition Department (PHN0001). On July 1, 1980, the Operational Review and Support Unit (AGROR) in the Agriculture Department was replaced by the Monitoring and Evaluation Unit (AGRME).

As part of the reorganization of the Central Projects Staff (CPS) into the Operations Policy Staff (OPS) in February 1982, the AGR regionalized its Rural Development Division (AGRRD), and established a new Agriculture Research Unit (AGRES). In mid-1984, the advisory staff of AGR was structured into three new units: the Finance Agro-Industries and Fisheries Unit (AGRFA); the Production and Technology Unit (AGRPT); and the Water and Resources Unit (AGRWR).

In September 1984, Donald C. Pickering replaced Montague Yudelman as AGR Director. Pickering was soon after replaced by G. Edward Schuh as AGR Director in December 1984.

In spring 1986, the Water and Resources Unit (AGRWR) and the Production and Technology Unit (AGRPT) were merged into the Production, Technology and Resources Division (AGRPR). A unit for the Special Program for African Agricultural Research, or SPAAR, was also established in AGR under the new acronym AGRSP.

As part of the 1987 Bank reorganization, the majority of AGR sector staff were transferred to a restructured Agriculture and Rural Development Department (AGR) in the newly established Policy and Research Vice Presidency (PRE). Other AGR staff were transferred to operational units within the Bank's project-focused Regional Vice Presidencies where they were placed in the Agriculture Division of each Region's Technical Department (formerly Projects Department) or in Agriculture Operations Divisions within the new Country Departments. Staff remaining in AGR were responsible for:

  • formulating policies and strategies for the agricultural sector and developing new initiatives and Bank products;

  • conducting the supporting research, including the improvement of research capabilities in developing countries, and management of external research funded by the Research Support Budget;

  • improving methodology and identifying best practices;

  • performing ex-post evaluation of the Bank's agriculture sector work;

  • providing operational support;

  • liaising with Non-Bank organizations and professionals active in this sector; and

  • assisting in recruitment and training of staff.

The reorganized AGR consisted of two divisions: the Agriculture Development Division (AGRDE) and the Agriculture Production and Services Division (AGRPS). Further, the Special Program for African Agricultural Research (AGRSP) was subordinated to the front office of AGR. In 1988, AGRDE was replaced by the Agricultural Policies Division (AGRAP). In May 1987, Viljay S. Vyas replaced G. Edward Schuh as AGR Director, and served as Acting AGR Director until 1988. Vyas was replaced by Michel J. Petit in 1988.

On January 1, 1990, AGR started reporting to the Vice President of Sector Policy and Research (PRS). This reporting structure was maintained after PRS was renamed Vice President of Sector and Operations Policy (OSP) on December 1, 1991. The Agriculture Production and Services Division (AGRPS) was also replaced in December 1991 by the Agriculture Technology and Natural Resources Division (AGRTN).

As part of the Bank-wide 1993 reorganization, the Agriculture and Rural Development Department was renamed Agriculture Technology and Natural Resources Department (AGR), and transferred to the newly-established Vice Presidency for Environmentally Sustainable Development (ESD). Further, the natural resources function was taken out of the Agriculture Technology and Natural Resources Division (AGRTN), which was renamed Agriculture Technology and Services Division (AGRTN), and established as an independent Natural Resources Division (AGRNR).

In 1994, Alexander F. McCalla assumed the role of AGR Director. In May 1995, AGR was restructured and the divisions were replaced by the Agriculture and Forestry Systems Division (AGRAF), and the Sector Policy and Water Resources Division (AGRPW).

As part of the 1997 World Bank reorganization, the AGR was terminated and its functions transferred to the Rural Development Department (RDV) located in the Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development Network (ESSD). RDV was created alongside the Environment Department (ENV) and Social Development Department (SDV). At its establishment, the RDV consisted of a Global Water Unit, and the Agricultural Research and Extension Group (ESDAR). In May 1999, RDV added the following thematic groups: agricultural production systems intensification; natural resource management; rural institutions and markets; and strategy and policy.

In late 2000, Robert L. Thompson replaced Alexander McCalla as RDV Director. In 2001, the thematic areas were replaced by new groups and themes, including: the Commodities Group (RDVCG); rural portfolio; policy and strategy; science and technology; water resource management; land management; forestry management; and commodities risk management.

In 2002, RDV was renamed the Agriculture and Rural Development Department (ARD). Kevin Cleaver assumed the role of ARD Director the same year. In 2003, ARD added thematic areas in agriculture trade, water for agriculture, and fisheries. Sometime around 2008, ARD thematic areas were restructured to include the following groups: agribusiness; agricultural technology; commodities risk management; fisheries; forestry; land tenure; land use management; livestock; policy and strategy; portfolio management; rural finance; and water and food.

Benjamin B. King

Benjamin B. King joined the World Bank in 1947 as an economist. During his long career he served in various parts of the Bank: the Economics Department (1947-1949, 1950-1952, 1965-1967), Office of the President (1949-1950), Europe, Africa & Australasia Department (1952-1957), Economic Development Institute (1957-1962), South Asia and Middle East Department (1962-1965), South Asia Department (1967-1970), Special Projects Department (1970-71), Economics Program Department (1971-1972), and Development Policy Staff (1974-1978). He completed his career as the Director, Development Economics Department, 1978-1981. From 1972-1974 King was seconded from the World Bank to serve as an adviser to the Canadian International Development Agency.

Biderman, Jaime

Jaime Biderman was born in 1949. He joined the World Bank in 1973 as a researcher in the Economic Department's Urban and Regional Economics Division (ECDRB). The following year Biderman entered the Bank's Young Professionals Program (YPP). Upon his completion of the Program in 1976, Biderman was made an Economist in the Transportation and Urban Projects Department's Urban Division (TRUD2). Shortly thereafter the two sectors, Transport and Urban Development, were separated and Biderman was placed in the newUrban Projects Department (URB). Note that while following the 1972 Bank-wide reorganization most sector departments were only responsible for policy formulation and quality control, URB functioned as a centralized operating projects department, meaning that it provided a full operational package of technical services to the regional operational vice presidencies. This included the planning, direction, and supervision of project work.

Biderman took an extended leave from the World Bank from 1978 to 1983.Upon his return he continued his work as an Economist in the Urban Development sector. Regionalization of URB and project planning and supervision functions had, however, begun in 1979. Thus when Biderman joined the East Asia and Pacific Regional Vice Presidency's Urban and Water Supply Division (AEPUW) in 1983, its functions included the full operational package of responsibilities within the East Asia and Pacific Regional Vice Presidency (AENVP). Biderman remained in the AEPUW through 1987.

In 1987 Biderman moved to the Africa Vice Presidency's Department 6 (AF6) responsible for overseeing lending operations in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Biderman worked as a Senior Economist in the Department's Country Operations Division (AF6CO).

In 1991, following a brief period in the Development Economic's Policy and Review Department (PRD), Biderman was named Senior Country Officer in the Europe and Central Asia Vice Presidency (ECA).

In 1994 Biderman was named Operations Adviser in the Operations Policy Department (OPR). OPR was responsible for operational policy development, portfolio management monitoring and evaluation, and procurement guidance and policy, among other activities. Biderman worked in the Department's Policy Group (OPRPG).

In 1998 Biderman returned to the Africa Vice Presidency (AFR) and would remain there until 2009. During this period Biderman held a variety of positions in a number of AFR's divisions. These included:

  • Lead Specialist,Operations Support 1 (AFTS1, 1998-1999)

  • Lead Specialist, Operational Quality and Knowledge (AFTQK, 1999-2000)

  • Operations Adviser, Operational Quality and Knowledge (AFTQK, 2001)

  • Operations Adviser, Quality and Knowledge Operations Support (AFTOS, 2002)

  • Sector Manager, Water and Urban 1 (AFTU1, 2002-2008)

  • Sector Manager, Urban and Water (AFTUW, 2009)

Biderman served as an Adviser in 2010 and 2011 in an unspecified role before retiring from the Bank in 2011. In [year], he returned as a consultant for a variety of Bank units, including the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG).

Calika, O. Hursit

Omer Hursit Calika was born in Kayseri, Turkey, in 1918. He studied economics at Istanbul University and worked for the Turkish Ministry of Finance in various posts from 1940 to 1953. From 1953-1954 he was the Alternate Governor for Turkey for the World Bank.

Calika joined the World Bank in 1954, serving as an economist in the Department of Europe, Africa, and Australia. In 1957 he became the division chief for the United Kingdom and Dependencies in the same department, serving until 1963. He then moved to the Africa Department where he was division chief for East and Central Africa during 1964-1965 and assistant to the director of the department from 1966-1968. Calika joined the Education Project Department in 1968 where he served as deputy director until 1972.

As part of the general reorganization of the Bank in November 1972, Calika became the assistant to the director of the Latin American and Caribbean Projects Department. In 1974 he became the chief of the Caribbean Division of the Latin American andCaribbean Projects Department, and in 1977 he became the assistant to the director of the country programs department for Latin America. He retired in 1980.

Omer Hursit Calika died on 15 March 2014.

Central Files

The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) established a centralized files system on September 30, 1946 with the issuance of Administrative Order No. 3, "Organization of the Communications and Records Services". Initially reporting to the Bank Vice President, the Communications and Records unit was responsible for opening and routing all incoming written official wire, mail, and other communications, dispatching all outgoing written official communications, and maintaining the centralfiles location of official correspondence created by Bank departments and offices.

According to the 1947 Administration Manual, "each office and department will forward Bank records received or created by it, as soon as they cease to be working papers" to the General Files. Initially only the Secretary's Department, Treasurer, Loan, Research, and Legal Departments were authorized to maintain their own files outside of the General Files. Executive Directors' minutes, agenda, and similar documents were also excluded from the centralized files, except those distributed by the Secretary for filing.

Beginning in 1948 through the next decade, file collections from Loan, Economics (formerly Research), Legal, and Technical Operations Departments as well as the Economic Development Institute were incorporated into the Central Files. As the Bank grew to include the International Finance Corporation (IFC) in 1956 and International Development Association (IDA) in 1960, the Central Files included records of those entities as well.

The centralized files were organized according to a Bank-wide classification system and files were traditionally divided into four groups: general files (or non-regional files); operational files (country-specific or regional files) generated mostly by the Loan and Economic Departments; membership, bond and finance files; and official documents mostly legal in nature including loan agreements.

The Communications and Records unit succeeded by the Central Files Section (ADMCF), theGeneral Files Section (ADMGF) and the Records Management Section (later under the Information Solutions Department) were responsible for classifying and maintaining official files from 1946 to 1987. In practice however, official files were incomplete and fragmentary, as departments often kept their own files for convenience or did not forward official correspondence to Central Files once it was no longer required for business.

By the 1960s the maintenance of a central filing system had become progressively cumbersome as the growth of Bank Group operations had resulted in an increasingly large volume of files. As a result, decentralization of some department files began occurring in 1960 with the Legal Department. By late 1967, other departments considered to be specialized including Treasurer, Economic Development Institute, and the Personnel Division of the Administration Department were also authorized to keep their own files.

The physical relocation of Central Files from the Bank's main complex tothe tenth floor of the G Street building in May 1970 also led to the sharp decrease in the use of Central Files and an increase of duplicate sets of working files in the divisions and departments throughout the Bank. In response to this problem, Central File Stations were created and located in close physical proximity to their primary users, although the files remained under the administrative control of the Records Management Section. The IFC Files Station was the first to become a satellite file stationin June 1971 followed by the Bank Administration and Policy (BAP) Central Files Stations (1972 - 1974). These were renamed BAP Central Records Stations (1975 - 1977) and then the Non-Regional Information Centers (NRIC, 1978 - 1987). From 1972 to 1987 these satellite records stations served Administration, Operations Policy, Economic Research and External Relations Vice Presidencies, among other non-regional departments.

As a result of the Bank's July 1987 reorganization of the records management function, Non-Regional Information Centers were closed and recordkeeping responsibilities were turned over to the records-creating offices.

Chenery, Hollis B.

Hollis Burnley Chenery was born January 6, 1918 in Richmond, Virginia. He received a Ph.D. in economics from Harvard University in 1950.

From 1949 - 1950, he worked at the U. S. Economic Cooperation Administration in Paris, and from 1950 - 1952, he was chief of the Program Division at the U.S. Mutual Security Agency in Rome. He returned to U. S. government service in 1961, serving at the United States Agency for International Development until 1965.

From 1952 to 1961, Hollis Chenery was a professor of economics at Stanford University. From 1965 to 1970 and again in 1983, he was a professor of economics at Harvard University.

Chenery served as The Economic Advisor to the President of the World Bank from September 1970 to September 1972. In October 1972, he became Vice President, Development Policy (VPD) following the Bank's Reorganization in 1972. In May 1982, he became the Vice President of the Economics and Research Staff (VPERS). He resigned from that position in September 1982 and remained on the Bank staff as a Senior Adviser until February 1, 1983.

Hollis Chenery died September 1, 1994.

Chernick, Sidney E.

Sidney E. Chernick, a Canadian national, was employed by the World Bank from 1969 to 1990. Chernick graduated from the University of Manitoba and gained a Master's Degree from the University of Toronto and a Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Prior to joining the Bank, Chernick was employed by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in Paris, the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA) in Santiago, and, for five years, by the United Nations in New York. He also taught Economics at the University of Melbourne.

Chernick began his employment at the World Bank as an economist in the Central America and Caribbean Department (CAC) in 1969. He was promoted to Senior Economist in 1970.

In 1972 he joined the newly created Policy, Planning and Program Review Department; he would remain in the Department until its termination in 1982. (The Department had different acronyms over the years: EPR from 1972 to 1977 and PPR from 1977 to 1982. It was also referred to as PPPRD and PP&PR.) The basic functions of the PPPRD were to identify development policy issues, to prepare or coordinate analysis of alternative program and policies, and to supervise the presentation of policy papers at the appropriate level of management. It provided guidelines for analysis in economic reports and country programs and reviewed country programs before their submission to the President to ensure the quality of economic analysis, consistency with Bank development objectives, and consideration of alternative strategies.

The PPPRD consisted of only two divisions during its existence: the Policy Planning Division (PPRPP) and the Program Review Division (PPRPR). Chernick was named Division Chief of the Program Review Division in or around September of 1973 and reported directly to PPPRD Director, Hahbub ul Haz. (Ul Haz and the PPPRD, in turn, reported to Hollis B. Chenery, Vice President of the Office of the Vice President Development Policy [DPS].) Chernick's division was responsible for:

  • Establishing guidelines for the content of Economic Reports and, in cooperation with the Programming and Budgeting Department, of Country Program Papers;

  • Managing the review of Economic Reports and Country Program Papers in close collaboration with the Regional Offices and the Programming and Budgeting Department with a view to evaluating alternative policy options for management;

  • Evaluating the annual and 5-year country economic work program of the Regional Offices;

  • Maintaining communication links between the DPS and the Regional Offices on issues of development strategy and Bank policy at the country or regional levels;

  • Analyzing selected economic development issues of Bank-wide relevance and ad hoc questions raised by management; and

  • Providing support for selected economic missions.

In the spring of 1976, Chernick was named Senior Advisor in PPPRD and would serve in this capacity until the Bank's and PPPRD's reorganization in 1982. He would also serve as Acting Director at various times during the decade in which he was a PPPRD staff member.

In February of 1982, Chernick was named Assistant Director of the newly-established Country Policy Department (CPD). The CPD replaced the PPPRD and assumed its functions and much of its staff (as well as staff from the former Development Economics Department [DED]). Chernick's main responsibilities in the CPD included:

  • Providing advice and support to the regions on designing assistance strategies and preparing CPPs, structural adjustment and other program lending, and carrying out policy dialogue with member countries;

  • Serving management through reviews of CPPs and country economic and sector work plans, through advice on lending allocation, and through work on operational policy issues;

  • Conducting applied research and preparing papers on such issues as trade strategies, resource mobilization, economic management, employment productivity and welfare;

  • Acting as a secretariat for the Operations Policy Sub-Committee of the Managing Committee.

In June 1983, Chernick was named a Senior Advisor of CPD.

In January of 1984, Chernick moved to the South Asia Country Programs Department (ASADR) under the title of Senior Economist. Chernick's activities involved: supporting the design and quality of economic and sector work by undertaking regional, country, and project analyses; and raising the capacity of the practitioners by providing guidance, organizing training courses and regional seminars, and participating actively in recruitment.

On November 1, 1986, Chernick joined the Economic Development Institute (EDI, later the World Bank Institute [WBI]), the Bank's capacity development branch. Chernick was named the Advisor on Senior Policy Seminars in the Institute's Front Office. These seminars, beginning in the mid-1980s, offered short policy-related seminars to high-level government officials that would explore issues, alternatives, and likely implementation problems in bringing about policy improvements. Chernick remained in this position until he retired from the World Bank in 1990.

Chief Financial Officer

The Chief Financial Officer (CFO) is responsible for providing leadership for the following Bank functions: institutional planning and budgeting; financial planning and policy; risk assessment and management; market fund-raising, investment, cash management, and liability management; resource mobilization; financial controls and reporting; and pension fund management. These functions together make up the financial operations or Finance Complex of the Bank. The CFO has its origins in the Bank's Treasurer's Department (TRE) established in 1947. The Treasurer's Department was responsible for the development and application of all Bank practices pertaining to funds and securities of the Bank. More specifically, the responsibilities of TRE included:

  • development of overall financial policies for the Bank;

  • management of Bank funds and securities;

  • development and maintenance of a program of fiscal operations;

  • development and maintenance the Bank's accounting system; and

  • development and maintenance of a program of budgeting and budgetary control.

The following subordinate units reported to TRE: the Fiscal Operations Loan Division (TREOL); the Fiscal Operations Borrowing Division (TREOB); the Fiscal Operations Administrative Division (TREOA); Receipts and Disbursement Division (TRERD); and the Accounts and Financial Reports Division (TREAF). Daniel Crena de Iongh served as the Bank's Treasurer and reported to the Vice President Robert Garner (OVPRG).

In October 1948, the TREOA Division of TRE wasterminated and its functions related to administrative budget and control were transferred to the new Controller (CTR) located in the Administration Department (ADM), which was also responsible for administrative activities related to personnel, office services, and records management. The CTR broadly oversaw responsibilities related to administrative budget and expense, auditing, and organization and methods planning. Francis Poore served as the Bank Controller (CTR).

In 1953, Henry Riley replaced Daniel Crena de Iongh as Bank Treasurer.

In 1959, Robert Cavanaugh replaced Henry Riley as Bank Treasurer.

In February 1967, the Controller (CTR) of the ADM Department, as well as staff from the TRE Department responsible for budgeting and programming functions, were transferred to the new Department of Program Evaluation and Control (PEC). The PEC, which reported to the Office of the President (EXC), was established to improve the President's control over the use of the Bank's manpower and financial resources and monitor the effectiveness of the Bank's programs. PEC responsibilities included:

  • making continuous reviews of the effectiveness of the Bank's major functions;

  • analyzing financial and other implications in terms of human and material resources required;

  • monitoring the efficiency and economy of the Bank's organizational structure, its operating procedures and use of manpower;

  • instituting procedures for effective budgetary control;

  • preparing the annual budgets for the World Bank Group; and

  • conducting internal audits and arranging external studies to determine whether accounts and records conform to established policies.

PEC had no formal subordinate units. John H. Williams served as Director for PEC.

In June 1968, the position of Vice President of Finance (VPF) was created in the reorganization following the appointment of Robert S. McNamara as President of the Bank earlier that year. The VPF was responsible for managing the Bank's financial operations or Finance Complex, and was also responsible for advising the President on the Bank's financial policies. With the creation of the VPF, the PEC was renamed the Programming and Budgeting Department (PAB) and joined the TRE as a subordinate unit to the new Vice President of Finance (VPF). At this time, it appears budgetary control functions were transferred to the TRE Department, while remaining functions were retained by the PAB. The first VPF, Siem (Simon) Aldewereld, was not only responsible for the Bank's financial and programming activities, but also served as Director for the Projects Department (DRP), which was responsible for providing leadership in evaluating, improving, performing quality control, and setting policies and procedures for project work of the Bank's Projects Department (PRJ).

In the following years, the Finance Complex expanded rapidly. In May 1969, the TRE was split to include the new Controller's Department (CTR) with the TRE. The TRE retained the functions of borrowing, investment, and receipt and payment of funds. The new CTR was assigned responsibility for the Finance, Loan Disbursement and Administrative Expense Divisions previously located in the TRE Department. The Internal Audit Office (ADMIA) was also transferred from the Administration Department (ADM), assigned the new acronym IAD, and placed in the PAB Department of VPF in May 1969.

In July 1973, the IAD and the operations evaluation functions located in the PAB were transferred to Auditing and Evaluation, Vice President Mohamed Shoaib (OVPMS).

In July 1974, I.P.M. Cargill replaced Simon Aldewereld as VPF. With the appointment of Cargill, the VPF also assumed responsibility for the coordination of IDA replenishments from the retiring Vice President Sir Denis Rickett (OVPDR). Later that year, the Tokyo Office (TOK), created in 1971, started reporting to the VPF, as did the Loan Portfolio and Analysis Unit (LPAU) which was created by merging the Budget and Operations Review Divisions of the PAB.

In 1975, the Front Office of the VPF was expanded to include a Director, Financial Policy and two assistants for the IDA-5 Replenishment to help support the VPF in IDA Replenishment negotiations.

Following Vice President Shoaib's retirement in January 1976, the Internal Auditing Department (IAD) was reassigned to the VPF.

In July 1978, I.P.M. Cargill was promoted to the new position of Senior Vice President of Finance (SVPFI) to assist the President more broadly in managing the work of the Bank. On July 1, 1979, Cargill relinquished the management of the Finance Complex to Moeen Qureshi, who was appointed the new VPF. Cargill continued to oversee the negotiations for the 6th IDA replenishment, and remained SVPFI until his scheduled retirement in 1980. Upon Cargill's retirement, Qureshi was named the new SVPFI, and the position of Vice President of Finance (VPF) was abolished.

With the appointment of Qureshi to SVPFI in 1980, the role took on more expanded responsibilities. The creation of the SVPFI reflected the increasing importance ofthe Finance Complex as the unit primarily responsible for the mobilization of financial resources and their management and control in a more constrained external environment. In addition to managing the Finance Complex, the SVPFI also advised the President and the Executive Directors on overall Bank financial policies and prospects, and served as a liaison with member countries on matters involving sources of funds for the Bank, including leadership on IDA replenishment and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) capital increase negotiations. In conjunction with Qureshi's appointment to the SVPFI, two new vice presidential positions were created: the Office of the Vice President and Controller (CTRVP) and the Vice President of Programming and Budgeting, and Pension Fund (PBPVP). The Pension Fund, previously located in the SVPFI Front Office, was upgraded to the Staff Retirement Plan Department (SRP) and placed in PBPVP. A new Financial Policy and Analysis Department (FPA) was also created, which upgraded the resource mobilization support functions previously located in the Financial Studies Division (PABFS) and Financial Policies Division (PABFA) of the PAB. The TRE, Internal Auditing (IAD), and the Tokyo Office continued to report to the SVPFI.

In July 1981, the Treasurer's Department was upgraded to the Treasurer's Vice Presidency (TREVP). In the same year, Bank President A.W. Clausen established the Managing Committee for the purpose of providing overall guidance for and managementof the Bank. The SVPFI served as a committee member for the Managing Committee, along with the Senior Vice President of Operations (SVPOP) and other Bank vice presidents.

In late 1982 the Vice President of Programming and Budgeting and Pension Fund (PBPVP) was reduced to the Vice President of Pension Fund (PFDVP) with the removal of the Programming and Budgeting Department (PAB). The PAB reported directly to the SVPFI until its absorption into the new Financial Policy, Planning, and Budgeting Vice Presidency (FPBVP) in August 1983. The new FPBVP was established to improve the Bank's institutional planning and resource allocation and control processes by integrating the FPA Department and the refocused Programming and Budgeting Department (PBD). PFDVP and the FPBVP continued to report to SVPFI.

In 1985, the Internal Auditing and the Tokyo Office were placed in the Front Office of the SVPFI.

In May 1987, the SVPFI was reorganized as part of a Bank wide reorganization, and its acronym changed to FINSV. The reorganization included replacement of the FPBVP with the Vice Presidency of Financial Policy and Risk Management (FPRVP). This was accomplished by transferring the planning and budgeting functions located in PBD to the new Policy, Planning and Research Complex (SVPPR); consolidating the Financial Policy and Planning Division (FPAPP) and the Financial Management and Analysis Division (FPAMA) of FPA into the new Risk Management and Financial Policy Department (FRS) of FPRVP; and upgrading the FPA's Financial Studies Division (FPAFS) to the new Resource Mobilization Department (FRM) of FPRVP. The creditworthiness review function located in PBD was also transferred to the new FRS Department. The former Vice President of Pension Fund (PFDVP) was replaced by the Office of the Pension Plan Administrator (PENAD) and placed in the FINSV Front Office, along with the Tokyo Office. The IAD was transferred from the former SVPFI Front Office to the new Senior Vice President of Administration (SVPEA). The reorganized FINSV was responsible for the major resource mobilization activities of the Bank and the management and control of its financial resources. More specifically, the FINSV was responsible for:

  • executing all IBRD and IDA financial transactions, including IBRD capital subscriptions, IDA replenishments, borrowings, and investment operations;

  • collecting, keeping custody, and disbursing of funds;

  • maintaining accounts for loans and trust funds;

  • accounting for and reporting of financial information; and

  • formulating risk management and financial policy.

Subsequent to the completion of the reorganization, the following vice presidencies reported to FINSV: TREVP, CTRVP, and FPRVP. Ernest Stern succeeded Moeen Qureshi as the new Senior Vice President of Finance (FINSV).

In December 1991, following the appointment of World Bank President Lewis T. Preston, the senior management structure was significantly reorganized, and the Bank's senior vice presidencies were abolished, including the FINSV. The senior vice presidents were replaced by a broad oversight team of the Office of the Managing Directors (MDC) that reported directly to the President. Each Managing Director was assigned responsibilities of regional oversight, policy, and finance. The functions of the former FINSV were not exclusively assigned to one Managing Director. Instead, the oversight responsibilities related to the finance functions of treasurer, controller, financial policy, risk management, and resource mobilization were dispersed among the Managing Directors. As a result, the senior or chief financial officer did not exist at this time. The newly appointed Managing Directors, which shared finance responsibilities, included: Ernest Stern, Sven Sandstrom, and Attila Karaosmanoglu.

In July 1995, James Wolfensohn's was appointed the World Bank President following the passing of Lewis T. Preston earlier that year. Immediately upon his appointment, Wolfensohn initiated a Bank wide reorganization. As part of this reorganization, the Office of the Managing Directors (MDC) was reorganized to include the appointment of five new Managing Directors and a new Executive Committee. Among the new appointments, the Managing Director of Finance and Resource Mobilization (MDFMD) was created, and absorbed oversight responsibilities of the finance complex vice presidencies. At the time of the creation, the following vice presidencies reported to the MDFMD: the Vice President of the Treasurer (TREVP); the Vice President of the Controller (CTRVP); theVice President of Cofinancing and Advisory Services (CFSVP); and the Vice President of Financial Policy and Risk Management (FPRVP). Jessica Einhorn was appointed the new MDFMD.

In April 1996, the CFSVP was replaced by the Vice President of Resource Mobilization and Cofinancing (RMCVP), which absorbed the units of the former CFSVP, but also the Resource Mobilization Department (FRM) of the FPRVP. The FPRVP was replaced by the new Vice President of Financial Policy and Institutional Strategy (FPIVP), which absorbed the functions of the Risk Management and Financial Policy Department (FRS) of the former FPRVP. Both vice presidencies continued to report to the MDFMD.

In 1997, the FPIVP was renamed the Vice President of Financial Policy and Risk Management (FPRVP).

In September 1998, MDFMD Jessica Einhorn retired from the Bank. The role of MDFMD was replaced by the new role of Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (CFO).

Gary Perlin assumed the role of Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (CFO) in January 1999. Perlin absorbed the oversight responsibilities of the former MDFMD for the following Finance Complex vice presidencies: the CTRVP; the TREVP; and the FPRVP. The Vice President of Resource Mobilization and Cofinancing (RMCVP) reported to Managing Director Sven Sandstrom, who was also responsible for oversight of some the Bank's regional vice presidencies, the Corporate Secretariat, External Affairs, and the Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network (PREM).

In 2000, the Senior VP and CFO Gary Perlin began reporting to Managing Director Jeffrey Goldstein. Perlin retained oversight responsibilities for the finance complex, but Goldstein served as another level of oversight for the finance complex, and was also responsible for oversight of financial sector development related units, including the Financial Sector Vice Presidency (FSEVP).

In 2003, Gary Perlin retired from the Bank. Jeffrey Goldstein was appointed his successor, and the role of Managing Director and CFO was combined. The following finance complex and financial sector development vice presidencies reported to the Managing Director and CFO (MDCFO) Jeffrey Goldstein: the TREVP; the CTRVP; the Concessional Finance and Global Partnerships Vice Presidency (CFPVP, formerly the RMCVP); the Vice President of Strategy, Finance, and Risk Management (SFRVP); and the FSEVP.

In 2004, Jeffrey Goldstein retired from the Bank, and was succeeded by Acting CFO John Wilton. The position of combined Managing Director and CFO was terminated with Goldstein's departure.

In September 2005, Vincenzo La Via was appointed the new CFO responsible for finance complex oversight. The SFRVP, the CTRVP, and the TREVP continued to report to the CFO. The CFPVP was removed and reported directly to the Bank President.

In late 2006, however, the CFPVP once again reported to the CFO. Around this same time, the CTRVP and the SFRVP were combined and renamed the Controllers, Strategy, and Resource Management Vice Presidency (CSR).

In 2009, the CSR was reorganized and split into two new vice presidencies: the Vice President and Controller (CTRVP) and the Vice President of Corporate Finance and Risk Management (CFRVP). The General Services Department (GSD) located formerly in the Information Services Group (ISG) and the new VP and World Bank Group Chief Risk Officer (CROVP) also reported to the CFO at this time.

In 2012, Vincenzo La Via left the Bank, and Charles McDonough served as Acting CFO.

In March 2013, Betrand Badrewas appointed the new Managing Director and CFO (MDCFO). The CFPVP, CTRVP, TREVP, CROVP, and GSD continued to report to the MDCFO. The Vice President of Budget, Performance Review, and Strategic Planning (BPS) and the World Bank Group Chief Information Officer (CIO) and Vice President of Information and Technology Solutions (ITS) also reported to the MDCFO later in 2013.

In 2014, the CFPVP was replaced by the Vice President of Development Finance (DFIVP) and continued to report to the MDCFO.

Clark, William

William D. Clark was born in Featherstone, England, in 1916. He obtained a first-class honors degree in modern history from Oxford University, and was the Commonwealth fellow and lecturer in humanities at the University of Chicago from 1938 to 1940.

From 1941 to 1944 he was attached to the British Information Services, U.K. Ministry of Information, in Chicago. Beginning in 1945, he served for a year as the press attach? for the British Embassy in Washington, and from 1946 to 1949 he was the London editor of the Encyclopedia Britannica. Clark became the diplomatic correspondent of The Observer in 1950. From 1955 to 1956 he was the public relations adviser to the Prime Minister of Great Britain, resigning in the wake of the Suez Canal crisis. In 1957 and 1958 he was the New Delhi correspondent for both The Observer and The Economist, and between 1958 and 1960 he edited a column called The Week for The Observer. In 1960 he was appointed the first Director of the Overseas Development Institute in London.

On 1 April 1968 Clark became Director of Information for the World Bank Group. In 1973 he became the Director of External Relations, and in 1974 the Vice President for External Relations. In 1980 he resigned from the Bank and returned to London to become the President of the International Institute for Environment and Development. He died in 1985.

Consultative Group on Food Production and Investment in Developing Countries

The Consultative Group on Food Production and Investment in Developing Countries (CGFPI) was one of four bodies established by the 1974 World Food Conference. The International Fund for Agricultural Development, the World Food Council, and the Committee on World Food Security were also organized on the basis of Conference recommendations, and CGFPI immediately needed to define its role in this new panoply of agricultural agencies. The World Food Conference requested the Food and Agriculture Organization,the United Nations Development Program, and the World Bank to organize the CGFPI with the mandate "to increase, coordinate and improve the efficiency of financial and technical assistance to agricultural production in developing countries." The resolution specified that membership should consist of "bilateral and multilateral donors and representatives of developing countries."

On January 10, 1975, the heads of the three sponsoring agencies met with the Secretary-General of the United Nations and agreedthat the offices of the Chairman and the Executive Secretary of CGFPI would be located in the World Bank. Edwin M. Martin was named the Chairman, and each of the three agencies agreed to assign one or two staff members to the Secretariat. In March 1975, Moise C. Mensah was named the Executive Secretary.

The Group held its first general meeting in July 1975. However, by its Seventh Session in September of 1975, the United Nations General Assembly, spurred by the lobbying of lesser developed food exporting countries such as Brazil and Argentina, changed the CGFPI mandate. The revised mandate required the Group to "quickly identify developing countries with potentials for most rapid and efficient increase in food production, as well as the potential for rapid agricultural expansion in other developing countries, especially the countries with food deficits."

The Group held four general meetings on the following dates: July 21-23, 1975; February 10-12, 1976; September 22-24, 1976; and September 7-9, 1977. CGFPI was a purely consultative body, with no ability to supply or raise funds. Some of its work included commission studies of regional investment arrangements for fertilizer production and of food production in the Gangetic Plain and the Senegal River Basin. Its central idea and most lasting contribution, however, was their preparation of an outline for a national food plan, defined as "a document that would focus the attention of the Group on needs to be met in a specific country as far as food supply and related investments are concerned." The Group then helped several countries draft such plans, demonstrating the potential of this assessment tool.

The three sponsors of the Group agreed to assess its progress each year. In April 1976, the first assessment expressed doubts that there was a "unique role" for CGFPI among all the other food and agricultural organizations, not the least of which were those managed by the three sponsoring agencies. The doubts increased, and in February 1978 the sponsors decided that the Group should be disbanded. The Chairman left immediately thereafter, and the Group dissolved in June 1978.

Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research

The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) formed on May 19, 1971 is an informal organization of countries, international development agencies and private foundations that cooperate in underwriting a network of more than a dozen independent, international agricultural research institutes. The co-sponsors of the Group are the World Bank, the Food and Agriculture Organization, the United Nations Development Program, and the International Fund for Agricultural Development. The Bank hosts the executive secretariat and provides the chairman of CGIAR. The FAO staffs the secretariat of the Science Council, an independent panel of scientists and research managers who advise the Group on program and scientific matters. The records in this fonds are those of the executive secretariat.

Davis, Gloria

Gloria Davis was the first anthropologist hired by the World Bank. She specialized in Southeast Asia, receiving her Ph.D. from Stanford University in 1975 with a dissertation on Parigi: A Social History of the Balinese Movement to Central Sulawesi, 1907-1934. She then taught anthropology for three years at Yale University. In 1978 Davis joined the World Bank's Indonesia Transmigration and Land Settlement Program, where she became part of the team assessing the Bank's support for transmigration projects in Indonesia. This led to the publication of the major report, Indonesia Transmigration Program Review, in 1981. In 1984 Davis became the senior operations office in the agriculture division of the East Asia and Pacific Region. She participated in various missions, often to Indonesia but also to Fiji in 1984. During this period she lead the review of the entire Indonesia transmigration sector, culminating in a major report, Indonesia Transmigration Sector Review, in 1986. Following the general reorganization of the World Bank in 1987, Davis became the chief of the Environment Division of the Asia Technical Department. In 1990 she wrote another major study, Indonesia: Sustainable Development of Forests, Land and Water. She became chief of the Social Policy and Resettlement Division in the Environment Department in 1993 and director of the Social Development Department from 1997 until 2000. Davis retired from the Bank in 2000 but continued to serve as a consultant until 2004. Gloria Davis was born in 1943 in Minneapolis, Minnesota. She died in 2005.

Development Committee

The origins of the Development Committee are found in a recommendation of a committee of the Board of Governors of the International Monetary Fund on the reform of the international monetary system. This Committee of Twenty, as it was known, recommended in October 1974 that a joint ministerial committee of the Fund and the World Bank be established to give positive encouragement to the net flow of real resources to developing countries. The Boards of Governors of the Bank and the Fund then approved parallel resolutions for the establishment of that committee.

The mandate of the Development Committee is, according to the publication The Development Committee: Its Origins and Achievements, 1974-1990, is to:

  • provide a focal point in the structure of international economic cooperation for the formation of a comprehensive overview of diverse international activities in the development area, for efficient and prompt consideration of developmental issues;

  • coordinate international efforts to deal with problems of financing development;

  • maintain an overview of the development process; and

  • advise and report to the Boards of Governors of the bank and the Fund on all aspects of the broad question of the transfer of real resources to developing countries and make suggestions regarding the implementation of its conclusions.

The Committee was specifically charged to give "urgent attention" to the problems of the least developed countries and to those developing countries most seriously affected by balance of payments problems. Over the years, the Development Committee has interpreted this mandate to include trade and global environmental issues, in addition to traditional development matters.

The Committee is advisory and not operational. It serves "as a unique forum of ministers concerned with finance and development," providing them "an opportunity for constructive and orderly dialogue among groups of countries at various stages of development."

The members of the Development Committee are chosen by each member government of the Bank or the Fund that appoints an executive director or by a group of members that elects an executive director. Usually the members are ministers of finance or development, and the term of office is two years.

The chairman of the Committee is selected from among its members, traditionally from among the developing countries. The Chairman meets with the President of the Bank and the Managing Director of the Fund to plan the program; this group is informally known as the "Troika."

The chairman is assisted by a small secretariat, located in the World Bank, headed by an executive secretary. The Executive Secretary is elected by the Committee and is traditionally a national of a developed country. The Executive Secretary at times has simultaneously held another position within the World Bank.

The Committee meets twice a year, once during the annual autumn meetings of the Bank and the Fund, and once in the spring. Many organizations participate in these meetings as observers, and a representative of the Group of 24 (a body consisting of African, Asian, and Latin American finance ministers) usually addresses the meeting. Papers to be discussed at each session are distributed in advance, and a communique is issued following each meeting. The Committee also presents an annual report to both Boards of Governors.

Past Development Committee Chairmen:

Henri Konan Bedie, 1974 - 1976

Cesar E. A. Virata, 1976 - 1980

David Ibarra Munoz, 1980 - 1982

Manuel Ulloa Elias, 1982

Ghulan Ishaq Khan, 1982 - 1986

Bernard T. G. Chidzero, 1986 - 1990

Alejandro Foxley, 1990 - 1992

Ricardo Hausmann, 1992 - 1993

Rudolf Hommes, 1993 - 1994

M'Hamed Sagou, 1994

Mourad Cherif, 1994 - 1995

Mohamend Kabbaj, 1995 - 1997

Driss Jettou, 1997 - 1998

Anwar Ibrahim, 1998

Tarrin Nimmanahaeminda, 1998 - 2000

Yashwant Sinda, 2000 - 2001

Trevor Manuel, 2001 - 2005

Alberto Carrasquilla, 2005 - 2007

Agustin Carstens, 2007 - 2009

Ahmed bin Mohammed Al Khalifa, 2009 - 2011

Marek Belka, 2011 - present

Past Development Committee Executive Secretaries:

Henry J. Constanzo, 1974 - 1976

Sir Richard King, 1976 - 1980

M. M. Ahmad, 1980 - 1981

Hans E. Kastoft, 1981 - 1984

Fritz Fischer, 1984 - 1987

Yves L Fortin, 1988 - 1991

Peter Mountfield, 1992 - 1996

Alexander Shakow, 1996 - 2000

Thomas A. Bernes, 2000 - 2005

Kiyoshi Kodera, 2006 - 2010

Jorge Familiar, 2010 - present

Diamond, William

William Diamond was born in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1917. After receiving his B.A. (1937) and his Ph.D. in history (1942) from The Johns Hopkins University, Diamond worked with the U.S. Board of Economic Warfare and the U.S. Foreign Economic Administration. From 1944 to 1946 he served as an economist on U.S. missions in Turkey and Czechoslovakia. He later served as Economic Advisor to the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration mission to Czechoslovakia and subsequently at its headquarters in London.

Diamond joined the Loan Department of the World Bank in 1947 and served there in a variety of posts. In 1947-1948 he took a leave of absence to be Deputy Director of the Foreign Trade Administration of Greece, an agency of the Royal Greek Government. In 1955 he transferred from the Loan Department to the staff of the new Economic Development Institute, the Bank's staff college on economic development, now called the World Bank Institute, where he served for three years. One outcome of thisperiod was his book Development Banks, a basic text on that subject, which was translated into several languages. In 1959 he was on leave from the Bank to serve as Advisor to the Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India (ICICI), a development financing institution set up in 1955 with the advice and financial assistance of the World Bank.

After returning from India in 1960, Diamond was appointed Assistant Director of Operations, Western Hemisphere. In July 1962 he transferred to the International Finance Corporation (IFC) as Director of Development Bank Services and later became Director of the Development Finance Companies Department. That department was transferred from IFC to the IBRD on November 1, 1968, with Diamond remaining its director.

As part of the general reorganization of the Bank in November 1972, Diamond became director of the Country Programs Department for South Asia, responsible for the IBRD and IDA lending programs in Bangladesh, Burma, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. From December 1975 until August 1977 he was Special Assistant to the Vice President, Finance, with responsibility for activities in connection with the Fifth Replenishment of IDA. Thereafter he returned to the Economic Development Institute as a Senior Fellow and retired in March 1978.

After retirement Diamond served as a consultant for the IFC. Among his consulting assignments were work with Societe Internatinonale Financiere pour les Investissements et le Developpement en Afrique (SIFIDA) and with the Banco Portugues de Investimento SA (BPI).

East Asia and Pacific Regional Vice Presidency

The operations function of the World Bank has, in one form or another, been organized according to geographic region throughout the Bank's history. While the units responsible for World Bank lending and technical assistance have changed frequently in name and status since the Bank began operations in 1946, the East Asia and Pacific Region has been remained relatively constant. The exception has been the Region's periodic combination with South Asian countries to form a single Asia Region. Generally speaking, the East Asia and Pacific Region has consisted of countries east and south of China and Myanmar, inclusive. (Note that Myanmar was located in the South Asian Region until 1987).

1946 - 1952

Upon the Bank's opening in 1946, operational lending was executed out of the Loan Department (LOD). The LOD was responsible for developing loan operation policy, receiving and investigating loan inquiries, presenting loan inquiries to Bank management for consideration, and negotiating loans. The organizational structure of LOD fluctuated over its seven year history but was, for the majority of the time, organized geographically. The Bank's focus in these early years was on post-World War II reconstruction - particularly in Europe - and this is reflected by the initial divisional organization of the LOD. Of the seven original divisions, four dealt with Europe and two with the Western Hemisphere. One division was responsible for the two continents of Asia and Africa: the Asiatic-African Division.

In 1948, the seven divisions were briefly consolidated into two (the European and United Kingdom Division and the Latin American, Asiatic and African Division). Then, in November of 1948, divisions were abolished altogether, as loans were assigned to loan officers on an ad hoc basis. In 1950, LOD was again divided into three geographical areas, of which the Asia and the Middle East Division was one.

Parallel to the LOD was the Economic Department (ECD) which conducted sector analysis and research work. Between 1946 and 1952,the ECD was responsible for both functional and geographic analyses, i.e. general economic studies and country specific studies. Its workECD supported the LOD and its loan administration and advised member countries on their economic and sector development plans. The ECD also liaised with international organizations on economic research and provided staff for Bank missions. Like the LOD, the organization of the ECD reflected the Bank's focus on post-war Europe. The Department initially consisted of three area divisions (East Asia and Pacific being located in its "Development Areas Division") and an Economic Technology Division responsible for specialized sector studies. In August 1948 a new organizational structure featuring two area divisions was installed. Area Division I was responsible for Europe and Area Division II was divided into four sections of which Asia was one. In March 1950 another reorganization divided the Department into an advisory staff and an area staff, the latter consisting of three divisions of which Asia was one.

While much of the Bank's initial attention was focused on post-war countries in Western Europe and the developing nations of South America, the Bank did begin looking toward East Asia almost as soon as it began operations. Bank representatives visited the Philippines in 1947 and then the Philippines, again , as well as Thailand in 1949 again in 1949 when the mission was paired with a visit to Thailand . The first funding to the region was Loan 0029 to Australia in 1950 (Agriculture, Industry, Transport, and Mining - P037342). Thailand's first loan (Irrigation project - P004650) followed in 1950. The Bank's first mission to Japan took place in October of 1952 and its first loan to the country (Kansai Power Project - P037421) was provided the following year.

1952 - 1972

A sizable reorganization that took effect in September of 1952 created an operational structure that would endure for the next twenty years. LOD staff were combined with the country-related staff from the ECD to form three distinct geographical Area Departments: Western Hemisphere (WHM); Europe, Africa and Australasia (EAA); and Asia and Middle East (AME). AME contained four divisions, with the Far East countries making up Division IV. These units were primarily responsible for World Bank-member country relations. Functions included: loan policy and plan development; country development program appraisal and review; preparation of proposed loans; and country economic monitoring.

AME had two Department Directors between 1952 and 1957: Joseph Rucinski (22 September 1952 - 10 February 1953 and 11 May 1955 - 1 April 1957); and Francois Didier-Griegh (10 February 1953 - 11 May 1955).

As part of the 1952 reorganization, the sector-oriented staff of the former ECD formed the Technical Operations Department (TOD) in the new Area Departments and was placed in charge of project appraisal and supervision. Specifically, the TOD was responsible for: the appraisal of proposed projects; advising Area Departments on proposed projects and assisting in negotiations; supervising approved projects and assisting borrowers in procurement efforts; and monitoring and reporting on member countries' sector economies.

In 1957 a reorganization of AME created an autonomous East Asia unit for the first time. Growing membership and operational responsibility in the Middle East and Asia was the main reason for the division of AME into two new and separate departments: the Department of Operations - South Asia and Middle East (SME) and the Department of Operations - Far East (FEA). Note that during this period Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and Burma were located in FEA. Martin M. Rosen was named FEA Department Director in 1957 and was succeeded by I. P. M. Cargill in 1961.

In 1965 and 1966, the Bank established and chaired the first consultative groups in the region to coordinate external financial assistance for Malaysia, South Korea and Thailand. The groups would meet informally as particular needs arose and provide a forum in which members could discuss the assistance they were considering, and recipient countries could keep the other members informed about development plans, policies and projects.

Most of the functions involved in the operation of a consultative group were already carried out by Bank department staff in its relations with countries, however they would perform these functions "more intensively or more frequently" when sponsoring groups. The operations of the groups varied according to its different circumstances but in most cases the Bank's responsibilities were, as defined in 1965: providing periodic, comprehensive reports on the country's development possibilities, problems, and performance as a basis for the consultative group's deliberations; analyzing the country's aid requirements and problematic debt commitments, and recommending types and terms of aid; assisting the recipient government to prepare or revise a development program or advise on problems in its implementation; assisting in identifying projects and other technical assistance and arranging for feasibility studies; and advising participants on which sectors and projects deserve priority for external funding. The role of the group?s chairman, typically the Area or Country Director, encouraged dialogue at meetings and coordinated donor efforts to meet the country's financing needs. The department also drafted the minutes or summary of proceedings and the list of delegates of group meetings. These functions essentially remained unchanged through 1999.

In 1966, following a small departmental name change the previous year (from the Department of Operations - Far East to the Far East Department), the FEA was merged with the South Asia Department (SAS) to form a single Asian operational unit: Asia Department (ASI). There was no change in functions or reporting responsibilities. FEA's former Director, I. P. M. Cargill, was named ASI Department Director.

This reorganization of the regional operations units did not last long. In October 1968, due to the increased volume of lending operations anticipated over the next several years, the World Bank executed a major reorganization of its regional departments. One of the results was that ASI was again divided into two separate departments: South Asia Department (SAS) and East Asia and Pacific Department (EAP). Raymond J. Goodman was named Director of EAP while Cargill moved to SAS as Director.

1972 - 1987

While projects funded by the World Bank in the East Asia and Pacific Region from the Bank's inception through the 1960s focused primarily on infrastructure projects like transportation and energy, in the 1970s a shift towards agriculture, rural development and the social sectors occurred. This shift mirrored a more general trend in the Bank and, generally, in development dialogue at the time.

As part of amassive 1972 reorganization, the geographical organization of the Regional units was again altered. The seven departments that made up the Area Departments were elevated to five Regional Vice Presidencies (RVP). As a result, SAS and EAP were again combined to form a single Regional Vice Presidency: the Asia Vice Presidency (ASN). The RVPs reported to the new Senior Vice President, Operations (SVPOP).

A more significant aspect of the 1972 reorganization, however, was the integration of the former Projects Division with the new RVPs. The period between 1952 and 1972 had been characterized by frequent reorganizations of the geographically-based area units responsible for country liaison and loan policy and negotiation. However, the division of responsibility between these units and the TOD (renamed the Projects Division [PRJ] in 1965) was maintained. But in 1972, in an attempt to more effectively fuse country knowledge and sectoral skills, the reorganization removed most of the Bank's operational project work from the Projects Departments to the five new Regional Vice Presidencies. Each Region's Projects Department staff was organized into sector-oriented departments and were known as Central Projects Staff. Thus, rather than one Projects Department that supported projects in countries on an ad hoc basis, each RVP would maintain its own projects staff. Each RVP was, in turn, given "line authority" to analyze, decide and act on country development operations. Each RVP was responsible for planning and executing IBRD/IDA development assistance programs subject to the overall framework of Bank policies, priorities and operating procedures. The RVPs created regional plans and budgets, ensured the effective implementation of approved plans, created country economic and sector reports, and developed and implemented loan, credit, technical assistance, and other forms of development projects. The RVPs were also responsible for maintaining sound relations with governments of assigned countries and with aid organizations anddonors involved in those countries.

Upon the completion of the 1972 reorganization, ASN was divided into two Country Program Departments in addition to the new Projects Department. The countries overseen by the former EAP constituted Country Program Department 1. The Country Program Departments were staffed by country economists and loan officers whose primary responsibilities were: conducting area reviews of Bank activities and countries' economic and political developments; formulating country lendingand economic and sector work programs and implementing country programs; and reviewing loan applications, negotiating loans, and administering loans.

The Projects Department provided technical assistance and advice to members and borrowers on sectoral issues, priorities, and project development from identification through operation. The Projects Department, consisting of economists, financial analysts, and sector specialists, was specifically responsible for: creating sector policies; assisting countrieswith the identification and preparation of projects; appraising potential projects and assisting the Country Program Departments in loan negotiation and credit agreements; and helping borrowers manage consultants and procurement. ASN's Project Department was initially divided into five sector-based units: Agriculture; Development Finance Companies; Education; Public Utilities; and Transportation.

Note that not all operational responsibility was transferred from the former PRJ to the RVPs. Staff in sectorstoo small to decentralize to the various regions continued to provide a complete "operational package" of technical services to the regions. These units, such as Population and Nutrition and Urban Projects, were known as Central Operating Projects Departments and were located in the newly formed Vice President, Central Projects (CPSVP) which, like the RVPs, reported to the SVPOP. In addition, those former PRJ units which had their operational functions dispersed to the RVPs still maintained a core staff inthe CPSVP with responsibility for policy and advisory work only.

I. P. M. Cargill served as the Regional Vice President of ASN from 1 October 1972 to 30 June 1974. In 1974, the Asia Vice Presidency was again divided into separate Vice Presidencies: the South Asia Vice Presidency (ASN) and the East Asia and Pacific Vice Presidency (AEN). Bernard Bell was named Regional Vice President of AEN; he was succeed by S. Shahid Husain in 1977 and Attila Karaosmanoglu in 1983.

1987 - 1997

While the make-up of the Country Program Departments and Projects Department changed between 1972 and 1987 (most notably with a considerable increase in the number of Projects Department sector divisions), the organization and functions of the RVPs was consistent until 1987. In July of 1987, however, a Bank-wide reorganization under President Barber Conable altered the structures of the RVPs considerably. The changes were brought on by a desire to strengthen the Bank's country focus by making the Country Department the basic program and budget unit.

The new Country Departments that replaced the Country Program Departments combined the macro-economic work of the former Country Program Departments and the sector work of the former Regional Projects Department. Each Country Department would consist of a Country Operations Division (COD) as well as multiple Sectoral Operations Divisions (SOD) made up of staff from the former Regional Projects Departments. The COD was composed of lead, country and specialized economists as well as Country Officers and was responsible for: liaising with state governments and developing knowledge of issues in the country; preparing and supervising the country's aid strategy; and providing full responsibility for certain country-wide operations such as Structural Adjustment Loans and country economic work. SODs were responsible for overall sectoral strategy and for planning, programming and implementing development activities for the countries in their respective sectoral specialties; this would include the provision of full lending project management as well as lending and sector evaluation work.

Not all staff was moved from each Region's Project Department into the Country Departments' SODs. Those remaining formed a new Regional Technical Department within each RVP. It was responsible for higher level knowledge collection, assessment, and dissemination. The Technical Department, which was organized into sector-focused divisions, was to stimulate innovation in operational work and undertake strategic thinking by providing advice, operational support, regional studies, staff training and the dissemination of materials to Bank staff, donors, and other institutions outside the Bank. The Department would continue to offer operational help in the form of task management, task support, and advice. They would also work closely with Policy, Planning and Research (PPR) staff in conducting regional studies and reviews and advising on sector policy and research priorities.

A subsequent reorganization in 1993 strengthened the Country Departments' SODs through unit reorganization and a transfer of staff from the Regional Technical Departments to the SODs. The Technical Departments were greatly reduced in size and were restructured to reflect the emphasis on sectoral and thematic responsibilities of the SODs. The Technical Departments operational support function was consequently reduced.

During the 1987 reorganization the number of RVPs was decreased from six to four. This involved the merger of ASN and AEN in the formation of a single Asia Regional Office (ASI). Attila Karaosmanoglu was named Regional Vice President of ASI. ASI initially contained five Country Departments and a single Technical Department.

This internal organization was maintained through 1991 when the four regional Vice Presidencies were again expanded to six and ASI was divided into two separate Vice Presidencies: East Asia and Pacific Vice Presidency (EAP) and South Asia Vice Presidency (SAS). However, the two new reformed Vice Presidencies continued to share a single Technical Department (AST) until 1997. Gautam S. Kaji was named EAP Vice President. He was succeeded by Russell J. Cheetham in December of 1994.

Note that when ASI was arranged into five Country Departments between 1987 and 1991, Country Department 1 contained those countries that had typically been located in the various incarnations of the South Asia Region. The lone exception was Myanmar, which was placed in Country Department 2 with other EAP countries. Subsequently, when ASI was divided into SAS and EAP in 1991, Myanmar was officially removed from SAS and has since been located in EAP ever since.

1997 - 2014

A 1996-1997 reorganization modified the changes made in 1987 and 1993. The RVP continued to be responsible for all aspects of country development assistance for its member countries, including: country assistance strategy; lending operations; technical assistance operations; and economic and sector work. However, the primary objective of the reorganization was to deepen the country focus and responsiveness to client needs. This was accomplished in a number of ways. The most striking changes concerned the new Country Management Units (CMUs) which replaced the former Country Departments. The CMUs were smaller than their predecessor (that is, each was responsible for a smaller number of countries) while their number correspondingly increased. In the East Asia and Pacific Region, the number of CMUs rose from two in 1996 to eight in 1998.

In addition, there was an increasing decentralization of CMU staff and country directors from Bank headquarters in Washington to locations within client countries. At the same time, an increase in authority with regard to strategy and budget was given to the country directors. The CMUs continued to be responsible for overall preparation and supervision of the country's assistance strategy, full lending project management, and evaluation of lending and sector work.

During the reorganization, the former Technical Departments were changed into Sector or Technical Families. The role of the Technical Families, which consisted of sector and project economists and selected specialist staff, was to formulate knowledge on technical subjects and best practice and to suggest innovation through research and development. A Technical Families group was placed alongside a number of CMUs within each Regional Vice Presidency.

Jean-Michel Severino was named Regional Vice President of EAP in 1997. Jean-ud-din Kassum replaced Severino in 2000. Kassum was briefly replaced by Jeffrey Gutman, who served as acting Vice President between December 2005 and September 2006. He was succeeded by James W. Adams, who served in the position until January 2012. Pamela Cox briefly served in the position until being replaced by Axel van Trotsenburg in February 2013.

Economic Policy Reform Sector

The Economic Policy Reform Sector includes those departments that were responsible for policy, review, and operational support functions related to the areas of macroeconomic growth, fiscal policy, international trade, structural adjustment, and debt management. These functions primarily lie in the Economic Policy Division (PRMEP) of the Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network (PREM), as well as in related units such as the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Unit (PRMHP) and the International Trade Department (PRMTR).

The creation of PRMEP occurred as part of a Bank-wide reorganization in 1997 that included the introduction of Bank networks and a simultaneous reorganization of the Development Economics Vice Presidency (DEC); the Bank's research and policy development group. As part of the latter, functions then maintained by DEC, such as research and policy work and operational support in fields related to economic policy reform as well as country strategy and adjustment operational review, were transferred into PRMEP. This move was made in order to promote greater collaboration between DEC, sector departments, Bank Regions, and other networks related to economic policy reform. Further, it was recognized that the country strategy and adjustment operations review functions were unsustainable in DEC and more appropriate in a sector department which offered closer proximity to staff and operational work in the Bank's regions and the ability to work across Bank operations as a network division.

During the DEC reorganization, three DEC units were terminated: the global economics research oriented International Economics Department (IEC); the development economics policy research oriented Policy Research Department (PRD); and the Development Policy Group (DPG), which was responsible for adjustment operations and country strategy review. Before its termination, IEC consisted of the following divisions: the International Trade Division (IECIT); the International Finance Division (IECIF); the International Economic Analysis and Prospects Division (IECAP); the Systems Division (IECSD); and the Socio-Economic Data Division (IECSE). PRD included the following divisions: the Environment, Infrastructure and Agriculture Division (PRDEI); the Finance and Private Sector Development Division (PRDFD); the Poverty and Human Resources Division (PRDPH); the Public Economics Division (PRDPE); the Trade Policy Division (PRDTP); and the Transition and Macro-Adjustment Division (PRDTM). DPG did not have subordinate units.

The functions and staff of IEC, PRD, and DPG were subsequently absorbed into the following new units: the Development Research Group (DECRG) and the Development Prospects Group (DECPG) in DEC, and the Economic Policy Division (PRMEP). DECRG absorbed the divisions, functions, and budget of PRD, and was established as the primary development economics policy research unit in Bank operations. The former IECIF, IECAP, and the subordinate Commodity Policy and Analysis Unit (IECCP) were merged to create the new DECPG,replacing IEC as the Bank's primary global economics and financial analysis policy research unit. The Economic Policy Division (PRMEP) absorbed economic research staff from both the PRD and IEC divisions. The DPG functions and staff were primarily mapped and absorbed into PRMEP, but other adjustment operations and country strategies review staff were also mapped into the other PREM divisions, including: the Gender Division (PRMGE); the Poverty Division (PRMPO); and the Public Sector Management Division (PRMPS).

PRMEP was responsible for coordinating World Bank strategy, knowledge management, quality enhancement, staffing and professional development, and partnerships related to economic policy. More specifically, PRMEP objectives included:

  • preparing and maintaining a knowledge base in selected areas;

  • coordinating Bank activities: Country Assistance Strategies (CAS), adjustment loans, technical assistance (TA) loans, economic sector work (ESW), seminars, workshops, local capacity building;

  • building and maintaining data bases, analytical tools and other resource materials to reduce costs;

  • improving consensus with partners by constructing a Bank view on relevant topics; and

  • improving staff skills.

PRMEP supported operational and policy work in five thematic areas: development effectiveness; macroeconomic and financial management; growth and inequality; macroeconomic sustainability and creditworthiness; and trade and competiveness. The functions of PRMEP were undertaken in close collaborationwith DECRG and DECPG, the Bank regions, and the other departments of PREM.

PRMEP was governed by the Economic Policy (EP) Sector Board. The EP Sector Board main objectives included:

  • strengthening the analytical underpinnings of Country Assistance Strategies (CASs);

  • improving the quality of economic analysis and policy dialogue; and

  • advising the Bank on strategic economic policy matters including adjustment lending operations.

The EP Sector Board consisted primarily of representatives from theabove mentioned units, and representatives from the Finance, Private Sector Development, and Infrastructure Network (FPSI). Many of DEC's representatives on the Sector Board served in a dual appointment within DEC units and PRMEP. This was done to promote greater synergy and cross-support between economic policy research and operational staff in DEC, PREM, and the Bank regions.

Homi Kharas assumed the role of Director for PRMEP in July 1997.

In 2000, the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Unit (PRMHP) was established in PREM, following the termination of the Debt Initiative Group (AFTD1), which was focused on HIPC related issues and located in the Africa Vice Presidency (AFR). The HIPC Initiative, a joint program of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank, was originally launched in 1996 and served as a comprehensive country debt relief program that worked in close collaboration with bilateral creditors, other multilateral banks, and representatives from civil society groups and non-governmentalorganizations (NGOs). At its inception, the AFTD1 was placed in the Africa Vice Presidency (AFR) primarily because most countries eligible under the HIPC program were located in Sub-Saharan Africa. AFTD1 was replaced by PRMHP, however, due to the raised profile of the program following the launch of the Enhanced HIPC Initiative in 1999 and an increasing number of eligible heavily indebted poor countries in other regions. PRMHP was created in order to serve as the main implementation unit in the Bank. PRMHP operated as a separate unit in PREM but coordinated closely with PRMEP in the area of debt management within the thematic area of macroeconomic sustainability and creditworthiness. PRMHP would later be merged in 2005, however, with PRMEP due to the growing demand of debt management advisory services in Bank operations. Axel von Trotsenburg, the former Manager of AFTD1, assumed the role of Senior Manager for PRMHP.

In 2000, Uri Dadush assumed the dual appointment of Director for PRMEP and DECPG.

In 2002, the international trade functions were transferred from PRMEP to a new International Trade Department (PRMTR) within PREM. Uri Dadush was appointed the new Director for PRMTR. With Dadush's new appointment, Yaw Ansu was named Director for PRMEP. The PRMEP was re-organized shortly thereafter to coordinate economic policy work in the following thematic economic policy areas:

  • growth and labor markets;

  • managing volatility;

  • fiscal policy;

  • subnational regional economies; and

  • data and tools foreconomic analysis.

Operational and policy work focused on the following areas:

  • macroeconomic management in the areas of economic growth, debt management, fiscal sustainability, managing volatility, and subnational economic management;

  • integrative policy analysis; and

  • country strategies.

PRMEP functions included: providing support to economic sector work (ESW) in the Regions; reviewing Country Assistance Strategies (CASs) and adjustment operations; preparing papers for the Executive Board; preparing policy notes on major country or global economic developments or issues; preparing briefs and speeches for senior management; and leading special task forces.

In 2004, PRMHP was mapped into the Debt Department (PRMDE) located in PREM. Around 2005, PRMDE was merged with PRMEP and renamed the Economic Policy and Debt Department (PRMED).

In 2005, Vikram Nehru replaced Ansu as Director of PRMED and in 2008, Carlos A. Primo Braga succeeded him.

As of 2014, PRMED continues to be responsible for the Bank's operational and policy work on macroeconomic management and growth, fiscal policy, and debt issues. It also continues to play a significant role in debt management activities. In addition to the HIPC Initiative, it is involved in coordinating: the multi-donor Debt Management Facility (DMF); the Debt Reduction Initiative; the Debt Reduction Facility (DRF) for IDA-Only Countries; the Debt Sustainability Framework (DSF); and medium-term debt management strategies (MTDS).

Education Sector

The World Bank first began lending for education projects in fiscal year 1963. In October of 1963, a memorandum from the President on Proposed Bank/IDA Policies in the Field of Education was issued in which the basic policy on education projects was set forth. Initially, the objectives were to promote educational planning, build infrastructure, and attract additional capital investment from other donor agencies.

Functional responsibility for education-related activities was first articulated in the organizational structure of the World Bank after the January 18, 1965, creation of the Projects Department (PRJ). The Projects Department, which had roots in the Technical Operations Department (September 1952 to 18 January 1965) and in the Economic Department (19 April 1948 to September 1952), was responsible for: the identification, appraisal and supervision of projects; policy formulation and research; and advice in support of the operational activities of the area departments. The Projects Department initially had five subordinate divisions: Agriculture Division (PRJAG); Public Utilities Division (PRJPU); Industry Division (PRJIN); Transportation Division (PRJTP); and Education Division (PRJED).

On November 1, 1968, the Projects Department was terminated and the subordinate divisions were upgraded to the department level. The Education Department (EDP) was one of the newly created departments along with the Departments of Agriculture (AGP), Transportation (TRP), and Public Utilities (PBP). Duncan S. Ballantinewas the Department's first director and served until 1977. Initially, EDP had two divisions: Education Division 1 (EDP1) and Education Division 2 (EDP2). In 1970, Education Division 3 (EDP3) was created.

From 1968 until a Bank-wide reorganization in 1972, the individual Projects Departments reported to the Director of Projects (DRP), and were the primary Bank units responsible for the appraisal, negotiations, and supervision of operational project work in their respective sectors. The Departments were specifically responsible for:

  • providing advice, conducting research, and monitoring developments in sector issues;

  • carrying out sector studies with the objective of identifying projects and determining priorities within sectors;

  • preparing policy papers outlining the basic principles and approaches of the Bank relating to project and sector work;

  • preparing guidelines and standards;

  • appraising proposed projects and supervising projects in execution;

  • assisting in the identification and preparation of projects;

  • providing operational support in the negotiation and administration of loans and credits; and

  • cooperating with other international agencies on programs of common interest.

In 1971, the Bank issued the first formal statement on the priority for education lending in an Education Sector Working Paper. This was updated in 1974 with the 1974 Sector Working Paper. The latter emphasized the urgency of improving access of the rural and urban poor to education, making curricula relevant to rural needs, and promoting functional adult literacy.

The Bank's massive reorganization in October 1972 attempted to more effectively fuse country knowledge with sector skills. Sectors with a sufficient number of experts and an established lending program, such as the Education Department, were largely decentralized. While maintaining a centralized core staff of Department advisors, the majority of Department staff were dispersed to regional project departments in newly established Regional Vice Presidencies.The remaining centralized staff made up the sector operating departments and performed advisory services for the Regions. They were responsible for improving and maintaining the quality of Bank lending and related operations through: formulating policies, methodology and guidelines; providing operational support and advice; and managing related programs of recruitment assistance, staff development and education.

The Education Department, as well as other sector operating departments, reported to the newlycreated Vice President, Central Projects (CPSVP). The Vice President, Central Projects, replaced the previous Director, Projects (DRP), and reported to the Senior Vice President, Operations (SVPOP).

On July 1, 1977, the Department was assigned a new acronym (EDC) and a Training Unit (EDCTR) was established. On July 1, 1983, three other units were created: Education Research Program (EDCRS); Education Operational Policy Program (EDCOP); and Education Project Related Training Program (EDCPT).

In 1980, the 1980 Education Sector Policy Paper was released. It emphasized primary education as the foundation of educational development and called for: improved access of girls and rural children to basic education; a limitation of additional investments in secondary and higher education; enhanced instructional quality by providing cost-effective school inputs and teacher training; improving internal efficiency; mobilizing community resources and the mass media; and building local institutions.

In July 1984, EDC wasrenamed the Education and Training Department (EDT). In February 1985, the subordinate units of EDT were given the status of divisions. This resulted in: Research Division (EDTRS); Education Policy Division (EDTEP); and Project Related Training Division (EDTPT). EDTPT was subsequently terminated on July 1, 1986, and EDTEP received a new acronym (EDTPD) on July 30, 1986.

On July 1, 1987, a Bank-wide reorganization resulted in the termination of almost all organizational units. The Vice Presidency, Sector Policy and Research (PRE), was established in May 1987, and reported to the Senior Vice President, Policy, Planning and Research (PPR). The PRE shed all responsibility for managing operational activities and focused completely on operational support, the formulation of Bank-wide sector policies, and overseeing the ex-post evaluation of Bank-wide sector work and lending. The PRE changed its acronym to PRS on January 1, 1990.

At the time of its creation, the PRE had five departments reporting to it including the new Population and Human Resources Department (PHR). This Department integrated the functions of EDT and the Population, Health and Nutrition Department (PHN); it also assumed responsibility for activities related to 'strengthening the role of women in development.' The Department had four divisions: Education and Employment Division (PHREE); Population, Health and Nutrition Division (PHRHN); Women in Development (PHRWD); and Welfare and Human Resources Division (PHRWH). On July 1, 1992, a Population Policy and Advisory Service Group (PPAS) was established in the Front Office of the Department to increase attention to population work. The PHR was responsible for:

  • formulating policies and strategies for human resource development and women in development, and developing new initiatives and Bank products;

  • conducting supporting research, including the improvement of research capabilities in developing countries, and management of external research funded through the Research Support Budget;

  • improving methodology and identifying best practices;

  • performing ex-post evaluation of the Bank's human resources sector work;

  • providing operational support;

  • liaising with non-Bank organizations and professionals in the field;

  • developing household data on living standards; and

  • assisting in the recruitment and training of staff.

In 1991, the priority areas of education sector lending were:

  • improving the effectiveness and efficiency of primary education;

  • increasing the access of women and girls to education;

  • strengthening science and technology education;

  • improving the efficiency and flexibility of training systems;

  • strengthening the contributions of higher education and sciences and technology institutions to development; and

  • continuing support for project-related training and the development of sectoral training capacity.

On December 1, 1991, President Lewis Preston's first reorganization abolished all Senior Vice-Presidencies. The new Sector and Operations Policy Vice Presidency (OSP) was created and adopted functions previously supervised by Senior Vice Presidents, including the PHR. On January 1, 1993, as part of a larger initiative to align the Bank's organization with the priority areas of its poverty reduction effort, the Sector and Operations Policy Vice Presidency was terminated. It was replaced by three new thematic vice presidencies: Human Resources Development and Operations Policy (HRO), Finance and Private Sector Development (FPD), and Environmentally Sustainable Development (ESD).

During the 1993 reorganization, the PHR was terminated and its functions were split between a new Education and Social Policy Department (ESP) and a Population, Health and Nutrition Department (PHN). Both of these departments were placed in the HRO vice presidency along with an Operations Policy Department (OPR). The OPR absorbed the functions of: the former Central Operations Department (COD); the International Economic Relations Division (OPRIE); and the UN Office in New York (OPRNY) transferred from the External Relations Department (EXT).

On July 1, 1995, HRO became Human Capital Development and Operations Policy (HCO). At this time ESP was terminated; the education functions were moved into the new Human Development Department (HDD) which consisted of education as well as the previous Population, Health and Nutrition functions of PHN. The Social Policy function of ESP was moved into the new Poverty and Social Policy Department (PSP).

In 1997, the thematic Vice Presidencies were reorganized to strike a better balance between country focus and sectoral excellence. To facilitate sharing of expertise and knowledge, the Bank established networks that linked Bank-wide communities of staff working in the same field across organizational boundaries and with external partners. The networks formed a virtual overlay on the existing Bank organization, and were intended to link staff working in the same sectors throughout the Bank, whether the staff was located in the Regions, in the Central Vice-Presidencies' Sector Departments, or other Vice-Presidencies.

Each of the three thematic Central Vice-Presidencies was transformed into the central units, or anchors, of each network and consisted of the existing sector departments. On a Bank-wide basis, sector specialists were grouped into regional sector units or into central sector departments that worked with country departments in a matrix relationship. Staff from the central sector departments could become part of the Regional operational teams when their sectoral expertise was required.

The work programs of Network staff focused on the following items.

  • Global knowledge - putting the best development knowledge in the hands of Bank task teams; ensuring that the knowledge base was accessible to external clients; and contributing to the growth of the knowledge base.

  • Enhanced skills - developing and providing content to training courses; establishing professional and technical standards for professional development.

  • Shared strategies - assisting regional and central units to develop a common sector agenda, and ensuring that skills are effectively deployed across the entire network. Network leadership assumed responsibility for global programs, sector strategy development and evaluation, strategic partnerships, and learning and dissemination.

  • Best teams and best practices - improving the Bank's flexibility and mobility by building stronger task teams and delivering higher quality products.

  • Institutional initiatives - providing substantial support for new Bank-wide initiatives, such as Social Development, Rural Development, Financial Sector, Anti-corruption, Human Resources, and Knowledge Partnerships.

The result of the 1997 restructuring was four networks: the Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development Network (ESSD); the Finance, Private Sector Development, and Infrastructure Network (FPD); the Human Development Network (HDN); and the Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network (PRM).

As part of this reorganization, the HDD was broken into three teams and placed in HDN. The teams included: Education Team (HDNED); Health, Nutrition, and Population Team (HDNHE); and the Social Protection Team (HDNSP). In 2003 an HIV/AIDS Global Program Team (HDNGA) was created and added to the HDN.

Education and Social Policy Department (ESP), Poverty and Social Policy Department (PSP), and Poverty, Gender, and Public Sector Management Department (PGP)

Between the years 1993 and 1997, the Education and Social Policy Department (ESP), Poverty and Social Policy Department (PSP), and Poverty, Gender, and Public Sector Management Department (PGP) were responsible for the functions of a number of different social- and poverty-focused sectors, including gender and development, poverty analysis and policy, and, temporarily, education. While the departments were organized into 'teams' or 'groups', activities often overlapped.

ESP was created as part of the Bank-wide 1993 reorganization. The Population and Human Resources Department (PHR) was terminated and its functions were split between two newly created departments: the Population, Health and Nutrition Department (PHN) and ESP. Both of these departments were placed in the Human Resources Development and Operations Policy Vice Presidency (HRO). ESP absorbed the functions of the following PHR divisions: Education and Employment Division (PHREE); the Women in Development Division (PHRWD); and the Poverty Analysisand Policy Division (PHRPA). ESP performed operational and analytical work in four main thematic areas:

  • poverty analysis and social policy;

  • labor markets and safety nets;

  • women in development; and

  • education and training.

The ESP Department was responsible for:

  • formulating and disseminating policies and guidelines for its sectors;

  • monitoring the effectiveness of policies and approaches;

  • identifying and disseminating best practices and lessons of experience;

  • liaising with external organizations and professionals in the field;

  • assessing skills requirements and upgrading skills; and

  • providing operational support to the Regions.

On July 1, 1995, HRO became the Human Capital Development and Operations Policy Vice Presidency (HCO), and ESP was terminated. The education team of ESP was moved into the newly established Human Development Department (HDD) of HCO. The remaining teams were moved into the new Poverty and Social Policy Department (PSP). PSP contained four groups:

  • Gender Analysis and Policy;

  • Poverty and Social Assistance;

  • Labor Markets, Social Protection, and Public Sector Management;

  • Participation and Non-Governmental Organizations.

On December 31, 1995, HCO was terminated, and replaced by the Human Capital Development Vice-Presidency (HCD). PSP remained in HCD.

As part of a Bank-wide reorganization in 1997, PSP sectors and functions were mapped into a new network-based structure. This process began in September of 1996 with a series of temporary relocations of PSP sectors. Labor Market and Social Protection activities were transferred to the Human Development Department (HDD) and then subsequently mapped into the new Human Development Network (HDN). The Participation and Non-Governmental Organizations team was transferred to the Environmental Social Policy and Resettlement Division (ENVSP) of the Environmentally Sustainable Development Vice Presidency (ESDVP). ENVSP was subsequently mapped into the Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development Network (ESSD). In December 1996, the Human Capital Development Vice-Presidency (HCD) was terminated. The remaining PSP Groups of HCD were temporarily transferred to the Development Economics Vice Presidency (DEC) under the oversight of International Economic Department Director (IECDR) Masood Ahmed. While being overseen by DEC, the Gender Analysis and Policy Group, the Poverty and Social Assistance Group, and activities related to Public Sector Management temporarily became the Poverty, Gender, and Public Sector Management Department (PGP). The transition was finally completed in July 1997 when the sectors within PGP were individually mapped into the new Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network (PREM).

Energy Development Sector

Functional responsibility for Energy Development Sector activities, began in 1965 within a lower division of the Projects Department. The Projects Department was responsible for the identification, appraisal and supervision of projects, as well as policy formulation, research and advice in support of the operational activities of the area departments. The Projects Department itself has its roots in the Technical Operations Department (September 1952 to 18 January 1965) and in the Economic Department prior to that (19 April 1948 to September 1952), both of which had similar responsibilities in the area of operational and sector work, providing expertise and assistance for projects and studies.

The Projects Department (PRJ) was established on January 18th 1965 and the following divisions were subordinate to it: Agriculture Division (PRJAG); Education Division (PRJED); Transportation Division (PRJTP); Public Utilities Division (PRJPU), and Industry Division (PRJIN). Responsibility for energy sector issues wasfound within the Public Utilities Division, and on January 1st, 1967 water sector functions were transferred into the Division.

On November 1st, 1968, the Projects Departments was terminated and the subordinate divisions were upgraded to the department level. One of these departments was the Public Utilities Department, which maintained responsibility for the energy sector from the prior division. Specifically, the Department was responsible for:

  • providing advice, conducting research, and monitoring developments in sector issues;

  • carrying out sector studies with the objective of identifying projects and determining priorities within sectors;

  • preparing policy papers outlining the basic principles and approaches of the Bank relating to project and sector work;

  • preparing guidelines and standards;

  • appraising proposed projects and supervising projects in execution;

  • assisting in the identification and preparation of projects;

  • providing operational support in the negotiation and administration of loans and credits;

  • cooperating with other international agencies on programs of common interest.

In the October 1972 reorganization, most of the Public Utilities Department staff were dispersed to regional projects departments in newly established regional vice presidencies to more effectively fuse country knowledge and sector skills. This left the Public Utilities Department with a core staff of advisors responsible for operational and development policy, research, operational support and qualitycontrol of project and sector work. The Public Utilities Department was contained within the Central Projects Staff Vice-Presidency and it was composed of the following divisions: Power Division I (PBPP1); Power Division II (PBPP2); Power Division III (PBPP3); Water Supply Division I (PBPW1); and the Telecommunications Division (PBPTE). Possibly in January 1970, another Water Supply Division II (PBPW2) was established in the Department.

  • The primary responsibility of the Public Utilities Department's Central Projects staff was to improve and maintain the quality of Bank lending and related operations through formulating policies, methodology and guidelines; providing operational support and advice; and through related programs of recruitment assistance, staff development and education. They were also responsible for: reviewing operational documents and providing guidance and advice to Regional offices; developing systems to monitor the project cycle; developing analytical tools such as appraisal and forecasting models; and liaising with relevant external organizations. Their role was to advise, guide, cross-fertilize among Regions, train, evaluate, and provide intellectual leadership.

On April 1, 1976, the Public Utilities Department was renamed Energy, Water and Telecommunications Department (EWT) to clarify its functional responsibilities. No structural changes accompanied the renaming of the department. Then, on November 1st 1977, a Petroleum Projects Division (EWTPP) was established in the Department to implement the Bank's program of expansion of gas and petroleum production in developing countries.

On July 1, 1979, the Energy, Water and Telecommunications Department was terminated. Its energy functions were upgraded to an independent Energy Department (EGY), and the water supply and telecommunications functions were transferred to the Transportation Department to form the new Transportation, Water and Telecommunications Department (TWT).

The Energy Department was established to provide unified, full-time leadership to implement the Bank's rapidly expanding program to accelerate petroleum production in developing countries. Functioning as a central operating projects department (COPD), it had operational responsibilities with regard to oil and gas, electric power, including technical assistance in national energy planning and petroleum legislation, and assessing and helping develop renewable and non-conventional energy sources. In addition, it would be responsible for policy and research, as well as operational advice and support for all energy sector and project work. The Energy Department was composed of the following subordinate units: Petroleum Projects Division (EGYPP); Energy Policy Advisory Staff (EGYEP); and Operations Advisory Staff (EGYOP).

Less than a year later in May 1980, the Energy Department was restructured to absorb staff increases and carry out its increased work program. The former Petroleum Projects Division (EGYPP) was split into the Petroleum Projects Divisions I (EGYD1) andII (EGYD2), and a new Petroleum Projects Exploration Staff (EGYES) was established. The Operations Advisory Staff (EGYOP) was renamed Energy Operations and Review Staff (EGYOP).

In July 1981, the Energy Department was again restructured, accommodating further staff increases and the Bank's progressing energy program. The staff were organized into three complexes:

    1. The first complex was led by the Assistant Director, Petroleum, who was responsible for the two operational Petroleum Projects Divisions (EGYD1) and (EGYD2), a small Petroleum Advisory Staff, and a Petroleum Adviser;
    1. The second complex was led by the Assistant Director, Energy Policy and Assessment who was responsible for the Energy Assessments Division (EGYEA), a small Economic Advisory Staff (EGYEC), and the Economic Adviser;
    1. The third complex was led by the Senior Adviser, Energy Operations and Review (EGYOP) who was responsible for a staff of advisers delivering operational support and advice to the regions, and for the New and Renewable Energies Unit (EGYNR).

In September 1985, the Department was reorganized to strengthen the policy and review activities along the lines of sector departments and divide the workload of the Energy Assessment Division (EGYEA). With the exception of the Petroleum Projects Division I (EGYD1) and II (EGYD2), all subordinate units of the Energy Department were terminated. The new Energy Policy and Advisory Division (EGYPA) absorbed most of the advisory staffs, and centralized the formulation, dissemination and monitoring of energy policy. The new Energy Strategy and Pre-investment Divisions I (EGYS1) and II (EGYS2) absorbed most of the staff of the former Energy Assessments Division (EGYEA), and took on responsibility for: all joint Bank/UNDP technical assistance, known as ESMAP (Energy Sector Management Assistance Program); all energy sector work; and the preparation and supervision of Bank energy projects.

On July 1st 1987, a Bank-wide reorganization resulted in the termination of almostall organizational units. The Energy Department found itself within the newly created Sector Policy and Research Vice-Presidency (PRE, then PRS). As a result of the reorganization, PRE had no responsibility for managing operational activities. The Vice-Presidency focused on operational support, the formulation of Bankwide sector policies, and overseeing the ex post evaluation of Bankwide sector work and lending. The units within the Vice-Presidency concentrated on policy creation and analysis, support for operations, and sectoral research for emerging priority areas of the Bank. Within the PRE Vice-Presidency, the energy and industry sectors were merged into the Industry and Energy Department (IEN).

On December 1, 1991, as part of President Lewis Preston's first reorganization, which abolished all Senior Vice-Presidencies, the new Sector and Operations Vice-Presidency (OSP) was created, and adopted functions previously supervised by Senior Vice-Presidents. From the reorganization, the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) was removed from the Industry and Energy Department (IEN) and established as its own department. Industry and Energy Department was responsible for:

  • formulating policies in the energy and industry sectors;

  • developing research priorities and conducting background research necessary to support policy development;

  • strengthening the Bank's intellectual leadership in the sector;

  • providing advice to the Regions for the design of country strategies and sector operations;

  • disseminating research results;

  • conducting an annual review of Bank operations in the sector;

  • developing and maintaining contact with the external community.

On December 31, 1992, as part of a larger initiative to align the Bank's organization with the priority areas of its poverty reduction effort, the Sector and Operations Policy Vice Presidency was terminated. OSP was replaced by three new thematic vice presidencies: Human Resources Development and Operations Policy (HRO), Finance and Private Sector Development (FPD); and Environmentally Sustainable Development (ESD). At the time of its establishment Finance and Private Sector Development (FPD) had three subordinate departments:

    1. Financial Sector Development Department (FSD);
    1. Private Sector Development Department (PSD); and
    1. Industry and Energy Department (IEN)

Each Sector Department was responsible for the following:

  • prepare policies, guidelines, standards, handbooks and analytical tools relevant to the sector;

  • identify, codify and disseminate best practices and lessons of experience, and evaluate weaknesses;

  • provide advice to the Regions as needed;

  • monitor and track work in the sectors assigned in order to identify generic issues and identify, evaluate and influence trends and patterns;

  • perform surveys of experience and practice within the Bank and elsewhere, and develop innovative approaches;

  • participate in Bankwide efforts to assess skill requirements, and to upgrade skills through recruitment, training, orientation, seminars, newsletters, etc.

  • represent the Bank to external communities of interest;

*maintain an awareness of relevant external practices and viewpoints.

Five years later, in 1997, the thematic Vice-Presidencies were reorganized to strike a better balance between country focus and sectoral excellence. To facilitate sharing of expertise and knowledge, the Bank established Networks that linked Bank-wide communities of staff working in the same field across organizational boundaries and with external partners. The networks formed a virtual overlay on the existing Bank organization, and were intended to link staff working in the same sectors throughout the Bank, whether the staff was located in the Regions, in the Central Vice-Presidencies' Sectoral Departments, and other vice-presidencies.

Each of the three thematic Central Vice-Presidencies was transformed into the central units, or anchors, of each Network and were embodied in the existing Sector Departments. On a Bank-wide basis, sectorspecialists were grouped into regional sector units or into central Sector Departments which worked with country departments in a matrix relationship.

Each Network Anchor had a Network Council to oversee the entire network, and sector boards covering the individual sectors within a network. The Network Council was composed of the top network managers from each region, and was responsible for setting the overall agenda for the network and for promoting the effective deployment of skills across network units. Sector Boards brought together the sector leaders from each region and from the central vice presidencies. Staff from the central sector departments could become part of the regional operational teams when their sectoral expertise was required. The work programs of Network staff focused on:

  • global knowledge - putting the best development knowledge in the hands of Bank task teams; ensuring that the knowledge base was accessible to external clients; and contributing to the growth of the knowledge base;

  • enhanced skills - developing and providing content to training courses; establishing professional and technical standards for professional development;

  • shared strategies - assisting regional and central units to develop a common sector agenda, and ensuring that skills are effectively deployed across the entire network. Network leadership assumed responsibility for global programs, sector strategy development and evaluation, strategic partnerships, and learning and dissemination;

  • best teams and best practices - improving the Bank's flexibility and mobility by building stronger task teams and delivering higher quality products;

  • institutional initiatives - providing substantial support for new Bank-wide initiatives, such as Social Development, Rural Development, Financial Sector, Anti-corruption, Human Resources, and Knowledge Partnerships.

Following the 1997 reorganization, energy sector functions were found within the Energy, Mining and Telecommunications Department (IEN) of the Finance, Private Sector Development, and Infrastructure Network (FPD), which was re-named at some point in fiscal year 2000, with little effect on the energy sector portfolio, to Private Sector Development and Infrastructure Network.

Environment Sector

Activities related to the environment sector were initiated in 1970 when President McNamara announced that he had created the post of environmental adviser. James Lee was named to the post and would remain in the position until his retirement from the Bank in 1987. The Office of Environmental Affairs (OEA) was subsequently formed and placed in the Projects Advisory Staff (PAS) of the Projects Staff, Vice Presidency. The Office's name would briefly change to the Office of Environmental and Health Affairs (OEHA) in or around 1977 and then, permanently, to the Office of Environmental and Scientific Affairs (OESA) in 1983 or 1984.

Throughout the 1970s the OEA was provided with few staff or resources and little influence. While the majority of the Office's resources were directed towards reviews of Bank projects, its five stated objectives were to:

  • ensure that development projects did not 'unduly' harm the environment and social well-being of a country;

  • develop increased awareness of environmental problemsassociated with the development of developing countries;

  • marshal the necessary resources and expertise to study the problem;

  • encourage research and training in that area; and

  • improve information and technical cooperation among countries.

    Bank projects related to environmental protection, rehabilitation, or enhancement began in earnest in 1974. These included projects related to water pollution, forestry, soil conservation and anti-desertification, air pollution, wildlife, range-management, and solid waste disposal. However, guidance and advice was generally provided by departments within the Vice President, Central Projects (CPSVP). The OEA maintained its function as project reviewer. Its agenda did, however, extend into areas that were not specifically covered by other sectoral departments in the CPSVP such as health, resettlement, and the rights of indigenous peoples.

The OEA would also provide guidance for project planning through training and publications. In 1974 it published a handbook entitled Environmental, Health and Human Ecological Considerations in Economic Projects and in 1975 it produced Guidelines on Environmental Dimensions of Projects. In 1980 the OEA, together with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), released the Declaration of Environmental Policies and Procedures Relating to Economic Development. In 1984, the Bank introduced a new Operational Manual Statement and, for the first time, it set out Bank guidelines on the environmental review of projects.

The OEA continued to exercise a small amount of power and influence throughout the early and mid-1980s. However, during the Bank-wide reorganization that took place in 1987, the Environment Department (ENV) was created within the Vice President, Sector Policy and Research (PRE). Kenneth Piddington was named its first director in 1988. The Department was placed on the same level as other sector departments. At the time of its establishment, the Department had three divisions: the Environmental Operations and Strategy Division (ENVOS), the Economics and Policy Division (ENVEP), and the Environmental Systems and Technology Division (ENVST).

The Department's role was to formulate Bank-wide policy and strategy for the full range of environmental issues affecting development that arise from the exploitation of natural resources; at the time, this also included issues related to resettlement and migration. Specifically, its stated roles and responsibilities were to:

  • conduct an integrated program of research, policy analysis and operational support on environmental issues, and to formulate Bank policies to account for environmental issues in all of the Bank's sectors of operation;

  • enhance the Bank's intellectual leadership on environmental issues;

  • lead the development of new initiatives for the environment, and to contribute to the development of new, environmentally sound Bank policies and products;

  • define the Bank's objectives, policies and products in the sub-sector of forestry;

  • define the Bank's objectives and to improve its methodologies and practices with regard to environmental concerns;

  • manage and disseminate the results of the ex post evaluation of the environmental consequences of the Bank's policies and operations;

  • liaise with groups, agencies and senior professional leaders actively working on environmental issues;

  • participate in appropriate committees, including the sector policy working group and country strategy working group;

  • collaborate closely with other Policy, Planning and Research (PPR) Departments in formulating environmental policies for the Bank's operations; and

  • help recruit and train environmental specialists.

The Environment Department, like the other sector Departments in the PRE, had no operational responsibilities.

As part of the increased focus placed on environmental impact and review, four regional environment divisions (REDs) were established. The new offices in the four regional technical departments would each oversee one or two regions and would review all projects and oversee the implementation of environmental measures included in Bank-supported projects. The divisions were given 'sign-off authority' which meant that a project could not go forward for approval until it had been cleared by the RED division chief. In addition, REDs would work to identify new advances in resource management and help with institution-building through close contact with national environmental offices.

In December, 1988, the ENVEP and ENVST Divisions of the Environment Department were replaced by the Environmental Policy Research Division (ENVPR) and a Special Environmental Program (ENVSE). Then, on September 1, 1990, the ENVOS was terminated and replaced by the Environmental Programs and Assessment Division (ENVAP). This reflected a reorientation of the work program away from ad hoc operational support, necessitated by the newness of the subject and the shortage of qualified operational staff, toward provision of guidelines based on thorough reviews of the Bank's environmental work. In particular, the new Division would focus on such crosscutting issues as environmental assessment of projects and integration of environmental factors into the country economic and sector programs.

On December 1, 1991, President Lewis Preston's first reorganization abolished all Senior Vice-Presidencies. The new Sector and Operations Policy Vice Presidency (OSP) was created and adopted functions previously supervised by Senior Vice Presidents, including the Environment Department.

In 1991, the Environment Department's Global Environment Unit (ENVGC), a unit to coordinate Bank-related activities of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol (MLF), was created in the Department. The GEF was sponsored jointly by the World Bank, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the UNEP. Its purpose is to provide funds to developing countries for projects that contribute to the solution of global environmental problems. The Bank was initially assigned the chairmanship of the Facility and administered two trust funds - the Ozone Projects Trust Fund and the Global Environment Trust Fund - to be applied to several priority areas of global environmental problems, including: the reduction of CFC emissions to protect the ozone layer of the atmosphere; the reduction of greenhouse gases; improved management of tropical forests; and reducing pollution of international waters. Since July of 1991 the Bank has also served as one of four implementers of the MLF, the financial mechanism of the Montreal Protocol (MP). The ENVGC acts as the Bank's Montreal Protocol Operations Team and is responsible for coordinating efforts of other Bank staff and local partners to assist countries in meetingtheir obligations under the MP.

When the GEF was established in April of 1991, it initially reported to the Senior Vice President, Policy, Research and External Affairs (PRESV); a GEF Administrator's Unit (ENVGE) was assigned to the Environment Department. After the December 1, 1991, reorganization and the termination of the PRESV, the Director of the Environment Department was designated Chairman of the GEF and the ENVGC was established. On January 1, 1993, the GEF Coordination Unit was upgraded to a division while maintaining its previous acronym. In 1994 the GEF was restructured and moved out of the World Bank. However, the Bank became the Trustee of the GEF Trust Fund and continues to provide administrative services out of the Environment Department.

Throughout, the Bank served and continues to serve as a coordinating agency for Bank-implemented GEF and MP projects. As of 2012, the World Bank's GEF coordination activities are carried out by the Environment Department's GEF Coordination Team. Its responsibilities include:

  • management of the Bank's GEF corporate program;

  • institutional relations;

  • Bank - GEF project policies and procedures;

  • Outreach, knowledge management and external relations;

  • Budget management and finance; and

  • Monitoring and evaluation.

Effective January 1, 1993, the Department was again restructured as part of a larger, Bank-wide reorganization of sector policy and support units. The larger reorganization involved the creation of three new thematic vice presidencies tosucceed the terminated OSP: Environmentally Sustainable Development (ESD); Human Resources Development and Operations Policy (HRO); and Finance and Private Sector Development (FPD). The Environment Department became one of the ESD's subordinate departments along with: the Agriculture and Natural Resources Department (AGR); the Transportation, Water and Urban Development Department (TWU); and the Secretariat of the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). Each sector department maintained the following functions:

  • prepare policies, guidelines, standards, handbooks and analytical tools relevant to the sector;

  • identify, codify and disseminate best practices and lessons of experience, and evaluate weaknesses;

  • provide advice to the Regions as needed;

  • monitor and track work in the sectors assigned in order to identify generic issues and identify, evaluate and influence trends and patterns;

  • perform surveys of experience and practice within the Bank and elsewhere, and developinnovative approaches;

  • participate in Bank-wide efforts to assess skill requirements, and to upgrade skills through recruitment, training, orientation, seminars, newsletters, etc.;

  • represent the Bank to external communities of interest; and

  • maintain an awareness of relevant external practices and viewpoints.

Restructuring of the Environment Department included the termination of the ENVPR and ENVAP and transfer of their functions to the new Social Policy and Resettlement Division (ENVSP) and Land, Water and Natural Habitats Division (ENVLW), respectively. The new Pollution and Environmental Economics Division (ENVPE) was also established.

Four years later, in 1997, the thematic Vice Presidencies were reorganized to strike a better balance between country focus and sectoral excellence. To facilitate sharing of expertise and knowledge, the Bank established networks that linked Bank-wide communities of staff working in the same field across organizational boundaries and with external partners. The networks formed a virtual overlay on the existing Bank organization, and were intended to link staff working in the same sectors throughout the Bank, whether the staff was located in the Regions, in the Central Vice-Presidencies' Sector Departments, or other Vice-Presidencies.

Each of the three thematic Central Vice-Presidencies was transformed into the central units, or anchors, of each network and consisted of the existing sector departments. On a Bank-wide basis, sector specialists were grouped into regional sector units or into central sector departments which worked with country departments in a matrix relationship. Staff from the central sector departments could become part of the regional operational teams when their sectoral expertise was required. The work programs of Network staff focused on:

  • global knowledge - putting the best development knowledge in the hands of Bank task teams; ensuring that the knowledge base was accessible to external clients; and contributing to the growth of the knowledge base;

  • enhanced skills - developing and providing content to training courses; establishing professional and technical standards for professional development;

  • shared strategies - assisting regional and central units to develop a common sector agenda, and ensuring that skills are effectively deployed across the entire network. Network leadership assumed responsibility for global programs, sector strategy development and evaluation, strategic partnerships, and learning and dissemination;

  • best teams and best practices - improving the Bank's flexibility and mobility by building stronger task teams and delivering higher quality products;

  • institutional initiatives - providing substantial support for new Bank-wide initiatives, such as Social Development, Rural Development, Financial Sector, Anti-corruption, Human Resources, and Knowledge Partnerships.

The result of the 1997 restructuring was four networks: the Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development Network (ESSD); the Finance, Private Sector Development, and Infrastructure Network (FPD); the Human Development Network (HDN); and the Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network (PRM). The Environment Department retained its name and component parts and was situated within the ESSD.

On January 1, 2007, the Energy Department was moved to the Sustainable Development Network (SDN). The SDN officially came into existence on July 1, 2006, and was operationally functional as of January 1, 2007. It was formed through the integration of ESSD and Infrastructure (INF). Along with the Environment Department, SDN includes the following units or departments: Agricultural and Rural Development Department (ARD); Concessional and Sub-National Finance (CSF); Finance, Economics and Urban Development (FEU); Sustainable Energy (SEG); Social Development (SDV); and Transport, Water, and Information and Communication Technologies (TWI).

Environmentally Sustainable Development Vice Presidency

The Environmentally Sustainable Development Vice Presidency (ESD) was one of three vice presidencies created during Bank President Lewis Preston's reorganization of January 1, 1993. Following the abolishment of all senior vice presidencies on December 1, 1991, Preston initiated a larger reorganization in 1993 that aligned the Bank's organization with the priority areas of its poverty reduction effort. The result was three new thematic vice presidencies: the ESD; Finance and Private Sector Development (FPD); and Human Resources Development and Operations Policy (HRO).

The vice presidencies were responsible for:

  • Providing operational support to the Regions through participation in Sector Operations Division (SOD) task teams, undertaking specialized assignments for the Regions, providing ad hoc advice, distilling lessons of operational experience and disseminating best practices, and definition of sector and operational policies;

  • Assisting in identifying and addressing the Bank's skills mix and training needs;

  • Providing information and intellectual support to interested actors outside the Bank;

  • Liaising with the UN and other official and private organizations;

  • Delivering complete products to the country directors in the 'clustered' subsectors, where the small number of expert staff can most efficiently be located in the central Vice Presidency.

At the time of its establishment, ESD had the following subordinate departments: the Agriculture and Natural Resources Department (AGR); the Environment Department (ENV); and the Transportation, Water and Urban Development Department (TWU). It was also responsible for the Secretariat of the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). Each sector department maintained the following functions:

  • prepare policies, guidelines, standards, handbooks and analytical tools relevant to the sector;

  • identify, codify and disseminate best practices and lessons of experience, and evaluate weaknesses;

  • provide advice to the Regions as needed;

  • monitor and track work in the sectors assigned in order to identify generic issues and identify, evaluate and influence trends and patterns;

  • perform surveys of experience and practice within the Bank and elsewhere, and develop innovative approaches;

  • participate in Bank-wide efforts to assess skill requirements, and to upgrade skills through recruitment, training, orientation, seminars, newsletters, etc.;

  • represent the Bank to external communities of interest; and

  • maintain an awareness of relevant external practices and viewpoints.

In 1997, the thematic vice presidencies were reorganized to strike a better balance between country focus and sectoral excellence. To facilitate sharing of expertise and knowledge, the Bank established networks that linked Bank-wide communities of staff working in the same field across organizational boundaries and with external partners. Each of the three thematic central vice presidencies was transformed into the central units, or anchors, of each network and consisted of the existing sector departments. The result of the 1997 restructuring was four networks: the Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development Network (ESSD); the Finance, Private Sector Development, and Infrastructure Network (FPD); the Human Development Network (HDN); and the Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network (PRM). The former sector departments of ESD were placed in different networks. ENV, AGR (as the Rural Development Department [RDV]), and the CGIAR Secretariat were placed inESSD while TWU was placed in FPD.

Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development Network

The Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development Network (ESSD) was created in 1997 as part of President Wolfensohn's reorganization of the World Bank. The reorganization's objective was to strike a better balance between country focus and sectoral excellence. It was also motivated by recognition that the Bank's development programs were excessively driven by a culture of lending. The need to increase attention towards on client needs and the quality of results was addressed.

To facilitate sharingof expertise and knowledge, the Bank established networks that linked Bank-wide communities of staff working in the same field across organizational boundaries and with external partners. The networks were intended to link staff working in the same sectors throughout the Bank, whether the staff member was located in the regional Vice Presidencies, sectoral departments, Independent Evaluation Group (IEG, formerly the Operations Evaluation Group [OED]), World Bank Institute (WBI), or Development Economics (DEC). The objectives and responsibilities of the networks were many: reduce fragmentation; increase information flow; set priorities; manage quality; run the information system; consolidate external partnerships; vet staff promotions; and disseminate best practices. The work programs of network staff focused on:

  • Global knowledge - putting the best development knowledge in the hands of Bank task teams; ensuring that the knowledge base was accessible to external clients; and contributing to the growth of the knowledge base.

  • Enhanced skills - developing and providing content to training courses; establishing professional and technical standards for professional development.

  • Shared strategies - assisting regional and central units to develop a common sector agenda, and ensuring that skills are effectively deployed across the entire network. Network leadership assumed responsibility for global programs, sector strategy development and evaluation, strategic partnerships, and learning and dissemination.

  • Best teams and best practices - improving the Bank's flexibility and mobility by building stronger task teams and delivering higher quality products.

  • Institutional initiatives - providing substantial support for new Bank-wide initiatives, such as social development, rural development, financial sector, anti-corruption, human resources, and knowledge partnerships.

ESSD was one of the first of three networks to be created in 1997; the others were the Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network (PREM) and the Human Development Network (HDN). Soon after, in 1997-98, the Private Sector and Infrastructure Network (PSI) was created. In 2000-01, the Operation Policy and Strategy Department became the Operations Policy and Country Services Network (OPCS). In 2003-04, the PSI became the Financial and Private Sector Development Network (FPSD). In 2007 ESSD was combined with Infrastructure to form the Sustainable Development Network (SDN).

ESSD is organized in the same way as the other Bank networks. Each network is headed by a vice president and head of network. Under the vice president is a network council which that oversees the entire network. The council is composed of the top network managers from each Region and is responsible for setting the overall agenda for the network and for promoting effective deployment of skills across network units. It deliberates on issues relevant to the functions and objectives of the network - e.g., strategy; people; knowledge; quality/business process; and external partnerships.

Each thematic network covers several related sectors of development. When the ESSD was created in 1997, it contained three sector departments: Environment Department (ENV); Rural Development Department (RDV); and Social Development Department (SDV). It also contained the Secretariat of the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). In 2002, RDV was renamed the Agriculture and Rural Development Department (ARD). Each sector department has its own board, with representatives drawn from the Regions as well as from the network itself. The sector boards are accountable to the network council and are supported by a secretariat.

Europe and Central Asia Regional Vice Presidency

The operations function of the World Bank has, in one form or another, been organized by geographic region throughout the Bank's history. The units responsible for World Bank lending and technical assistance have changed frequently in name and status since the Bank began operations in 1946. The history of the Europe and Central Asia Region (ECA) is complex primarily because of its previous integration with the Middle East and North Africa Region (MNA). Between 1965 and 1991, the countries within these two regions formed a single regional department/vice presidency called the Europe, Middle East, and North Africa Region (EMN or EMENA). Since 1991, the area covered by ECA countries has remained constant. As of 2016, ECA countries included: Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Kyrgyz Republic, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan.

1946 - 1952

Upon the Bank's opening in 1946, operational lending was executed out of the Loan Department (LOD) led by Charles C. Pineo. The LOD was responsible for developing loan operations policy, receiving and investigating loan inquiries, presenting loan inquiries to Bank management for consideration, and negotiating loans. The organizational structure of LOD fluctuated over its seven year history but was, for the majority of the time, organized geographically. The Bank's focus in these early years was on post-World War II reconstruction and, in particular, European countries. This is evident in the initial divisional organization of the LOD. Of the seven original divisions, four dealt with Europe and two with the Western Hemisphere.

This strong focus on Europe in the early years of the Bank is evident. The Bank's first Resident Mission was established in Paris, France in 1947 and a number of the Bank's first visits by its senior staff, including Research Director Leonard Rist, Treasurer Crena de Iongh, and Vice President Robert Garner, were to Europe. Almost all of the Bank's first loan applications were received from European countries: Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, Luxembourg, and Poland (the lone exception being Chile). This resulted in the signing of the World Bank's first loan: on May 9, 1947 World Bank Executive Directors approved a loan for $250 million to Credit National of France (P037383) for reconstruction of its economic, finance, and trade sectors. Three loans to European countries followed before a non-European country, Chile, received Bank funding.

With the appointment of W. A. Iliff as Director of the Loan Department in 1948, LOD's seven divisions were briefly consolidated into two: the European and United Kingdom Division and the Latin American, Asiatic and African Division. Then, in November of 1948, divisions were briefly abolished altogether, as loans were assigned to loan officers on an ad hoc basis. In 1950, LOD was again divided into three geographical areas: Latin America Division; Asia and the Middle East Division; and European Division.

Parallel to the LOD was the Economic Department (ECD), which conducted sector analysis and research work. Between 1946 and 1952, the ECD was responsible for both functional and geographic analyses, i.e. general economic studies and country specific studies. ECD supported the LOD and its loan administration and advised member countries on their economic and sector development plans. The ECD also liaised with international organizations on economic research. It also provided staff for Bank missions to countries from the Bank's Washington, DC headquarters to conduct both economic and project-focused research. Like the LOD, the organization of the ECD reflected the Bank's focus on post-war Europe. The Department initially consisted of three area divisions and an Economic Technology Division responsible for specialized sector studies. In August 1948 a new organizational structure featuring two area divisions was installed. Area Division I was responsible for Europe and Area Division II was divided into four sections that dealt with: Central America; South America; Asia; and Africa and the Middle East. In March 1950 another reorganization divided the Department into an advisory staff and an area staff, the latter consisting of three divisions of which Europe and Africa was one.

1952 - 1972

When the World Bank opened, its primary focus had been the reconstruction and revitalization of European countries devastated by World War II. However, as other sources of investment became available to war torn European countries, the Bank quickly shifted its focus to non-European countries. Largely due to the resulting expansion in operations in Latin America, Africa, and Asia, a Bank-wide reorganization took effect in September of 1952. The new operational structure endured for the next twenty years. The major feature of the reorganization was the merging of LOD staff with country-related staff from the ECD to form three distinct geographical Area Departments: Europe, Africa and Australasia (EAA); Asia and Middle East (AME); and Western Hemisphere (WHM). These units were primarily responsible for World Bank-member country relations. Functions included: loan policy and plan development; country development program appraisal and review; preparation of proposed loans; and country economic monitoring.

There was no formal divisional structure within EAA. Note that, in 1952 when the Department was initially formed, only two EAA countries were not located in Europe: Australia and South Africa. The Department was led by A. S. G. Hoar between 1952 and 1955. Sydney Raymond Cope became Department Director in June of 1955. All three Area Departments reported to Vice President Robert Garner from 1952 to 1956. After Garner became President of the new International Finance Corporation (IFC) in 1956, the Area Departments reported to J. Burke Knapp and William Iliff.

As part of the 1952 reorganization, the sector-oriented staff of the former ECD moved to the Technical Operations Department (TOD) in the new Area Departments and was placed in charge of project appraisal and supervision. Specifically, the TOD was responsible for: the appraisal of proposed projects; advising Area Departments on proposed projects and assisting in negotiations; supervising approved projects; assisting borrowers in procurement efforts; and monitoring and reporting on member countries' sector economies.

By 1962, a division of the Europe, Africa and Australasia Area Department (EAA) was necessary as a result of the dramatic increase in membership by African countries. Two new departments were created out of the former EAA: the Department of Operations - Europe (EUP); and the Department of Operations - Africa (AFR). EUP functional responsibilities were the same as its predecessor and it did not have a formal divisional structure. Sydney Cope became the Director of the new EUP and oversaw lending operations with 20 European countries, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.

In 1965 the World Bank implemented a major reorganization of country groupings in its regional departments and EUP was significantly impacted. The countries previously in EUP were combined with Middle Eastern countries formerly located in the Department of Operations - Europe and Middle East Department (EME). In addition, five northern African countries (Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco) were also included In EME. Functional responsibilities of the new department remained unchanged from predecessor departments. Sydney Cope served as Director of EME.

The new combination of European and Middle Eastern countries was briefly undone in 1967 when EME was divided into two separate departments: Europe Department (EUR); and Middle East and North Africa Department (MNA). European, Middle Eastern, and North African countries were again reunited during a significant reorganization in 1968, forming the new Europe, Middle East and North Africa Department (EMN). Thus began an uninterrupted period of 23 years during which Middle Eastern and North African countries would be combined with European countries in a single department or Vice Presidency. The new EMN was led by Michael L. Lejeune; he was replaced by Munir P. Benjenk in 1970. The Department was initially divided into five divisions roughly based on geography. European countries roughly made up two divisions while Middle Eastern and North African countries formed the other three.

1972 - 1987

A massive, Bank-wide reorganization was initiated by World Bank President Robert S. McNamara in 1972. As part of the reorganization, the geographic organization of the regional units was again altered. The seven departments that made up the Area Departments were elevated to five Regional Vice Presidencies (RVP). However, the composition of EMN was not altered. All RVPs reported to the new Senior Vice President, Operations (SVPOP).

A more significant aspect of the reorganization, however, was the integration of the former Technical Operations Department (renamed the Projects Division [PRJ] in 1965) with the new RVPs. The period between 1952 and 1972 had been characterized by frequent reorganizations of the geographically-based area units responsible for country liaison and loan policy and negotiation. However, the division of functional responsibility between these units and TOD/PRJ was maintained. But in 1972, in an attempt to more effectively fuse country knowledge and sectoral skills, most of the Bank's operational project work was moved from the Projects Department to the five new Regional Vice Presidencies. Staff from the former PRJ were distributed into the Regional Vice Presidencies and were organized into sector-oriented Project Departments and were known as Central Projects Staff. Thus, rather than one Projects Department that supported projects in countries on an ad hoc basis, each RVP would maintain its own projects staff. Each RVP was, in turn,given "line authority" to analyze, decide and act on country development operations. Each RVP was responsible for planning and executing IBRD/IDA development assistance programs subject to the overall framework of Bank policies, priorities, and operating procedures. The RVPs created regional plans and budgets, ensured the effective implementation of approved plans, created country economic and sector reports, and developed and implemented loan, credit, technical assistance, and other forms of development projects. The RVPs were also responsible for maintaining sound relations with governments of assigned countries and with aid organizations and donors involved in those countries.

Upon the completion of the 1972 reorganization, EMN consisted of two Country Program Departments in addition to the new Projects Department. The Country Program Departments were staffed by country economists and loan officers whose primary responsibilities were: conducting area reviews of Bank activities and countries' economic and political developments; formulating country lending and economic and sector work programs and implementing country programs; and reviewing loan applications, negotiating loans, and administering loans.

The Projects Department provided technical assistance and advice to members and borrowers on sectoral issues, country priorities, and project development from identification through implementation and review. It consisted of economists, financial analysts, and sector specialists, and was specifically responsible for: creating sector policies; assisting countries with the identification and preparation of projects; appraising potential projects; assisting the Country Program Departments in loan negotiation and credit agreements; and helping borrowers manage consultants and procurement.

EMN's Project Department was initially divided into five sector-based divisions: Agriculture; Education; Public Utilities; Transportation; and Development Finance Companies. Over the next fifteen years, new divisions were created for sectors such as energy, water, telecommunications, industry, finance, and urban.

Note that not all staff and operational responsibility was transferred from the former PRJ to the RVPs. Staff in sectors too small to decentralize to the five regions continued to provide a complete "operational package" of technical services to the regions. These units, such as the Population and Nutrition sector and Urban Projects sector, were known as Central Operating Projects Departments and were located in thenewly formed Vice President, Central Projects (CPSVP) which, like the RVPs, reported to the SVPOP. In addition, those former PRJ units which had their operational functions dispersed to the RVPs still maintained a core staff in the CPSVP with responsibility for policy and advisory work only.

When EMN became a Vice Presidency in 1972, it contained the following countries: Afghanistan, Egypt, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Italy, Norway, United Kingdom and African Dependencies, Yugoslavia, Austria, Bahrain, Belgium France, Ireland, Jordan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Qatar, South Africa, Spain, United Arab Emirates, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Turkey, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Greece, Israel, Tunisia, Cyprus, Lebanon, Malta, Oman, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. EMN's first Vice President was Munir P. Benjenk. Benjenk served in this position from 1972 through 1980 with the exception of a ten month period between 1975 and 1976 when Willi A. Wapenhans took over. Roger Chaufournier was named EMN Vice President in 1980 and Wapenhans once again assumed the position in 1984.

1987 - 1991

While the composition of the Country Program Departments and Projects Department changed between 1972 and 1987 (most notably with a considerable increase in the number of Projects Department sector divisions), the organization and functions of the RVPs was consistent until 1987. In July of 1987, however, a Bank-wide reorganization under President Barber Conable altered the structure of the RVPsconsiderably. The changes were brought on by a desire to strengthen the Bank's country focus by making the Country Department the basic program and budget unit.

The new Country Departments that replaced the Country Program Departments combined the macro-economic work of the former Country Program Departments and the sector work of the former Regional Projects Department. Each Country Department would consist of a Country Operations Division (COD) as well as multiple Sectoral Operations Divisions (SOD) made up of staff from the former Regional Projects Departments. The COD was composed of lead, country, and specialized economists as well as country officers and was responsible for: liaising with state governments and developing knowledge of issues in the country; preparing and supervising the country's aid strategy; and providing full responsibility for certain country-wide operations such as Structural Adjustment Loans and country economic work. SODs were responsible for overall sectoral strategy and for planning, programming and implementing development activities for the countries in their respective sectoral specialties; this would include the provision of full lending project management as well as lending and sector evaluation work.

Not all staff was moved from each Region's Project Department into the Country Departments' SODs. Those remaining formed a new Regional Technical Department within each RVP. It was responsible for higher level knowledge collection, assessment, and dissemination. The Technical Department, which was organized into sector-focused divisions, was to stimulate innovation in operational work and undertake strategic thinking by providing advice, operational support, regional studies, staff training and the dissemination of materials to Bank staff, donors, and other institutions outside the Bank. The Department would continue to offer operational help in the form of task management, task support, and advice. They would also work closely with Policy, Planning and Research (PPR) staff in conducting regional studies and reviews, and advising on sector policy and research priorities.

During the 1987 reorganization the number of RVPs decreased from six to four but EMN was not affected in this regard. The number of EMN Country Departments did, however, increase from two to four. The allocation of countries between departments during this period and the sector-oriented divisions comprising the country departments changed over time to reflect changing priorities in the region's operations. EMN was led by Vice President Wilfried P. Thalwitz from 1987 to 1989 and Willi A. Wapenhans from 1990 to 1991.

1991 - 1996

The fall of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War had significant implications for the World Bank and its organization. Beginning in July 1990, the World Bank, in cooperation with G7 countries and other international organizations, participated in a series of studies on the Soviet Union's economy. (See the Documents & Reports website for access to World Bank authored reports on the various aspects of the region's transition and the World Bank's involvement.) Only a month after the Soviet Union dissolved in December 1991, the government of the Russian Federation formally applied for membership in the World Bank. During 1992 the fifteen republics of the former Soviet Union also applied for membership. The World Bank subsequently engaged in one of the largest operations in its history as it established working relations with its new members, set up new resident missions and offices, and prepared and negotiated new projects.

A reorganization of the Bank's regional vice presidencies and a reallocation of countries was deemed necessary as a result of these developments. In 1991 the Europe, Middle East, and North Africa Regional Vice Presidency (EMN) was divided into two new RVPs: the Europe and Central Asia Vice Presidency (ECA) and the Middle East and North Africa Vice Presidency (MNA). During this reorganization the Asia Regional Vice Presidency [ASI] was also divided into separate east and south Regional Vice Presidencies, increasing the number of RVPs from four to six). ECA maintained the same functions and internal organization as its predecessor unit. Note, however, that ECA and the new MNA continued to share a single Technical Department. Composed of various sector-oriented divisions, the Technical Department maintained responsibility for sector knowledge dissemination, research and development, and operational review and advice.

As a result of the G7 Summit held in Tokyo in October 1992, the World Bank was asked to chair consultative group meetings to assess public investment and technical assistance for the former Soviet Union republics. The Bank agreed and convened the first consultative group beginning with Kazakhstan in 1992. The operations of the consultative groups varied according to its different circumstances but in most cases the Bank's responsibilities were, as defined in 1965: providing periodic, comprehensive reports onthe country's development possibilities, problems, and performance as a basis for the consultative group's deliberations; analyzing the country's aid requirements and problematic debt commitments, and recommending types and terms of aid; assisting the recipient government to prepare or revise a development program or advise on problems in its implementation; assisting in identifying projects and other technical assistance and arranging for feasibility studies; and advising participants on which sectors andprojects deserve priority for external funding. The role of the group?s chairman, typically the Area or Country Director, encouraged dialogue at meetings and coordinated donor efforts to meet the country's financing needs. The department also drafted the minutes or summary of proceedings and the list of delegates of group meetings. These functions essentially remained unchanged through 1999.

A subsequent reorganization in 1993 strengthened the Country Departments' SODs through unit reorganization and atransfer of staff from the Regional Technical Departments to the SODs. The Technical Departments were greatly reduced in size and were restructured to reflect the emphasis on sectoral and thematic responsibilities of the SODs. The Technical Departments operational support function was consequently reduced.

Wilfred Thalwitz was named Vice President of the new ECA in 1991 and would hold the position through the end of 1995.

1996 - 2014

Another reorganization in 1996-97 modified the changes made to the RVPs in 1987 and 1993. The RVP continued to be responsible for all aspects of country development assistance for its member countries, including: country assistance strategy; lending operations; technical assistance operations; and economic and sector work. The primary objective of the reorganization was to deepen the country focus and responsiveness to client needs. This was accomplished in a number of ways. The most striking changes concerned the new Country Management Units (CMUs) which replaced the formerCountry Departments. The CMUs were smaller than their predecessor (that is, each was responsible for a smaller number of countries) while their number correspondingly increased. The internal reorganization of ECA resulted in an increase from four Country Departments in November 1996 to eleven CMUs in January 1998.

In addition, an increased decentralization of CMU staff and country directors from Bank headquarters in Washington to locations within client countries was undertaken. At the same time, a strengthening of authority with regard to strategy and budget was given to the country directors. The CMUs continued to be responsible for overall preparation and supervision of the country's assistance strategy, full lending project management, and evaluation of lending and sector work.

During the reorganization, the former Technical Departments were changed into Sector or Technical Families. The role of the Technical Families, which consisted of sector and project economists and selected specialist staff, was to formulate knowledge on technical subjects and best practice, and to suggest innovation through research and development. From this point on, ECA ceased sharing its technical units with MNA.

Johannes Linn was named Vice President of ECA in 1996 and served in this position until 2003 at which time Shigeo Katsu took over the position. Philippe Le Houerou replaced Katsu in 2009 and he, in turn, was replaced by Laura Tuck in the fall of 2013.

2014 - Present

In order to stimulate the sharing of knowledge and best practices across the Bank, President Jim Kim introduced a Bank-wide reorganization in 2014 that removed sector staff from the Regional Vice Presidencies and placed them in one of fourteen Global Practices (GPs) or five Cross-Cutting Solution Areas (CCSAs). The GPs are responsible for each of the major thematic areas that the Bank supports through projects, such as agriculture, water, and education. Each GP functions as a vertical pillar of technical expertise and is responsible for: defining the strategic direction and the World Bank's activity in their respective sector; developing and deploying expertise globally; delivering integrated solutions to client countries; and capturing and leveraging knowledge in their respective fields. The CCSAs, on the other hand, serve as units that cut across GPs horizontally providing leadership in areas such as climate change, gender, and public-private partnerships, and focusing on Bank-wide strategic goals and directions.

After the 2014 reorganization, the Regional Vice Presidencies exclusive function became overall client engagement. Specifically, each RVP: sets and drives regional strategic direction; offers development solutions to clients; agrees on work program and budget with GPs; recruits expert GP staff to meet client needs; manages corporate and other stakeholder relationships; and oversees country programs. Each RVP retained multiple Country Management Unit (CMUs) responsible for one or more countries. The CMU is the primary interface with the country andis responsible for ensuring global solutions are applied to the local context. Specifically, the CMU: identifies client challenges and opportunities; sets country strategy and manages selectivity; develops work programs and provides solutions; manages client and stakeholder relationships; and manages the country office.

Cyril Muller replaced Laura Tuck as ECA Vice President on July 1, 2015.

External Relations Vice Presidency and reporting units

  • Corporate body

The World Bank's external affairs function can be described as a hybrid: combining diplomatic and consultative activities commonly associated with a government's foreign ministry, with the public relations activities of a strategic communications firm. A functional definition of external affairs used in this fonds includes:

  • Developing and maintaining relations with external groups and shareholders, such as the media, the public, development community and Bank member countries in order to increase public support for, and awareness of, the mission and work of the World Bank Group;

  • Supporting high-level Bank staff in their interaction with external groups and shareholders;

  • Liaising with non-governmental and international organizations, including the United Nations. Note that, beginning in 1987, this sub-function was shuttled in and out of the units responsible for the external affairs function. As a result, records related to liaison can be found in other fonds. See the Related Units of Description below for location of records in other fonds;

  • Managing an internal communications program responsible for informing Bank staff of significant events and developments inside the Bank;

  • Publishing and distributing Bank research and technical and informational publications;

  • Coordinating technical assistance coordination activities. Note that EXT-related units were not the only ones responsible for this sub-function in the Bank and that in 1981 this sub-function was permanently and completely transferred to the Bank's regional operations units. See the Related Units of Description below for location of records in other fonds.

The following administrative history provides detail on the transfer of functions into and out of the units responsible for external affairs and provides more information on the nature of the functions described above.

1947-1967

The World Bank's external affairs function appears to have been established in 1947; there is no mention of it in the Bank's 1946 directory. Its first iteration was as the Public Relations Department (PRD) with Drew Dudley acting as Director. The Department reported to Vice President Robert Garner and was responsible for:

  • the development and application of Bank policies for the dissemination of information concerning the purposes, activities and accomplishments of the Bank;

  • planning, promotion, and execution of information programs in the Bank's member countries through print, media, and published speeches and booklets;

  • maintaining contactwith the United Nations (UN) and other international organizations;

  • cooperating with the Marketing Department on information programs affecting the sale of the Bank's securities;

  • and monitoring the press for commentary on the Bank and its work and circulating this information through the institution.

In late 1949, Drew Dudley was sent to Paris to be the Bank's new Director of Public Relations for Europe. The Bank's European Office was responsible for:

  • maintaining liaisons with the European member governments and European international organizations;

  • arranging for the sale of Bank securities in Europe, including the sale of portions of Bank loans;

  • carrying out information programs;

  • and performing administrative functions, particularly regarding accommodation and secretarial arrangements for meetings, translations, travel within Europe, etc.

Over the subsequent decades, the Bank opened offices in a number of other cities, including London and Tokyo, in order to perform public relations activities.

William Ayers briefly replaced Dudley as Director of PRD on 1 November 1949 but passed away shortly thereafter. Harold N. Graves was named the Department's new Director on 20 November 1950. He served in this role for the next seventeen years.

In 1951, responsibility for liaising with the UN and other international organizations was removed from PRD and placed in the new Technical Assistance and Liaison Department (TAL).

In 1953 the Department's name was changed to the Office of Public Relations. Two years later, in 1955, its name was changed again, to the Office of Information (INFO). The 1955 change coincided with an addition of new staff and new responsibilities. In addition to previously described activities, INFO was given the following responsibilities:

  • providing public relations services for the new International Finance Corporation (IFC);

  • publishing the Bank's Annual Report;

  • maintaining regular relations with the media;

  • arranging and publicizing speaking engagements for the Bank's Executive Directors, managers and staff, and assisting in writing speeches and scripts;

  • maintaining a films and photograph library on the Bank and its development work;

  • and clearing all materials proposed for publication by staff members.

INFO continued to report to Vice President Garner until his retirement from the Bank in 1956. Over the next decade INFO reported to: Vice President W.A.B. Iliff (1956-1962); Vice President Geoffrey M. Wilson (1962-1966); and Vice President and Chairman of the Loan Committee, J. Burke Knapp (1966-1967).

1967-1973

In 1967 the Office of Information reported to the Technical Assistance and Liaison Department's (TAL) successor, Development Services Department (DSD; see below for more detail on these two units). That same year William Clark replaced Harold Graves as the Office's Director.

The following year the Office was renamed the Information and Public Affairs Department (IPA). At the same time, divisions were created within the Department: Public Affairs Division (IPAPA); Afro-Asian Division (IPAAA, renamed the Africa, Middle East and Asia Division [IPAAM] in 1969); IFC Information Services (IPAFC); and the European Information Services Division (part of the European Office). In 1968, the Department's responsibilities included:

  • monitoring and analyzing outside events and opinion with regard to the Bank's operations;

  • preparing and distributing news announcements, brochures, reports, speeches and other items on subjects relating to the Bank Group's activities; .

  • maintaining relations with information media, academic institutions, business organizations, public affairs groups and other bodies;

  • organizing speaking programs and information conferences;

  • commissioning, obtaining and arranging for the outside use of films, photographs and radio tapes dealing with the Bank Group's activities;

  • supervising the production and distribution of books published by the Bank Group;

  • and maintaining an internal communications programaimed at keeping Bank staff informed of significant events and developments inside the Bank.

In January 1970 the IPA was moved out of the DSD and began reporting directly to the Office of the President (EXC). At the same time the Public Affairs Division (IPAPA) was terminated and, early the next year, an Editorial Division (IPAED) was created. IPAED's primarily responsibility was to handle the production of the Annual Report as well as the semi-regular publication "Policies and Operations" and the in-house publication, "Bank Notes". Note that "Bank Notes" was the successor to "International Bank Notes". The latter had been published by the Bank's Personnel Division since 1946.

1973-1981

In 1973, a major organizational change occurred with respect to the IPA and the aforementioned Development Services Department (DSD). A new External Affairs Staff (ERS) complex was created that was composed of the IPA, the Economic Development Institute (EDI), the European Office (EUR), and the DSD, which was renamed the International Relations Department (IRD). William Clark was named Director, External Affairs (DER); Lars J. Lind served briefly as Clark's replacement as Director of IPA before John E. Merriam became the new permanent Director. The following year, in 1974, ERS was elevated to the status of Vice Presidency (EXTVP) and William Clark was promoted to Vice President, External Affairs (VPE).

IPA and IRD would reside in the same Vice Presidency together until 1987. IRD had its origin in the Technical Assistance and Liaison Staff unit (1946-1961) and the Development Services Department (1961-1973); the latter was formed when the Technical Assistance and Liaison Staff (TAL) unit was combined with the Economic Development Institute (EDI), although EDI was removed from DSD soon after in 1964.

As of 1971, functions of the DSD included:

  • coordinating technical assistance and formulating policies and procedures for the administration of such assistance in conjunction with the operating departments;

  • establishing and maintaining formal relationships and working arrangements with Part I countries and other intergovernmental organizations, including the UN and its specialized agencies. Note that liaison with the UN was the responsibility of DSD's Special Representative to the UN, a position created in 1964 as a result of increased liaison activities with UN organizations and the Bank's expansion into agriculture and education project lending;

  • and conducting studies and proposing policies on questions ofgeneral concern to the Bank as assigned by the Bank President.

Prior to its inclusion in the new ERS, DSD also briefly included an Office for a Special Representative for Inter-American Organizations from 1970 to 1972 (at which point it was moved to the Front Office of the Vice President, Latin America and the Caribbean [LCNVP]). DSD also included the Secretariat of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) from 1971 to 1973 (at which point it briefly reported to the Director, External Affairs before being reorganized into the Agriculture and Rural Development Department [AGP]). In 1973, the Bank's Economic Development Institute (EDI) began to report to IRD. The following year, however, EDI began reporting directly to the new EXTVP.

Between 1973 and 1982, the Information and Public Affairs Department (IPA) underwent only a few minor divisional changes. In 1973, the Africa, Middle East and Asia Division (IPAAM) was terminated and its functions were transferred to the re-established Public Relations Division (IPAPA), which consequently assumed responsibility for communications activities in all Part II countries. Further, an Audio-Visual Division (IPAAV) was opened to handle contacts with broadcasters and photographers, maintain a library of audio-visual materials documenting Bank projects, and provide technical support for audio-visual equipment to the rest of the Bank.

That same year, the IFC Information Services Division (IPAFC) was transferred out of the Department to the IFC Executive Director, External Relations. In late 1975, a Professional and Technical Publications Unit (IPAPT) was established to take on the administration of the Bank's ever-growing professional and technical publications program, which included the publication of country economic reports, sector reports, staff papers and books. And in early 1979, a News Unit (IPANS) was established in the Front Office of the Director, IPA; the Unit would later be upgraded to the Press and Information Office (IPAPI).

In 1978, the Bank's liaison activities with UN agencies in Europe were delegated to a newly established Geneva Office (IRDGO), staffed by a World Bank Representative to the UN and two assistants. The Geneva Office was established to reduce the workload of the Special Representative to the UN in New York, who was previously responsible for representation at all UN agencies of interest to the World Bank. Like the New York Office, the Geneva Office reported to the Director of the International Relations Department (IRD) in EXT.

1981-1987

In 1981, as a result of a joint ERS/Organization Planning Department (OPD) review of the Bank's external affairs function, the Information and Public Affairs Department was reorganized more significantly. The Public Affairs Division (IPAPA) was strengthened through the addition of a Unit responsible for Part I countries and additional staff for Part II country activities. In addition, the publishing functions located in IPA's Editorial Division and Professional and Technical Publications Unit were transferred to the newly established Publications Department (PUB) which would exist alongside the IPA, IRD, and European Office within the EXTVP. Staff and budgetary resources of PUB were increased and an effort to develop a more comprehensive publications program was undertaken. The department initially consisted of: an Editorial Division (PUBED); a Professional and Technical Publications Unit (PUBPT); and a Publications and Distribution Unit (PUBPD).

An important change in the International Relations Department occurred as a result of the ERS/OPD review. To satisfy a growing demand for technical assistance by member countries and for technical assistance experts by the regions, the Technical Assistance Division (IRDTA) and the Advisory Planning Division (IRDPL) were terminated and their activities were transferred to the regional vice presidencies and to the Central Projects Staff (CPS). As a result, IRD's primary responsibility became liaison with the UN system and other international organizations.

The following year, Frank R. Vogl replaced John Merriam as Director of IPA. The same year saw a number of divisional changes occur within IPA, although there was minimal impact on the unit's functions.

A more significant change was that, effective 1 April 1983, EDI was removed from the EXTVP and assigned to the Vice President, Operations Policy (OPS). From this point on, EDI, later renamed the World Bank Institute (WBI), would never again be part of the external affairs complex of functions.

1987-1997

As part of the 1987-88 Bank-wide reorganization under President Barber Conable, the Information and Public Affairs Department (IPA) was dismantled as was the Office of the Vice President, External Affairs (EXTVP). A new External Affairs Department (EXT) was established effective 1 February 1988 with Francisco J. Aguirre-Sacasa appointed as Director. EXT reported to the Office of the Senior Vice President, External Affairs and Administration (EAASV) alongside such sizable units as the Internal Auditing Department (IAD), General Services Department (GSD), Information, Technical, and Facilities Department (ITF), and Office of the Vice President, Personnel (VPPER).

Within EXT, among other smaller divisional changes, a new Internal Communications Review Committee was created to review all matters of internal communications requiring management attention. However, the most significant change internal to the EXT complex was the termination of the International Relations Department, which had been responsible for maintaining relationships with international organizations, NGOs, and the UN, among others, and the transfer of its responsibilities to the newly established Strategic Planning and Review Department (SPR). However, this departure was only temporary, as the departments related to the former IRD were returned to EXT by 1990 following the termination of SPR.

EXT only reported to EAASV through 1989. The Department then reported to the Office of the Senior Vice President, Policy, Research and External Affairs (PRESV) on 1 January 1990 alongside SPR, the Vice President, Sector Policy and Research (PREVP), and the Vice President, Development Economics and Chief Economist (DECVP). As part of this minor reorganization, the Public Affairs Division (EXTPA) and the Media and Communications Division (EXTMC) were merged into the new Information and Public Affairs Division (EXTIP). At this point, Alexander Shakow was named Director of EXT.

In 1990 the reorganized External Affairs Department was responsible for:

  • setting objectives and priorities, in conjunction with the EAASV, for the Bank's external affairs program;

  • marshalling support for the Bank and its work in Part I and Part II countries;

  • informing and maintaining regular contact with print and electronic media and with influential constituencies such as non-governmental organizations (NGOs), academia, parliaments and business groups;

  • publishing and disseminating Bank research, policies, and views on development issues;

  • gathering and feeding back information on outside events and opinions that bear on the Bank's operations;

  • and supporting and coordinating activities of the decentralized External Affairs staff.

In October 1991, all Senior Vice Presidencies, including the Senior Vice President, Policy, Research and External Affairs (PRESV), were abolished. EXT was transferred to the Personnel and Administration Complex and the EXT Director started reporting to the new Vice President, Personnel and Administration (PAAVP). No functions were altered during this change and the Department's divisions remained essentially the same. In the Bank's 1992 Directory, the functional responsibilities of the Department's Information and Public Affairs Division included: media information; editor: "Banks World"/Weekly Bulletin; editor; "World Bank News"; and business, finance, and community relations. The International Economic Relations Division responsibilities included: non-governmental organizations, United Nations,O.E.C.D., and E.C. liaison; Small Grants Program; and Development Committee. The publication function continued within the Department in the new Office of the Publisher (EXTOP).

On 1 January 1993, the International Economic Affairs Division as well as the UN Special Representative in New York were again removed from EXT and, with them, functional responsibility for liaison with NGOs and international organizations. The two were moved into the new Operations Policy Department (OPR) in the Human Resources Development & Operations Policy Vice Presidency (HRO).

By March 1994, EXT had been removed from PAAVP and began to again report directly to the Office of the President. In the fall of the same year, Mark Malloch Brown took over as Director of EXT. The Department's functions remained relatively unchanged. At this point, it maintained Information and Public Affairs (EXTIP) and Europe (EXTEU) Divisions as well as a number of units: Distribution (EXTDI); Editorial and Production Services (EXTEP); Film (EXTFM); Marketing (EXTMT); and Publications (EXTPB). The London Office (EXTLO), Office of the Publisher (EXTOP), and Tokyo Public Affairs staff also reported to the EXT Director.

By January 1996 the Department was upgraded to a Vice Presidency, making Brown the Vice President of EXT. In April of the same year, the UN liaison function was returned to EXT in the form of the United Nations Affairs Office (EXTUN). Functions otherwise remained constant in the new VP with the exception of the creation of a small grants program. Functions related to rights and contracts and regional operations support were added in 1998.

1997-present

Bank President Jim Wolfensohn's Bank-wide reorganization of 1997-98 introduced a small number of managing directors through which Vice Presidents would report to the Office of the President. However, External Affairs reported to both Managing Director Sven Sandstrom and directly to the Office of the President. Despite the reporting structure and other changes in the Bank, the functions of the EXT Vice Presidency were not changed. This is reflected in the units that constituted EXTVP: Media; Part 1 Relations; Internal Communications; Regional Operations; Office of the Publisher; and the Special Representative, New York UN Office. The Vice President, Europe as well as the Resident Representative to the U.K. and the Special Representative, EU Institutions, also reported to EXT.

In the summer of 1999, Mats Karlsson became the Vice President of EXTVP. At some point between September 1999 and September 2000 the VP changed its name to emphasize the inclusion of the UN liaison activity, becoming the External Affairs and UN Affairs Vice Presidency.

In 2002, EXT partially regained responsibility for liaison with NGOs and international organizations. In 1997 the function had moved from the Operations Policy Department (OPR) to the Social Development Department's Non-Governmental Organization Division (SDVNG). In 2002, functional responsibility for coordinating the Bank's corporate engagement work with international and non-governmental organizations was returned to EXT. This was, however, limited to the external aspects of the function; SDVNG maintained responsibility for internal policy and planning work related to liaison. As part of this team-based approach, the two cooperated on activities such as dialogue and consultation, staff training, and knowledge management.

In 2002 Vinay K. Bhargava served briefly as acting VP of EXT. He was replaced by Ian A. Goldin in 2003. That same year saw achange in name to the VP that more accurately reflected its responsibilities: External Affairs, Communications, and United Nations Affairs. According to the 2003 Bank Directory its functional responsibilities now included: media relations and broadcast services; internal communications, including web and "Bank's World Today" publication; community outreach; UN relations; US relations; civil society (i.e. international and non-governmental organizations) relations; speaker's bureau (i.e. speechwriting for high-level Bank staff); World Bank InfoShop management; publications production services; publications marketing and rights; publications acquisitions and client relations; and resource management.

In 2007, Marwan Muasher replaced Goldin as head of EXTVP. He served in this position until 2010. Caroline Anstey acted as EXTVP for about a year before Cyril Muller assumed the position in November of 2011.

In 2013, EXTVP was part of a broader reorganization of the Bank's corporate support functions. The external relations of the IBRD and IDA managed by EXTVP were integrated with the International Finance Corporation's (IFC) Corporate Relations (CCR) to form the new External and Corporate Relations Vice Presidency (ECR). ECR formed one part of the new World Bank Group Integrated Services (WBGIS) along with the Human Resources Vice Presidency (HR) and the Information and Technology Solutions Vice Presidency (ITS). Together, the three VPs reported to Managing Director Caroline Anstey. Cyril Muller continued onas Vice President of the new unit.

Aside from the integration of IFC support, ECR's functions remained relatively unaltered. As of February 2015, the unit's website described its activities as follows: "ECR manages corporate communication and relationships with key stakeholders, including media, civil society, private sector, donor countries, and international organizations, as well as coordinating staff engagement and internal communication within the Group. ECR publishes the WBG's research and knowledgeproducts, and manages the Group's corporate identity and branding. ECR is also responsible for the Bank Group's corporate online and social media presence, and produces content for a wide variety of platforms, including print, broadcast, and web."

Finance and Private Sector Development Vice Presidency

  • Corporate body

The Finance and Private Sector Development Vice Presidency (FPD) was one of three Vice Presidencies created during President Lewis Preston's reorganization of January 1, 1993. Following the abolishment of all Senior Vice Presidencies on December 1, 1991, Preston initiated a larger reorganization in 1993 that aligned the Bank's organization with the priority areas of its poverty reduction effort. The result was three new thematic vice presidencies: FPD; Human Resources Development and Operations Policy (HRO); and Environmentally Sustainable Development (ESD). The vice presidencies were responsible for:

  • providing operational support to the Regions by participating in Sector Operations Division (SOD) task teams, undertaking specialized assignments for the Regions, providing ad hoc advice, distilling lessons of operational experience, disseminating best practices, and defining sector and operational policies;

  • assisting in identifying and addressing the Bank's skills mix and training needs;

  • providing information and intellectual support to interested parties outside the Bank;

  • liaising with the UN and other official and private organizations; and

  • delivering complete products to the country directors in the 'clustered' subsectors, where the small number of expert staff can most efficiently be located in the central Vice Presidency.

At the time of its establishment, the FPD Vice Presidency had three departments: the Financial Sector Development Department (FSD); the Private Sector Development Department (PSD); and the Industry and Energy Department (IEN). FSD absorbed the functions and staff of the former Financial Policy and Systems Division of the Country Economics Department (CECFP) located in the Development Economics Vice Presidency (DEC). The PSD absorbed the functions and staff of the former Public Sector Management and Private Sector Development Division of the Country Economics Department (CECPS), which was also previously located in DEC. IEN was transferred from the Sector and Operations PolicyVice Presidency (OPS). FPD departments were responsible for the following functions:

  • preparing policies, guidelines, standards, handbooks and analytical tools relevant to the sector;

  • identifying, codifying and disseminating best practices and lessons of experience, and evaluating weaknesses;

  • providing advice to the Regions as needed;

  • monitoring and tracking work in the sectors assigned in order to identify generic issues and identify, evaluate and influence trends and patterns;

  • performing surveys of experience and practice within the Bank and elsewhere, and developing innovative approaches;

  • participating in Bankwide efforts to assess skill requirements, and to upgrade skills through recruitment, training, orientation, seminars, newsletters, etc.;

  • representing the Bank to external communities of interest; and

  • maintaining an awareness of relevant external practices and viewpoints.

Jean-Francois Rischard assumed the role as Vice President for FPD in January 1993.

As part of the reorganization of the Bank in 1997, the FPDVP was terminated and replaced with the Finance, Private Sector Development and Infrastructure Network (FPSI). FPSI was created along with three other networks: the Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network (PREM); the Human Development Network (HDN); and the Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Network (ESSD). The FSD, PSD, and IEN departments of FPDVP were transferred to FPSI, joining the new Transportation, Water, and Urban Development Department (TWU).

Finance, Private Sector Development, and Infrastructure Network

The Finance, Private Sector Development, and Infrastructure Network (FPSI) was created in 1997 as part of President Wolfensohn's reorganization of the World Bank. The reorganization's objective was to strike a better balance between "country focus" and "sectoral excellence". It was also motivated by the recognition that the Bank's development programs were excessively driven by a culture of lending, and there was a the need to increase attention on client needs and the quality of results. To facilitate sharing of expertise and knowledge, the Bank established networks that linked Bank-wide communities of staff working in the same field across organizational boundaries and with external partners. The networks were intended to link staff working in the same sectors throughout the Bank, whether the staff member was located in the regional vice presidencies, central vice presidencies' sectoral departments, Independent Evaluation Group (IEG, formerly the Operations Evaluation Group [OED]), World Bank Institute (WBI, formerly the Economic Development Institute [EDI]), or Development Economics (DEC). The objectives and responsibilities of the networks were many: reduce fragmentation; increase information flow; set priorities; manage quality; run the information system; consolidate external partnerships; vet staff promotions; and disseminate best practices. The work programs of network staff focused on:

  • Global knowledge - putting the best development knowledge in the hands of Bank task teams; ensuring that the knowledge base was accessible to external clients; and contributing to the growth of the knowledge base.

  • Enhanced skills - developing and providing content for training courses; establishing professional and technical standards for professional development.

  • Shared strategies - assisting regional and central units to develop a common sector agenda, and ensuring that skills are effectively deployed across the entire network. Network leadership assumed responsibility for global programs, sector strategy development and evaluation, strategic partnerships, and learning and dissemination.

  • Best teams and best practices - improving the Bank's flexibility and mobility by building stronger task teams and delivering higher quality products.

  • Institutional initiatives - providing substantial support for new Bank-wide initiatives, such as social development, rural development, financial sector, anti-corruption, human resources, and knowledge partnerships.

FPSI was created along with three other networks: the Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network (PREM); the Human Development Network (HDN); and the Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Network (ESSD).

FPSI absorbed the staff and functions from the former Finance and Private Sector Development Vice Presidency (FPD) as well as the Transportation, Water, and Urban Development Department (TWU) of the former Environmentally Sustainable Development Vice Presidency (ESD).

At its establishment, the FPSI consisted of four subordinate departments: the Financial Sector Department (FSD); the Private Sector Development Department (PSD); the Energy, Mining, and Telecommunications Department (EMT); and the Transportation, Water, and Urban Development Department (TWU). The objectives of FPSI included:

  • developing vibrant private sectors with rapid job growth by implementing the financial sector reinforcement program;

  • speeding up the emergence of livable, bankable, and competitive cities;

  • promoting the growth in energy and infrastructure provision that is environmentally sensitive;

  • stemming infrastructure deficit; and

  • sharing in the promise of the Information Age.

In 1998, FPSI added the financial sector oriented Special Financial Operations Unit (SFO) and the Capital Markets Development Department (CMD) to address the East Asia Financial Crisis of 1997.

Jean Francois-Rischard, former VP of FPD, served as FPSI Vice President and Head of Network at the inception of the FPSI, but was later replaced by Masood Ahmed in 1998, who served as an acting VP and Head of Network.

The FPSI was short lived,however, and was terminated in January 1999. The FPSI was partially terminated because it was too large and oversaw multiple sector focuses. World Bank Group President James D. Wolfensohn also sought greater integration of the World Bank and its affiliate IFC, which specialized in private sector development advisory and investment services. The integration was the creation of the Joint IFC and Bank Private Sector Development and Infrastructure Vice Presidency (PSIVP). Functions and staff from PSD, EMT, and TWU departments of FPSI were transferred to the new PSIVP. The staff and functions of FSD were transferred to the new Financial Operations Vice Presidency (FIOVP), which became the Financial Sector Vice Presidency (FSEVP) shortly thereafter in July 1999.

Financial Policy, Planning, and Budgeting

The financial policy, planning, and budgeting function of the World Bank Group is, alongside Resource Mobilization, Controller, and Office of the Treasurer, one of the four components of the Bank's Finance Complex. The financial policy, planning, and budgeting function includes: managing the Bank's strategic capital adequacy with respect to IBRD capital subscription; coordinating and reviewing the planning and programming of World Bank Group activities from a financial perspective; supporting management and resource allocation decisions at both senior management and departmental levels; and instituting and implementing procedures for World Bank wide budgetary controls.

Responsibility for these functions have most often been maintained in the various iterations of the Planning and Budgeting Department and the Financial Analysis Department. At different times these units were combined or reported to or alongside one another. For the majority of their existence these units reported to the Finance Vice President, Finance Senior Vice President, or Chief Financial Officer.

1967-1980

During the World Bank's first two decades, the Bank was small and centralized enough that the institution could essentially be managed from the President's Office or by the President's closest deputies. Planning and budgeting oversight and review were carried out in a variety of World Bank departments and Vice Presidencies, including the Administration Department (ADM) and Controller's (CTR) which in turn reported to the President'sOffice. However, as Bank operations and budgets grew throughout the 1960s, a unit that centralized activities of financial policy, planning, and budgetary control was deemed necessary. This resulted in the creation of the Program Evaluation and Control Department (PEC) in February 1967, the first unit responsible for the systematic programming and budgeting function. PEC was established to improve the President's control over the use of the Bank's manpower and financial resources and his ability to monitorthe effectiveness of the Bank's programs. As such, PEC reported directly to the Office of the President (EXC). The Department's specific responsibilities included:

  • making continuous reviews of the effectiveness of the Bank's major functions;

  • analyzing financial and other implications in terms of human and material resources required;

  • monitoring the efficiency and economy of the Bank's organizational structure, its operating procedures, and use of manpower;

  • instituting procedures for effective budgetary control;

  • preparing the annual budgets for the World Bank Group; and

  • conducting internal audits and arranging external studies to determine whether accounts and records conform to established policies.

John H. Williams was named the Director of PECin 1967.

Following the appointment of Robert McNamara as World Bank Group President in 1968, PEC was terminated and replaced by the new Programming and Budgeting Department (PAB) and John H. Adler was named PAB Director. The focus of the new PABwas initially narrowed, as activities related to organizational structure monitoring were returned to ADM. However, PAB's remaining work was intensified, as it took on the responsibility for developing and evaluating the 5-year programs for the Bank as well as the review of Country Program Papers (CPPs), the Bank's annual country economic review and planning profile. And while the new PAB reported to the Finance Vice President Siam Alderwereld, it also became an important resource and tool of the new President, serving as a quasi-secretariat to the President and his Council.

During a significant reorganization of PAB in July 1971, the Department's activities relating to planning and financial policy were expanded considerably, as it was agreed that PAB should take the lead in modifying and improving the projection capabilities of the Bank. Most notably, some of the responsibilities of the Statistical Services Division (ECDSS) which had previously resided in the Economics Department (ECD), the Bank's research department, were transferred into PAB. ECDSS's Financial Projects Unit, which had been responsible for making projections of the Bank's cash flows and financial condition, became the new Financial Projections and Special Projects Division (PABFP) within PAB; Jean-Claude Dumoulin was named the first Chief of PABFP. ECDSS's other section, the External Debt Unit, was located for a short time in PAB as the Indebtedness Unit before being transferred to the Economic Programming Department (EPD) in the Bank's new research unit, the Development Policy Vice Presidency (VPD).

Following the 1971 reorganization, PAB consisted of formal divisions for the first time. In addition to PABFP, it consisted of: the Budget Division (PABBG); the Program and Operations Review Division (PABPO); and the nascent Operations Evaluation Department (OED, later the Independent Evaluation Group [IEG]).

In July 1973 the Operations Evaluation Division (PABOE) was terminated and its functions were reestablished in the new and independentOperations Evaluation Department (OED). In February 1974 the Program and Operations Review Division (PABPO) was split into a Country Program Review Division (PABCP) and an Operations Review Division (PABOR). In September of 1974 the new PABOR was terminated and its functions were integrated into the renamed Budget and Operations Review Division (PABBG).

On April 1, 1974 the Financial Projects and Special Studies Division (PABFP) was reorganized into the Financial Analysis Division (PABFA). Later that year, a new Loan Portfolio Analysis Unit (PABLP) was established in PAB to analyze the changing composition of the Bank's loan portfolio and the creditworthiness of borrowing countries and to determine effects on the Bank's financial position and standing in the financial markets.

A 1975 Organizational Manual Statement on the Programming and Budgeting Department (PAB) described the unit as "a support department responsible for coordinating and consolidating the plans, programs, and budgets of the Bank Group, and for providing related flows of information and analyses to the President, the President's Council and Departmental Managers."

In June of 1976, the various changes to the Programming and Budgeting Department (PAB) in previous years were clarified by the creation of two new Assistant Directors in the Department. John G. N. Blaxall, the new Assistant Director, Programming and Budgeting and CPP Review, was given responsibility for the Budget and Operations Review Division (PABBG) and the CPP Review Division (PABCP) as well as a Systems Development Unit and an Overseas Mission Unit. The responsibilities of these units included:

  • coordinating and consolidating the five-year plans, work programs, and administrative budgets of the Bank Group within the framework of Bank Group financial policies and constraints; and

  • undertaking such reviews and analyses as are necessary to ensure the effective and efficient execution of the Group's plans, work programs, and budgets.

D. Joseph Wood was named the new Assistant Director, Financial Analysis, and was made responsible for the Financial Analysis Division (PABFA) and the new Financial Studies Division (PABFS). The responsibilities of the PABFA included:

  • analyzing the Bank Group's financial position;

  • making appropriate medium- and long-term financial projects;

  • and preparing financial policy recommendations for review by senior management.

The PABFS's responsibilities included:

  • analyzing the implications of changes in the international financial environment of Bank Group financial policies and on the access to capital, both private and official, by the Bank and its borrowers;

  • recommending policies, programs, and strategies that will enable the Bank and its borrowers to secure the finances they require;

  • and providing related flows of information and analyses to the President, the President's Council and Departmental Managers.

The two Assistant Directors worked in close coordination on financial policy implications for Bank operating programsand budgets.

Note that, while the PABFA provided support for IDA replenishment negotiations since 1974 and were given greater responsibility in this area in 1976, this arrangement was temporary. In 1987, support of IDA replenishment negotiations was moved into the new Resource Mobilization Department (FRM). IDA replenishment support has since been grouped alongside trust fund and cofinancing support and administration as part of the Bank's Resource Mobilization function.

On January 1, 1977, K. Georg Gabriel took over as the Director of PAB for John H. Adler, who had served in the role for over eight years.

1980-1983

In 1980, the financial policy functions located in the Financial Analysis Division (PABFA) and the Financial Studies Division (PABFS) were removed from the Programming and Budgeting Department (PAB). A new independent unit, the Financial Policy and Analysis Department (FPA), was created and began reporting directly to the new Senior Vice President, Finance (SVPFI). This upgrade to anindependent department was in response to the increased importance of the financial policy function in an environment of greater financial resource constraints. D. Joseph Wood was named the first Director of the new FPA. As in its PAB iteration, the new FPA consisted of a Financial Analysis Division (FPAFA) and Financial Studies Division (FPAFS). Together their responsibilities included:

  • performing analytical work on Bank financial policies, and supporting the Senior Vice President, Finance in such keyactivities as IDA replenishment negotiations, IBRD capital increases, and analyzing the financial impacts of new initiatives;

  • producing long-term financial projections and plans beyond a one-year horizon;

  • assessing and managing financial risks; and

  • providing support to Operations in areas involving financial analysis.

The Programming and Budgeting Department (PAB) had, since its creation in 1968, reported directly to the Vice President, Finance (VPF). However, amidst the various organizationalchanges of 1980, PAB reported to the new Vice President, Programming and Budgeting, Pension Fund (PBPVP) which, in turn, reported to the Senior Vice President, Finance (SVPFI). For the next three years PAB reported to the PBPVP alongside the new Staff Retirement Plan Office (SRP). Heinz Vergin led the PAB during this period. PAB's 1980 reorganization was the beginning of a move towards decentralization of the programming and budgeting function, as the Bank's operational units and Accounting Department weregiven greater roles in determining and creating budgets; the overall effect for the central PAB unit was that it was significantly weakened.

1983-1987

In 1983, the financial policy unit and planning and budgeting unit were reunited. However, instead of a reporting relationship, the two now coexisted within the new Financial Policy, Planning and Budgeting Vice Presidency (FPBVP). The objective of reintegrating the activities of the Financial Policy and Analysis Department (FPA) and the Planning and Budgeting Department (PBD) under one senior manager was to strengthen the Bank's capacity for prospective analysis and to implement a Bank-wide strategic planning initiative and an even more decentralized planning and budgeting process. FPBVP was led by D. Joseph Wood and reported to the Senior Vice President, Finance (SVPFI).

At the point that the FPA began reporting to the new FPBVP in 1983, D. C. Rao was named D. Joseph Wood's replacement as Director of FPA. The FPA consisted of the Financial Analysis Division (FPAFA) and the Financial Studies Division (FPAFS). A Policy Analysis Division (FPAPA) was established soon after. In February 1984, the Financial Analysis Division (FPAFA) and the Policy Analysis Division (FPAPA) were replaced by the Financial Management and Analysis Division (FPAMA) and the Financial Policy and Planning Division (FPAPP), respectively.

During the 1983 reorganization the PBD underwent restructuring in order to implement the more decentralized programming and budgeting process envisioned by new Bank President Alden W. Clausen. The Department took on most of the functions of its prior iteration, but within a system that decentralized more programming and budgeting responsibilities to the Bank's individual vice presidencies, thus allowing PBD to focus more broadly on the Bank as a whole. As such, the Department was responsible for:

  • coordinating and supporting the Bank's planning and resource allocation processes, including the formulation of budgetary policies, to ensure the efficiency and effectiveness of resource utilization; and

  • monitoring and supporting the country assistance planning and programming process, including standards employed in the analyses of country creditworthiness and IBRD portfolio risk.

At the time of its establishment, the PBD consisted of the following divisions: the Programming and Budgeting Division (PBDPG); the Country Program Review Division (PBDCP), and the Management Systems Division (PBDMS). In April 1984, the Department was realigned. PBDMS was terminated and the division's staff were assigned to the newly-established Institutional Planning Division (PBDIP) and were charged with setting up a Bank-wide institutional planning process and providing staff support for the "Future Role of the Bank" exercise. At the same time, the Programming and Budgeting Division (PBDPG) was renamed the Budget Policy and Review Division (PBDBP). In August of 1984, an Institutional and Financial Systems Unit (PBDIF) was established in the Department's Front Office.

Heinz Vergin continued to lead PBD until 1984 when he was replaced by Shinji Asanuma.

1987-2003

A 1987 Bank-wide reorganization separated the financial policy function and the planning and budgeting function; they would not be reunited again until 2003. The history of each function is presented separately during this period.

Financial Policy (1987-2003)

As part of the 1987 reorganization, the Financial Policy, Planning and Budgeting Vice Presidency (FPBVP) that consisted of the Financial Policy and AnalysisDepartment (FPA) and the Planning and Budgeting Department (PBD) was terminated. The Financial Management and Analysis Division (FPAMA) and the Financial Policy and Planning Division (FPAPP) of FPA were reorganized into the Risk Management and Financial Policy Department (FRS), which was led by D. C. Rao. The Financial Studies Division (FPAFS), which provided support for IDA replenishment negotiation, was absorbed by the new Resource Mobilization Department (FRM); note that FRM was responsible for overseeing policy development related to IBRD capital subscription during this period. Together the FRS and FRM reported to the new Vice President of Financial Policy and Risk Management (FPRVP), which reported to the new Senior Vice President of Finance (FINSV). D. Joseph Wood was named Vice President of the new FPRVP.

The new FRS was responsible for identifying and managing financial risks to the World Bank in order to maintain and promote the Bank's financial viability to effectively serve the long-term development objectives of its members. It was also responsible for evaluating country creditworthiness, advising Senior Management on strategies for managing risk in individual countries, and analyzing the portfolio risk implications of Bank lending programs. FRS consisted of three divisions: Financial Policies and Projections (FRSFP); Risk Management and Financial Policy (FRSDR); and Country Creditworthiness (FRSCR). Note that from this point, risk management and assessment is a predominant aspect of the financial policy function. Activities supporting this function were undertaken over the course of the previous decades, but with the creation of the FPRVP, it was prioritized. The four major types of financial risk relevant to the Bank were: country credit risk, or loan portfolio risk; market risk (i.e. interest rate and exchange rate); liquidity risk; and operational risk.

FRS underwent no significant changes in its organization or reporting relationship until 1996. Everardus J. Stoutjesdijk took over as Director of FRS in 1990. Mieko Nishimizu replaced him in late 1991 or early 1992 and Brian Wilson replaced Nishimizu in 1995.

In 1996 the Vice President of Financial Policy and Risk Management (FPRVP) was terminated when the Resource Mobilization Department (FRM) was removed and combined with the Cofinancing and Project Finance Department to form the new Resource Mobilization and Cofinancing Vice Presidency (RMCVP). The financial policy and country creditworthiness and risk functions of the former Risk Managementand Financial Policy Department (FRS) were relocated along with the Institutional Change and Strategy Department (ICD) into the new, but temporary, Financial Policy and Institutional Strategy Vice Presidency (FPIVP), the Bank's organizational planning unit.

In 1997 a new Vice Presidency, Financial Policy and Risk Management (FPRVP) was created. It maintained a divisional structure consistent with its recent predecessors, consisting of a Country Creditworthiness and Risk unit and a Financial Policy and Projects unit. FPRVP was led by Brian Wilson and reported to Managing Director Jessica Einhorn.

In 1999, responsibilities of the FPRVP were reorganized into the new Corporate Finance (FIN) unit that reported to the restored Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (CFO) alongside the Offices of the Treasury (TRE) and Controller (CTR). The Corporate Finance unit temporarily consisted of four units: Corporate Finance (FINCF); Credit Risk (FINCR); Risk Management (FINRM); and Financial Products and Services. At some point towards the end of 2000 or beginning of 2001, the Financial Products and Services unit was removed.

Planning and Budgeting (1987-2003)

Following the termination of the Financial Policy, Planning and Budgeting Vice Presidency (FPBVP) in 1987, the Planning and Budgeting Department (PBD) was removed from the Finance Complex and transferred to the new Policy, Planning and Research Complex (PPRSV) alongside such vice presidencies and departments as the Development Economics Vice Presidency (DECVP), the Sector Policy and Research Vice Presidency (PREVP), and the Strategic Planning and Review Department (SPR). Robert Piciotto was named Director of the PBD. The aim of consolidating these various units beneath a single umbrella was to systematize and strengthen the Bank's strategic planning process by integrating the previously fragmented research, policy and strategic planning functions. The central planning and budgeting function of PBD was strengthened somewhat and its analytical functions began to recover.

Not all of PBD's functions were maintained following its transfer to the PPRSV. The Institutional and Financial Systems Unit (PBDIF) was transferred to the front office of the Senior Vice President, Finance (FINSV) and the activities of the Institutional Planning (PBDIP) and Country Program Review (PBDCP) Divisions were integrated with those of the new Strategic Planning and Review Department (SPR). PBD emerged from the 1987 reorganization with divisions for Budget Policy and Review (PBDPR) and Budget Planning and Systems (PBDPS). In September 1988, these two remaining divisions were restructured into the Budget Formulation and Review (PBDFR) and the Budget Planning and Policy (PBDPP) Divisions, respectively.

Significant change again occurred with regard to the Bank's Planning and Budgeting function in January 1990. The Planning and Budgeting Department (PBD) was terminated and its functions were subordinated to the new Vice President, Corporate Planning and Budgeting (CPBVP), which reported directly to the Office of the President (EXC). The CPBVP also consisted of an Organization Planning Staff unit (ORG) and the Internal Auditing Department (IAD). Robert Piciotto was elevated to CPB Vice President; PBD did not have a Director for the following year.

In June of 1990, the Planning and Budgeting Department (PBD) was reconstituted within CPBVP. At this point it regained responsibilities for program review and institutional planning. The functions of the reorganized PBD included:

  • designing and operating a collaborative and integrated process of setting goals, priorities, programs and budgets throughout the Bank;

  • producing annual plans and budget documents submitted to the Board for review and approval;

  • advising senior management on resource allocation issues;

  • supporting other Bank units in preparing plans, programs, and budgets and in evaluating performance; and

  • identifying opportunities for improvement in Bank-wide planning, budgeting and implementation processes, enhancing transparency, effectiveness, and efficiency of resource allocation processes, and monitoring of resource use.

In 1991 Richard B. Lynn was named Director of the Planning and Budgeting Department (PBD).

In the summer of 1992, the CPBVP was terminated and the Planning and Budgeting Department (PBD) was returned to the Financial Complex (FINSV). However, it was placed in the Vice President and Controller (CTRVP) alongside its Accounting (ACT), Loan (LOA), and, later, Internal Auditing (IAD) departments. PBD's responsibilities did not change significantly, as reflected in the title of its three divisions: Budget Policy and Systems; Corporate and Budget Planning; and Program and Budget Review. However, PBD's role during this period was essentially subsumed within the Controller's function of financial administration, as it oversaw budget processes and served as a data manager, while program and budget decisions were made by executive fiat based on PBD analysis.

The organizational components and reporting relationship of PBD remained unchanged from 1992 until 1996 when it was removed from the CTRVP. It appears that, through 1996 and early 1997, PBD reported directly to the Office of the President (EXC). In 1997 it was placed in the new Strategy and Resource Management Vice Presidency (SRMVP) along with the Strategy, Change and Partnership Groups that had previously been located in the Financial Policy and Institutional Strategy Vice Presidency (FPIVP). The SRMVP reported to Managing Director Sven Sandstrom. This reorganization was motivated by a need for a top-down review and change program focusing on the Bank's budget; this undertaking took the form of the Strategic Compact (1997-1999). The Strategic Compact, a senior management review, focusedon: strategic priorities and selected efficiencies based largely on PBD advice; the Bank's top-down resource allocation and business planning process; and analytical capabilities with an emphasis on productivity.

Achim von Heynitz replaced Richard B. Lynn as Director ofthe Planning and Budgeting Department (PBD) in 1997. In 1998 the Planning and Budgeting Department was renamed the Corporate Resource Management Group (CRM). The SRMVP was led first by Mark Baird from 1997 to 1999 and then by Anil Sood from 1999 to 2003.

2003-2006

In 2003 the financial policy and planning and budget functions were reunited in the form of the Strategy, Finance, and Risk Management Vice Presidency (SFRVP). The reunion of these functions acknowledged the dependency between those responsiblefor articulating the Bank's strategy and programming and those responsible for ensuring that proposed business models are funded sustainably. It was also acknowledged that, while the units of the new SFRVP support and work closely with units throughout the Bank, such as operations, organizational planning, and treasury, they also had a strong business reason to remain independent from them.

SFRVP's functions were carried out in four departments. The Corporate Strategy and Integrated Risk Management Department (SFRSI) provided independent, Bank-wide perspective on the strategic and financial aspects of the Bank's business, combining the elements of corporate strategy, risk management, financial policy, and budget management. The Corporate Resource Management Department (SFRRM), or budget department, aligned resources to strategy, operations, and other programming. The Corporate Finance Department (SFRCF) supported the Bank's senior management, the Board, and the institution as a whole by providing review ofcapital deployment and ensuring the Bank's standing as a AAA-rated institution. Finally, the Credit Risk Department (SFRCR) analyzed and managed the Bank's credit risk exposure.

John Wilton was named Vice President of SFR.

2006-2009

In 2005 a Budget Reform process was initiated in order to make the budget process more efficient, less complex, and more results- and performance-based. One of the results of this Reform was the 2006 termination of the SFRVP and the separation of financial policy and risk management functions from the planning and budgeting functions. Functions related to the former were placed in the Office of the Chief Financial Officer; units included the Corporate Finance Department (FINCF) and the Credit Risk Department (FINCR). Planning and budgeting activities related to strategic allocation of resources were once again placed alongside the Bank's Accounting and Loan Departments in the new Controllers, Strategy and Resource Management Vice Presidency (CSRVP). As in its previous iteration within the Controller Vice Presidency (1992-1996), the planning and budgeting function was reduced in scope, as it appears to have provided only budget process supervision and support. Fayezul Choudhury led the CSRVP.

2009-2016

With the creation of the Corporate Finance and Risk Management Vice Presidency (CFRVP) in 2009, the model for finance management from 2003 to 2006, including policy, risk management, and budget planning, was restored. The objective was that, by restoring the higher level of management, oversight of risk management and supervision of financial activities would be strengthened. Three departments similar to those that made up the earlier Strategy, Finance, and Risk Management Vice President (SFRVP) were created: Corporate Planning and Analysis Department (CFRPA); Corporate Finance Department (CFRCF); and Credit Risk Department (CFRCR). The priorities of the department were, as they were from 2003 to 2006, to manage risk from the balance sheet perspective, maintain a sustainable financial framework, and manage administrative expenditures. CFR Vice President Fayezul Choudhury reported to the Chief Financial Officer (CFO).

In 2010 the World Bank President announced the creation of the World Bank Group Chief Risk Officer (CRO). Reporting to the Chief Financial Officer (CFO) and supplementing the risk management work of the FINCR, the CRO was responsible for:

  • assessing risks across the World Bank Group including possible interactions among types of risk;

  • benchmarking existing riskmanagement practices against major financial institutions;

  • ensuring consistency of World Bank Group risk management activities with best practice; and

  • considering unique risks that are specific to multilateral development banks and international financial institutions.

Robert Kopech was named the first Chief Risk Officer in January 2011. Kopech was replaced by Lakshmi Shyam-Sunder in 2014; she continues to report to the World Bank Group Chief Financial Officer (CFO) as of 2016.

In 2013 Managing Director and Chief Financial Officer (CFO) Bertrand Badre reorganized the various policy, risk management, and budget planning functions within the Bank's Finance Complex. A new Budget, Strategic Planning, and Performance Review Vice Presidency (BSPVP) was created which included the Budget Department as well as the Resource Management Network and General Services Department. Pedro Alba was named Vice President for BSPVP. The BSPVP is still operational as of 2016.

Also in 2013, a new Financial Strategy Group (FSG) was created that pulled together corporate finance, organizational modeling, and financial analytics functions from across the World Bank Group, including the International Finance Corporation (IFC) and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA). FSG was responsible for developing a business model and identifying options for strengthening the financial sustainability and delivery capacity of the IBRD, IDA, IFC, and MIGA. FSG was co-led by Lisa Finneran and Avi Hofman.

The following year, the Financial Strategy Group (FSG) joined the Concessional Finance and Global Partnerships Vice Presidency (CFPVP), formerly responsible for IDA replenishment, trust fund, and cofinancing related functions, to form the Development Finance Vice Presidency (DFiVP) led by Joachim von Amsberg. Financial management-related activities formerly located in the FSG were placed in the IBRD Corporate Finance Department (DFiCF) alongside the World Bank Trust Funds and Partnerships Department (DFPTF), IDA Resource Mobilization (DFIRM), and Development Partner Relations Department (DFDPR). DFiCF supports senior management and the World Bank Board in IBRD's financial management by recommending and facilitating policies and strategies related to medium-term capital planning, overall balance sheet management, and annual decisions on loan terms and income allocation. Activities include:

  • monitoring the Bank's income and balance sheet variables and key sensitivities over the near-term and the medium-term;

  • managing the Bank's strategic capital adequacy and developing strategies for optimal use of capital;

  • determining balance sheet management approaches that support the development mission and the institution's financial strength; and

  • assuring capacity to understand and resolve issues of income allocation, financial product pricing, and capital structure and adequacy.

Axel van Trotsenburg replaced Joachim von Amsberg as Vice President of the Development Finance Vice Presidency (DFiVP). The Vice Presidency continues to report to the World Bank Group Chief Finance Officer (CFO) as of 2016.

Financial Sector Development Sector

Functional responsibility for financial sector development originated in the Financial Development Unit (INDFD) established in July 1983, which was located in the Industry Department (IND) of the Energy and Industry Vice Presidency (EIS). This unit was founded in the context of the 1980s debt crisis and turmoil in developing nations' financial sectors and institutions. The INDFD had the responsibility to carry out policy, research, and review work with regard to the financial sector. It additionally coordinated work with financial intermediaries in other Bank units as well as the International Finance Corporation (IFC), and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). In July 1985, INDFD was upgraded to a Division. Millard F. Long assumed the role of first Chief and later Division Chief in INDFD from 1983 to 1987.

As part of a Bank-wide reorganization in 1987, the IND was terminated. The staff and functions of the INDFD were transferred to the Financial Policy and Systems Division located in the Country Economics Department (CECFP) of the Development Economics Vice Presidency (DEC). CECFP was created in July 1987 with five other divisions, including: the Trade Policy Division (CECTP); the Debt and Macroeconomic Adjustment Division (CECDA); the Public Economics Division (CECPE); the Public Sector Management and Private Sector Development Division (CECPS); and the Special Studies Division (CECSS). CEC was responsible for providing leadership in the design and analysis of country development policies through researchpolicy work, operation advice and support, and training and liaison with outside research groups. CECFP focused specifically on financial policy and systems for financial sector lending, regulation, supervision, and restructuring. CECFP was led by Division Chief Millard Long from 1987 to 1991, and later by Andrew Len Tao Sheng in 1992.

As part of another reorganization that took effect in January 1993, the majority of financial sector development functions and staff from CECFP were transferred to the newFinancial Sector Development Department (FSD) located in the new Finance and Private Sector Development Vice Presidency (FPDVP). Some staff were also transferred to the Finance & Private Sector Development Division (PRDFP) located in the Policy Research Department (PRD) of the Development Economics Vice Presidency (DEC), which served as a research oriented division, and worked closely with the FPDVP departments, including FSD. FSD was created alongside two other subordinate departments in FPDVP, including the Private Sector Development Department (PSD) and the Industry and Energy Department (IEN). FSD was assigned responsibility for:

  • formulating and disseminating policies and guidelines with regard to its sector;

  • monitoring the effectiveness of policies and approaches;

  • maintaining effective relations with Bank-external organizations and professionals in the field; and

  • providing operational support, especially in the areas of financial sector organization and regulatory frameworks, specialized finance, bank restructuring and management, and capital markets development.

FSD work focused on the following themes: bank and enterprise restructuring; finance intermediation; capital markets development; and financial sector infrastructure. Millard Long served as Acting Director for FSD in 1993, and was later succeeded by Director Gary Perlin from 1994 to 1995 and by Acting Director Diana McNaughton from 1996 to 1997.

As part of the reorganization of the Bank in 1997, the FPDVP was terminated and replaced with the Finance, Private Sector Development and Infrastructure Network (FPSI). The research division of the PRDFP was also terminated at this time. FPSI was created along with three other networks: the Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network (PREM); the Human Development Network (HDN); and the Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development Network (ESSD). The FPSI consisted of four subordinate departments: the Financial Sector Department (FSD); the Private Sector Development Department (PSD); the Energy, Mining, and Telecommunications Department (EMT); and the Transportation, Water, and Urban Development Department (TWU). The responsibilities of FPSI included:

  • developing vibrant private sectors with rapid job growth by implementing the financial sector reinforcement program;

  • speeding up the emergence of livable, bankable, and competitive cities;

  • promoting the growth in energy and infrastructure provision that is environmentally sensitive;

  • stemming infrastructure deficit; and

  • sharing in the promise of the Information Age.

FSD activities focused on strengthening banking, capital markets, and regulatory policy in emerging economies. In 1998, the FPSI added the financial sector oriented Special Financial Operations Unit (SFO) and the Capital Markets Development Department (CMD) to address the East Asia Financial Crisis of 1997.

The FPSI was terminated, however, in January 1999 because the network became too large with multiple sector focuses; greater response was also needed for the East Asia Financial Crisis from financial sector related units. As a result, the functions of PSD, EMT, and TWU were transferred to the newly established Private Sector Development and Infrastructure Vice Presidency (PSIVP) and the FSD, CMD, and SFO functions were transferred to the financial sector oriented Financial Operations Vice Presidency (FIOVP). At its establishment, FIOVP departments included: the Financial Sector Practice Department (FSP); the Capital Markets Development Department (CMD); and the Special Financial Operations Department (SFO). The FIOVP, however, was short lived and was terminated in June 1999.

The FIOVP was replaced by the Financial Sector Vice Presidency (FSEVP), which was launched in July 1999. FSEVP retained the FSD, FSP, CMD, and SFO departments of FIOVP, and added the new Banking and Financial Institutions Department (BFI). The joint IMF and World Bank Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) pilot program was also launched in 1999 as a response to the East Asia Financial Crisis, and was designed to rapidly assess and respond to financial sector crises. The FSP department assumed FSAP responsibilities, and FSEVP representatives were also responsible to sit on the joint IMF and Bank Financial Sector Liaison Committee (FSLC) to oversee implementation of FSAP missions, and review subsequent policy development and lending.

In 2001, the FSEVP was restructured to three departments, including: the Financial Sector Strategy and Policy Department (FSP); the Financial Sector Development Department (FSD); and the Banking and Financial Restructuring Department (BFR). FSEVP was restructured again in 2003, at which point it included: the Global Partnerships Program; the Financial Market Integrity and Money Laundering Program; the Financial Market Integrity Group (FSEFI); the FIRST Trust Fund Initiative (FSEFT); the Financial Sector Strategy and Policy Department (FSEGP); and the Financial Sector Operations and Policy Department (OPD).

In 2006, the FSEVP was terminated and its functions were transferred to the Financial and Private Sector Development Vice Presidency (FPDVP). The FPDVP was organized jointly by the World Bank, the International Finance Corporation (IFC), and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA). This joint effort was intended to combine the Bank's financial sector policy expertise and the IFC's rapid response advisory services to more effectively meet the growing demand for private and financial sector development services from developing countries. The FSEVP functions were combined with existing IFC private sector development oriented units, including: the Corporate Governance and Capital Markets Advisory (CCG); the Global Corporate Governance Forum (GCGF); and the Investment Climate Group (CIC). The joint IFC and MIGA Foreign Investment Advisory Service (FIAS) was also included in the new FPDVP. The transferring of FSE functions created the following new groups and advisory services: the Financial Market Integrity Group (FPDFI); the FinancialMarkets for Social Safety Net Group (FPDSN); the Financial Systems Group (FPDFS); and the Financial Sector Reform and Strengthening (FIRST) Initiative. Around 2010, the FPDVP was restructured, and the following groups were added: the Global Indicators and Analysis Group (GIA); the Global Markets Development Group (GCM); and the Financial Inclusion Group. FPDFS, CGP, CIC, FIRST, FIAS, and CGP units were retained.

Financial Sector Vice Presidency

The Financial Sector Vice Presidency (FSEVP) was launched in July 1999. FSEVP replaced the short lived Financial Operations Vice Presidency (FIOVP). FSEVP oversaw the following FIOVP departments: the Financial Sector Development Department (FSD); the Financial Sector Practice Department (FSP); the Capital Markets Development Department (CMD); and the Special Financial Operations Department (SFO). In addition, Banking and Financial Institutions Department (BFI) was created and placed in FSEVP. The joint IMFand World Bank Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) pilot was also launched in 1999 as a response to the East Asia Financial Crisis, and was designed to rapidly assess and respond to financial sector crises. The FSP department assumed FSAP responsibilities, and FSEVP representatives also sat on the joint IMF and Bank Financial Sector Liaison Committee (FSLC) which oversaw implementation of FSAP missions and reviewed subsequent policy development and lending. Other responsibilities of FSEVP included:

  • providing support to the Bank's client countries in the area of financial sector reform;

  • supporting countries goals to reduce vulnerabilities in their financial sector and make financial systems stable and efficient;

  • administering the Financial Sector Assessment Program jointly with the International Monetary Fund;

  • providing advice and technical assistance to crisis countries;

  • working with regional departments to formulate financial sector strategies for the systematically important countries;

  • generating knowledge in the financial sector, providing research and policy notes on key topics and emerging trends; and

  • promoting stability in financial systems by working closely with international standard setting bodies in updating and revising standards in the areas of banking, securities markets, insurance, and payment systems.

In 2001, the FSEVP was restructured to three departments, including: the Financial Sector Strategy and Policy Department (FSP); the Financial Sector Development Department (FSD); and the Banking and Financial Restructuring Department (BFR). FSEVP was restructured again in 2003, at which point it included: the Global Partnerships Program; the Financial Market Integrity and Money Laundering Program; the Financial Market Integrity Group (FSEFI); the FIRST Trust Fund Initiative (FSEFT); the Financial Sector Strategy and Policy Department (FSEGP); and the Financial Sector Operations and Policy Department (OPD).

In 2006, the FSEVP was terminated and its functions were transferred to the new joint Bank and IFC Financial and Private Sector Development Vice Presidency (FPDVP). The FSEVP departments and units were merged with the departments and units of the joint Bank and IFC Private Sector Development Vice Presidency (PSDVP) to form the new FPDVP.

Friedman, Irving S.

Irving S. Friedman was born on in New York City in 1915. After graduating from Columbia University, Friedman began his career as an economist in the office of the Secretary of the Treasury. He joined the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in 1946 where became a senior department director and headed missions to member countries. In 1950 Friedman became director of the Fund's Exchange Restrictions Department.

In October 1964, Friedman joined the World Bank. He was appointed by President George S. Woods as the first Economic Adviser to the President and was placed in the President's immediate staff. Friedman supervised the Economics Department and the Director of Special Economic Studies. He also oversaw the Economic Program Department, the Computing Activities Department, and the Development Research Center. Friedman was succeeded by Hollis B. Chenery as Economic Adviser to the President in October and left the Bank soon after.

After his time at the World Bank, Friedman joined Citibank in Manhattan in 1974 and First Boston Corporation in 1989. In the 1980s he held senior advisory positions with the African, Asian, and Inter-American Development Banks in addition to other public and commercial financial institutions. Throughout the 1970s and 80s, Friedman taught at a variety of academic institutions, including Yale University, the University of Virginia, and Fordham University. He also lectured abroad as well as at the Bank's Economic Development Institute (EDI, now the World Bank Institute [WBI]).

Irving Friedman died in November 1989.

Garcia de Truslow, Aura

Aura Garcia de Truslow was born in Peru in 1938. She entered the employment of the World Bank in 1980 as an Urban Affairs Specialist. In 1981 she joined the Latin America and Caribbean Regional Vice Presidency's (LCNVP) Urban Division (LCPUR) as an Urban Planner. In this capacity she supported lending programs and conducted country and sector studies focusing on the urban and housing sectors.

In 1987, Garcia de Truslow joined the new Strategic Planning and Review Department (SPR) as a Planning Officer. SPR was created in 1987 as part of the new Policy, Planning and Research Complex (PPRSV) and was responsible for coordinating and managing PPRSV policy formation and developing a systematic Bank-wide strategic planning process. Garcia de Truslow worked in the department's Strategic Planning Division (SPRSP).

Following the termination of SPR in 1990, Garcia de Truslow rejoined the Bank's operations complex in the Latin America and Caribbean Regional Vice Presidency (LACVP) as a Senior Projects Officer. She served in a variety of LAC divisions during the subsequent seven years, including: Country Department 4's Infrastructure and Energy Operations Division (LA4IE, 1990); Country Department 4's Trade, Finance, and Industry Operations Division (LA4TF, 1991-1993); Country Department 4's Environment Division (LA4EN, 1994); and Country Department 1's Country Operations Division (LA1CO, 1994-1995). Garcia de Truslow retired from the Bank in 1997. She returned to the Bank briefly as a consultant in the Finance, Private Sector, and Infrastructure Division of LACVP between 1997 and 1998.

Gender and Development

Gender and development sector work in the World Bank originated within the context of the United Nations Decade for Women (1976-85). In 1977, the World Bank established the Adviser on Women in Development (WID) position. Gloria Scott was selected to serve as the first WID Adviser. The Adviser position initially reported to the Office of the Vice Presidency for Central Projects (CPSVP) from 1977 to 1980 and then to the Projects Policy Department (PPD) from 1980 to 1985. The responsibilities of the WID Adviser included reviewing Bank development projects in the preparation stages for potential implications for women, and advising on how projects could serve the unique needs of women. Additionally, the WID Adviser assessed projects and their long-term impacts on women. The WID Adviser focused particularly on projects related to the education, agriculture and rural development, urban development, industry, and population, health, and nutrition sectors. The WID Adviser additionally produced key research, studies,and training on women related issues. One result of this role was Gloria Scott's key publication: Recognizing the Invisible Woman in Development: The World Bank's Experience published in 1979.

By the mid-1980s, the WID Adviser role was successfully producing studies, policy, and training on women's issues in developing countries, but incorporation of women related measures into Bank funded development projects remained limited. This began to change however, with the establishment of the Women in Development Division (PHRWD) in July 1987 within the newly created Population and Human Resources Department (PHR). Barbara Herz, who succeeded Scott in 1985, served as the first Division Chief of PHRWD, and emphasized a greater focus on applying "women in development" policies to projects: "We want to get beyond studies and training. We want to show what can actually be done to include women in development programs and how that contributes to economic performance, easing of poverty, and other development activities" (The Bank's World, Volume 6: Number 11, November 1987, page 9).

The PHRWD was created alongside three other divisions in PHR: the Education and Employment Division (PHREE), the Population, Health and Nutrition Division (PHRHN), and the Welfare and Human Resource Division (PHRWH). The divisions of the PHR Department were responsible for:

  • formulating policies and strategies for human resource development and women in development, and developing new initiatives and Bank products;

  • conducting the supporting research, including the improvement of research capabilities in developing countries, and management of external research funded through the Research Support Budget;

  • improving methodology and identifying best practices;

  • performing ex-post evaluation of the in the Bank's human resource sector work;

  • providing operational support;

  • liaising with non-Bank organizations and professionals in this field;

  • developing household data on living standards; and

  • assisting in the recruitment and training of staff.

On January 1, 1993, the PHR was terminated as part of a larger initiative to align the organization of the Bank's sector work with the priority areas of its poverty reduction effort. Its functions were split between a new Population, Health and Nutrition Department (PHN) and an Education and Social Policy Department (ESP) in the Human Resources andOperations Policy Vice Presidency (HRO). ESP absorbed the functions of the PHRWD and the PHREE. It also absorbed the functions of the Divisions for Poverty Analysis and Policy (PHRPA), which was formerly the PHRWH. The ESP Department was responsible for:

  • formulating and disseminating policies and guidelines for its sectors;

  • monitoring the effectiveness of policies and approaches;

  • identifying and disseminating best practices and lessons of experience;

  • liaising with Bank-external organizations and professionals in the field;

  • assessing skills requirements and upgrading skills; and

  • providing operational support to the Regions.

The ESP Department did not have formal divisions, but was organized into task-specific teams. The following four teams were included: Education; Women in Development; Poverty Analysis and Policy; and Economic Analysis and Labor Markets.

In 1994, the World Bank shifted from a Women in Development (WID) policy to a Gender and Development (GAD) policy. WID policy focused exclusively on women's roles, responsibilities, and needs in regards to specific World Bank development projects. GAD policy still made women's issues a vital focus, but provided a broader policy that emphasized reducing gender inequalities between men and women by targeting the complex social, economic, political, legal, and cultural factors that impede women's participation in economic development. GAD policy in the Bank was prompted by the strategy paper Enhancing Women's Participation in EconomicDevelopment, and resulted in the adoption of the World Bank operational policy "OP 4.20 Gender and Development (GAD)" in 1994. The new policy emphasis evolved from the still limited integration of women's issues into World Bank development projects and programs. "OP 4.20 GAD" took a country level approach by mandating that Country Gender Assessments (CGA) be performed to diagnose gender related issues within in a member country. Once a CGA was complete, this information would become part of the Country Assistance Strategy (CAS), helping to embed gender-informed policy into all subsequent projects within that country. This differed greatly from WID projects that performed a social analysis of women's issues only at the development project level.

On July 1, 1995, the ESP was terminated and its replacement reflected the shift from WID to GAD policy. HRO became Human Capital Development and Operations Policy (HCO), and ESP was replaced by the Povertyand Social Policy Department (PSP). The ESP education functions were moved into the new Human Development Department (HDD). The WID functions of ESP were replaced by the Gender Analysis and Policy (GAP) Group. GAP was responsible for:

  • helping the Bank to define and implement its gender policies;

  • conduct research on gender-related issues in areas such as education, property rights, labor markets, and economies in transition;

  • provide gender training for World Bank staff;

  • and provide operational support to the Regional Vice Presidencies.

Minh Chau Ngyuen assumed the role of Manager for GAP from July 1995 to December 1996.

On December 31, 1996, the Human Capital Development Vice-Presidency (HCD, formerly the HCO) was terminated as part of President's Wolfensohn's reorganization of the World Bank. PSP was temporarily relocated under the oversight of Director Masood Ahmed of the International Economic Department (IEC), a unit within the Development Economics Vice Presidency (DEC). Ahmed was transitioning into the role of Vice-President for the new Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network (PREM). In this transition period from January 1, 1997 to June 31, 1997, the PSP became the Poverty, Gender, and Management Units (PGP). The various divisions of PGP were then mapped into the newly created PREM sector departments. Much of PGP staff and functions were mapped into the PREM Gender Division (PRMGE), which launched in July 1997. In 1997, the PRMGE consisted of the Gender and Development (GAD) Board led by the head role of GAD manager. In 1998, the head role of GAD was raised to director. From 1997 to 1998, Joanne Salop served as both the Interim Manager and the Director of PRMGE. The GAD responsibilities included:

  • knowledge management;

  • regular monitoring and reporting of policy implementation;

  • and for building capacity to mainstream gender within the Bank.

In 1999, Karen Mason succeeded Joanne Salop to become the Director of PRMGE. She served in this role until January 2005.

The publications of the World Bank policy research report Engendering Development - Through Gender Equality in Rights, Resources and Voice in 2001, and the PRMGE produced strategy paper "Integrating Gender into the World Bank's Work: A Strategy for Action" in 2002, prompted revision of "OP 4.20 GAD" in 2003. Both publications provided a detailed framework in how gender actions could be further mainstreamed into Bank operations. This produced the revised "OP 4.20 GAD" and a new parallel bank procedure "BP 4.20 GAD". The new revisions provided significantly more guidance for gender policy integration for country directors, sector managers, and task teams than had previous "OP 4.20 GAD" policies. PRMGE remained the main gender and development sector in charge of oversight, monitoring, and support of gender and development initiatives within the World Bank, but the "OP 4.20 GAD" embedded gender and development policy compliance measures across networks, regions, and country operations.

In 2005, Mayra Guvinic succeeded Karen Mason as the Director of PRMGE, and served in this position until 2011.

In 2006, the PREM Vice President, the PRMGE GAD Board, and other World Bank regional and network officials partnered with the OECD Development Assistance Committee Network on Gender Equality (GENDERNET) to pursue a plan to achieve the UN Millennium Development Goal 3 (MDG3), which seeks to "Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015".

GENDERNET included a forum of gender experts from numerous international development agencies, including World Bank officials. The partnership resulted in the Gender Equality as Smart Economics: A World Bank Action Plan. The Action Plan was intended to achieve MDG3 goals and economic empowerment of women, but it had an additional purpose of hastening the mainstreaming of gender policies outlined in "OP 4.20 GAD" and "BP 4.20 GAD" into World Bank operations. The Action Plan was undertaken over the years 2007 to 2011.

In August 2011, Jeni Klugman succeeded Mayra Guvinic as Director of PRMGE.

In 2012, gender and development policy received unprecedented attention and visibility within the World Bank when the Bank's key annual publication of the World Development Report (WDR) focused on the theme of Gender Equality and Development.

General Vice Presidents and Managing Directors

Between 1946 and 1974, the World Bank had between one and four vice presidents whose responsibility was the Bank as a whole. During the reorganization in 1972, vice presidencies were created with specific areas of oversight, and when Sir Denis Rickett left the Bank in 1974 the era of general vice presidents was over.

In late 1991, following the appointment of Lewis T. Preston as Bank President, Managing Director positions were created to provide administrative assistance to the President of the Bank. Reporting directly to the President, the Managing Directors each had an area of oversight responsibility, but as a whole they formed the kind of broad oversight team that the general vice presidents had provided. The number of Managing Directors ranged from three to five, with varying areas of emphasis.

Global Environment Facility

The Global Environment Facility (GEF) began operations in 1991 as a three-year pilot project sponsored by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the World Bank. The first meeting of the three agencies took place in December 1990. The Executive Directors of the World Bank adopted Resolution No. 91-5 on March 14, 1991, thereby legally establishing the Global Environment Trust Fund (GET), with initial funding of $1 billion, which was pledged by industrialized and developing countries. The first Participants meeting took place in May of 1991. A Tripartite Agreement signed by the three cosponsoring agencies on October 28, 1991, formalized the governance and operational mechanisms of the GEF.

The purpose of the GEF is to assist in the protection of the global environment and to promote environmental sustainable development. Specifically, it provide[s] new and additional grants and concessional funding to cover the 'incremental' or additional costs associated with transforming a development project with national benefits into one with global environmental benefits (GEF website, June 18, 2012). Countries can obtain GEF funds if they are eligible to borrow from the World Bank or receive technical assistance grants from UNDP. Investments initially took place in four areas of global interest, or focal areas: international waters; biodiversity; climate change, and, under the terms outlined in the Montreal Protocol (MP), the layer of stratospheric ozone. Later, the areas of land degradation and persistent organic pollutants would be added.

Initially, the World Bank undertook the Chairmanship of the GEF; the director of the Bank's Environment Department (ENV) served as Chair. A GEF Administrator's Unit (ENVGE) was created in 1991 in the Environment Department as was the Global Environment Unit (ENVGC) which would coordinate GEF-related projects implemented by the Bank and conduct other related activities. The Bank's initial activities included: serving as Trustee and administrator of the GEF; encouraging inclusion of GEF investment areas in national environment programs of recipient countries; managing the project cycle for investment projects; and organizing GEF project identification, appraisal, and supervision processes with other agencies.

At the conclusion of its pilot phase in 1994, the GEF was restructured and moved out of the World Bank system to become a permanent, separate institution. As part of this restructuring, the involvement of developing countries in the decision-making process and implementation of projects was enhanced and greater transparency was achieved. At this time, the GEF became the financial mechanism for both the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. In partnership with the Montreal Protocol of the Vienna Convention on Ozone Layer Depleting Substances, the GEF also started funding projects that enabled countries to phase out their use of ozone-destroying chemicals. Later, the GEF was selected to serve as the financial mechanism for two more international conventions: the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in 2001 and the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in 2003.

The governance structure of the GEF includes: an Assembly of all participating countries which meets every three to four years and is responsible for reviewing and evaluating the GEF's general policies, the operation of the GEF, and its membership; a Council, which acts as the main governing body of the GEF and is responsible for developing, adopting, and evaluating the operational policies and programs for GEF activities; and a Secretariat, which services and reports to the governing Council and the Assembly and is functionally independent but is supported administratively by the World Bank. Among the Secretariat's major functions are:

  • implementing the decisions of the GEF Assembly and Council;

  • coordinating the formulation and overseeing the implementation of program activities pursuant to the joint work program;

  • ensuring the implementation of the operational policies adopted by the council through the preparation of common guidelines on the project cycle in consultation with implementing agencies; and

  • reviewing and reporting to the council on the adequacy of work programs made by the implementing agencies in accordance with the guidelines referred to above.

Its business activities include: external/corporate relations; policy development; operations and business strategy; monitoring and evaluation; GEF Council and Assembly activities; annual reporting; communications and outreach; and administration.

As of 2012, the GEF involves 182 participating countries and various international institutions, civil society organizations, and the private sector. In addition to the World Bank, UNDP, and UNEP, GEF has seven other implementing agencies responsible for creating project proposals and for managing GEF projects. The World Bank continues to serve as the GEF Trustee; as such, it mobilizes resources for the GEF Trust Fund and manages the Fund. It also seeks to mobilize resources from the private sector that are consistent with GEF objectives and national sustainable development strategies. The UNDP is responsible for technical assistance activities and capacity building and helps to identify projects and activities consistent with the purpose of the GEF and national sustainable development strategies. It is also charged with running the Small Grants Programme for non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The UNEP is responsible for catalyzing the development of scientific and technical analysis and advancing environmental management in GEF-financed activities. It also manages the Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel (STAP), an independent advisory body that provides scientific and technical guidance to the GEF.

Human Development Network

The Human Development Network (HDN) was created in 1997 as part of President Wolfensohn's reorganization of the World Bank. The reorganization's objective was to strike a better balance between country focus and sectoral excellence. It was also motivated by recognition that the Bank's development programs were excessively driven by a culture of lending. The need to increase attention towards client needs and the quality of results was addressed.

To facilitate sharing of expertise and knowledge, the Bank established networks that linked Bank-wide communities of staff working in the same field across organizational boundaries and with external partners. The networks were intended to link staff working in the same sectors throughout the Bank, whether the staff was located in the Regional Vice Presidencies, sectoral departments, Independent Evaluation Group (IEG, formerly the Operations Evaluation Group [OED]), World Bank Institute (WBI), or Development Economics (DEC). The objectives and responsibilities of the networks were many: reduce fragmentation; increase information flow; set priorities; manage quality; run the information system; consolidate external partnerships; vet staff promotions; and disseminate best practices. The work programs of network staff focused on:

  • Global knowledge - putting the best development knowledge in the hands of Bank task teams; ensuring that the knowledge base was accessible to external clients; and contributing to the growth of the knowledge base.

  • Enhanced skills - developing and providing content to training courses; establishing professional and technical standards for professional development.

  • Shared strategies - assisting regional and central units to develop a common sector agenda, and ensuring that skills are effectively deployed across the entire network. Network leadership assumed responsibility for global programs, sector strategy development and evaluation, strategic partnerships, and learning and dissemination. * Best teams and best practices - improving the Bank's flexibility and mobility by building stronger task teams and delivering higher quality products.

  • Institutional initiatives - providing substantial support for new Bank-wide initiatives, such as social development, rural development, financial sector, anti-corruption, human resources, and knowledge partnerships.

HDN was the first of three networks to be created in 1997; the others were the Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network (PREM) and the Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Network (ESSD). Soon after, in 1997-98, the Private Sector and Infrastructure Network (PSI) was created. In 2000-01, the Operation Policy and Strategy Department became the Operations Policy and Country Services Network (OPCS). In 2003-04, the PSI became the Financial and Private Sector Development Network (FPSD) and in 2007 ESSD was combined with Infrastructure to form the Sustainable Development Network (SDN).

HDN is organized in the same way as the other Bank networks. Each network is headed by a Vice President and Head of Network. Under the Vice President is a network council which oversees the entire network. The council is composed of the top network managers from each Region and is responsible for setting the overall agenda for the network and for promoting effective deployment of skills across network units. It deliberates on issues relevant to the functions and objectives of the Network - e.g., strategy; people; knowledge; quality/business process; and external partnerships.

Each thematic network covers several related sectors of development. Each sector department has its own board, with representatives drawn from the Regions as well as from the network itself. The sector boards are accountable to the network council and are supported by a secretariat.

When the HDN was created in 1997, three sector departments from the former Human Development Department (HDD) were placed in the network: Education Team (HDNED); Health, Nutrition, and Population Team (HDNHE); and the Social Protection Team (HDNSP). In2003 an HIV/AIDS Global Program Team (HDNGA) was created and added to HDN. In or around 2004, an advisor position for Children and Youth was created in HDN. Similarly, an advisor position for Development Dialogue was moved to HDN in 2008 or earlier.

Human Resources Development and Operations Policy Vice Presidency

The Human Resources Development and Operations Policy Vice Presidency (HRO) was one of three Vice Presidencies created during President Lewis Preston's reorganization of January 1, 1993. Following the abolishment of all Senior Vice Presidencies on December 1, 1991, Preston initiated a larger reorganization in 1993 that aligned the Bank's organization with the priority areas of its poverty reduction effort. The result was three new thematic vice presidencies: the HRO; Finance and Private Sector Development (FPD); and Environmentally Sustainable Development (ESD).

The vice presidencies were responsible for:

  • Providing operational support to the Regions through participation in Sector Operations Division (SOD) task teams, undertaking specialized assignments for the Regions, providing ad hoc advice, distilling lessons of operational experience and disseminating best practices, and definition of sector and operational policies;

  • Assisting in identifying and addressing the Bank's skisurells mix and training needs; * Providing information and intellectual support to interested actors outside the Bank;

  • Liaising with the UN and other official and private organizations;

  • Delivering complete products to the country directors in the 'clustered subsectors', where the small number of expert staff can most efficiently be located in the central Vice Presidency.

As part of the 1993 reorganization, the former Population and Human Resources Department was terminated and its divisions were split between two newly created departments: the Population, Health and Nutrition Department (PHN) and the Education and Social Policy Department (ESP). Both of these departments were placed in the HRO Vice Presidency along with an Operations Policy Department (OPR). The OPR absorbed the functions of: the former Central Operations Department (COD); the International Economic Relations Division (OPRIE); and the UN Office in New York (OPRNY) transferred from the External Relations Department (EXT).

In January 1994, President Lewis Preston created a secretariat within the HRO (HROAN) responsible for managing a program of the Bank's 50th anniversary activities.

On July 1 1995, HRO became Human Capital Development and Operations Policy (HCO). At this time education, health, nutrition and population functions were again combined in a single department named the Human Development Department (HDD). A Poverty and Social Policy Department (PSP) was also formed and placed in HCO.

Individual Staff Members - Lamb, Geoffrey

Geoffrey Lamb, an Irish national, was born in Boksburg, South Africa in 1944. He earned a Bachelor's of Arts in economics and political science from Witwatersand University (Johannesburg, South Africa) in 1963. Soon after graduation, he was forced out of South Africa as an anti-apartheid political exile and obtained Irish citizenship soon thereafter. In 1966, he received a Master of Arts in African studies from the University of Sussex (Brighton, East Sussex, UK), and later obtained a Doctorate in Philosophy in political science from the University of Sussex in 1970.

Prior to joining the Bank, Lamb served as Deputy Director and Fellow at the Institute of Development Studies at the University of Sussex. He also served as a Research Fellow for the School of African Studies and Asian Studies at the University of Sussex and the Royal Institute of Public Administration (RIPA) in London. He additionally served as Visiting Professor and Research Fellow at the University of London, the University of Nairobi, the University of Dar es Salaam, Addis Ababa University, and the University of the West Indies.

Geoffrey Lamb's employment at the World Bank began as an Economist for the Development Research Center (DRC) of the Development Policy Vice Presidency (VPD) from August 1980 to January 1982. He served in numerous roles thereafter, including:

  • Economist for the Development Research Department (DRD) of the Economic and Research Vice Presidency (ERS), January 1982 to March 1982;

  • Institutional Development Specialist for the Project Policy Department (PPD) of the Operations Policy Vice Presidency (OPS), April 1982 to May 1983;

  • Public Sector Management Adviser for the Public Management Unit (PPDPS) of the Operations Policy Vice Presidency (OPS), October 1983 to May 1987;

  • Adviser for the Strategic Planning Division (SPRSP) of the Strategic Planning and Review Department (SPR), July 1987 to May 1990;

  • Adviser for the Policy Development Unit (PRDPD) of the Policy and Review Department (PRD), July 1990 to May 1991;

  • Unit Chief for the Public Sector Management Unit (EMTPM) within the ECA/MENA Technical Department of the Europe and Central Asia Vice Presidency (ECA), December 1991 to May 1992;

  • Manager for the Public Sector Management Unit (EMTPM) within the ECA/MENA Technical Department of the Europe and Central Asia Vice Presidency (ECA), January 1993 to May 1994;

  • Resident Representative for the U.K. and Ireland External Affairs Department (EXTLD), July 1994 to June 1996;

  • Senior Adviser for the External Affairs Vice Presidency (EXTVP), January 1997 to May 1997;

  • Director for the Trust Fund and Co-financing Department (TFC) of the Resource Mobilization and Co-financing Vice Presidency (RMCVP), November 1997 to January 1999; and

  • Director for the Resource Mobilization Department (FRM) of the Resource Mobilization and Co-financing (RMCVP), July 1999 to July 2002.

In 2003, Lamb was appointed the Vice President for Resource Mobilization and Co-financing (RMCVP), later renamed the Vice President for the Concessional Finance and Global Partnerships (CFPVP). In this role, he led international negotiations on the replenishment of funding for the International Development Association (IDA) and financing for the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI). He additionally led financing efforts for the International Finance Facility (IFF), the Advanced Market Commitments (AMCs), and the funding of the Global Environment Facility. Geoffrey Lamb retired from the World Bank in 2006.

Upon retirement, Lamb served on the Board of Directors for the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI). He additionally joined the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation as a Senior Fellow for Global Development. He would go on to act in other roles in the Foundation, including: Managing Director for Public Policy, President of the Global Policy & Advocacy Division, and Chief Economic and Policy Advisor.

Individual Staff Members - Linn, Johannes F.

Johannes F. Linn was born on October 22, 1945 near Munich, Germany. He studied law at the Free University in Berlin before receiving a Bachelor of Arts in philosophy, politics, and economics from Oxford University in 1968 and a PhD in economics from Cornell University in 1972.

Linn joined the World Bank on January 2, 1973 as a Young Professional. During his first nine years of employment at the Bank, he was an economist in the Urban and Regional Economics Division in the Economics Department (ECDRB) and its successor the Development Economics Department (DEDRB) of the Development Policy Vice Presidency (DPS), the Bank's research unit. During this time he focused on issues of urban development policy. In 1978 Linn spent six months as a visiting researcher at the University of Munster.

In 1981, Linn moved to the operations side of the Bank when he was named Senior Economist in the East Asia and Pacific Vice Presidency's (AENVP) Division A (AEADA), which was responsible for Democratic Kampuchea, Lao People'sDemocratic Republic (PDR), Mekong Committee, Thailand, Vietnam, and liaison with the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). In 1984 he was named a Senior Economist in the AENVP's Country Programs Department's Office of the Director (AEADR). Following the 1987 Bank-wide reorganization that combined the AENVP and the South Asia Vice Presidency (ASNVP) into a single Asia Regional Vice Presidency (ASI), Linn became the Lead Economist in the Country Department responsible for Burma, Democratic Republic of Kampuchea, Korea, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Mekong Committee, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam (AS2).

In 1987, Linn was named Staff Director of the World Development Report 1988 (WDR). The WDR focused on public finance policies for development and reviewed trends in this sector in the world economy. He began this work within ASI but appears to have given up many of his responsibilities as Senior Chief Economist of the Region in order to focus on the WDR. In 1988 Linn returned to the research arm of the Bank when he was named Senior Economic Advisor in the Development Economics Vice Presidency (DECVP). He subsequently served as Director of DECVP's International Economics Department (IEC, 1989-1990), which focused on international finance, and trade and, between 1990 and 1991, Director of DECVP's Country Economics Department (CEC), which led country development policy design and analysis activities.

In December of 1991 Linn succeeded Joseph Wood as Vice President of the Financial Policy and Risk Management Vice Presidency (FPRVP) that contained the Risk Management and Financial Policy Department (FRS) and the Resource Mobilization Department (FRM). During this time Linn oversaw various finance-related functions including: financial policy and management; IBRD capital resource mobilization; and IDA replenishment. Linn served in this position for five years.

In 1996 Linn was named Regional Vice President of the Europe and Central Asia Vice Presidency (ECAVP).

Linn remained ECA Vice President until 2003 when he retired from the World Bank after thirty years. He frequently returned to the Bank as a consultant in subsequent years, most often for the ECAVP and the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG).

From 2003 to 2006 Linn was a Visiting Fellow at the Brookings Institution in Washington, DC and beginning in 2005 he served as an Executive Director for the Wolfensohn Center at Brookings. As of 2016 Linn is a Nonresident Senior Fellow in the Global Economy and Development Program at theBrookings Institution where his research focusses on aid effectiveness, global governance reform, and regional cooperation.

Individual Staff Members - Qureshi, Moeen

Moeenuddin (Moeen) Ahmad Qureshi was born in Lahore, Punjab, British India (now Punjab, Pakistan) in 1930. He received a Bachelor's of Arts (Honours) and a Master of Arts in economics from the University of Punjab. Qureshi also received a Ph.D. in economics from Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

Prior to joining the World Bank, Qureshi was employed by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in a variety of senior economic and operational adviser roles from 1958 to 1970. In 1970, Qureshi joined the WorldBank Group's International Finance Corporation (IFC), and served as an Economic Adviser until 1974. Qureshi's subsequent roles in the World Bank Group included:

  • Vice President, IFC, 1974-1977;

  • Executive Vice President, IFC, 1977-1979;

  • Executive Vice President, IFC, and Vice President Finance, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), 1979-1980;

  • Senior Vice President Finance, IBRD, and Executive Vice President, IFC, 1980-1981;

  • Senior Vice President, Finance (SVPFI), 1981-1987; and

  • Senior Vice President, Operations (SVPOP), 1987-1991.

In November 1991, Qureshi retired from the World Bank.

After his retirement from the World Bank, Qureshi co-founded the private equity firm Emerging Markets Partnership (now EMP Global LLC). From July to October 1993, Qureshi served as the interim Prime Minister of Pakistan. He then returned to the United States to continue as Chairman of EMP Global LLC. He died on November 22, 2016 at his home in Washington, D.C.

Individual Staff Members - Rischard, Jean-Francois

Jean-Francois Rischard was born in Luxembourg in 1948. He holds graduate and post-graduate degrees in economics from the University of Aix-Marseille, a law doctorate from the University of Luxembourg, and a Master's in Business Administration from Harvard Business School.

Rischard joined the World Bank Group in 1975 as a Young Professional. In 1976 he became a project officer in the Industrial Projects Department (NDP/IPD/IND) and served in this position for six years. Rischard was responsible for a widerange of activities, including: conducting pre-investment studies; and project appraisal; providing operational support throughout negotiation and administration of loans and credits including procurement and staffing; supervising projects; and monitoring developments in the sector.

In 1982 he joined the Financial Policy and Analysis Department (FPA) as a Senior Financial Analyst; he worked in both the Financial Analysis Division (FPAFA) and the Financial Studies Division (FPAFS). In 1984 he was named theDepartment's division chief for the new Financial Management and Analysis Division (FPAMA). Created in 1980 within the reorganized Finance complex, the FPA was responsible for a variety of activities, including: performing analytical work on Bank financial policies; supporting the Senior Vice President, Finance, in activities such as IDA replenishment negotiations and IBRD capital increases; producing long-term financial projections; assessing and managing financial risks; and providing operational supportin areas involving financial analysis.

Rischard left the Bank in 1986 to join the Wall Street firm of Drexel Burnham Lambert as a Senior Vice-President for International Fixed Income markets.

Rischard rejoined the World Bank Group in 1989 and was appointed Director of the Investment Department (INV) in the Treasury Vice President (TREVP); the unit was responsible for managing the liquid assets of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), International Finance Corporation (IFC), Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), and the trust funds administered by the World Bank. The department included two divisions containing traders who invested in the securities of governments and their agencies, as well as in commercial banks. The department also contained a Systems Department responsible for facilitating the work of the department as well as a new department created by Rischard upon becoming Director that was responsible for developing new products and strategies in support of departmental trading.

In 1993, Rischard became Vice President for the Finance and Private Sector Development Vice Presidency (FPDVP) and oversaw the work of the Financial Sector Development (FSD), Private Sector Development (PSD), and Industry and Energy Sector departments (IEN). While serving as FPDVP, Rischard served as Chairman of the ESMAP Consultative Group, beginning in 1996. Following the Bank-wide reorganization of 1997-98, many of FPD's responsibilities were transferred to the Finance, Private Sector and Infrastructure Network (FPSI) which Rischard briefly led as Vice President of Head of Network.

In 1998, Rischard was named the new Vice President for Europe (EXTEU) which replaced the former Paris Office directorship. Rischard reported to the Vice President for External Affairs (EXT) and was responsible for representing the Bank in Europe and maintaining relationships with European country leaders, the European Union (EU), NGOs, and the private sector.

Rischard formally retired from the World Bank Group in 2005. Following his departure, he provided consultancy services to various units in the Bank, including the World Bank Institute (WBI). He has also been employed as a consultant to governments and companies around the world.

Individual Staff Members -- Ahmed, Masood

Masood Ahmed was born and raised in Pakistan. He obtained graduate and post-graduate degrees from the London School of Economics.

Masood Ahmed's World Bank career began in the World Bank's Young Professionals Program (YPP) in 1979. After 1980, Ahmed served in numerous roles at the World Bank, including: Economist in the Energy Department (EGYDR), 1980-1981; Economist in the Energy Assessment Division (EGYEA), 1981-1982; Senior Economist in the Energy Assessment Division (EGYEA), 1983; Deputy Division Chief in the Energy Assessment Division (EYGEA), 1983-1985; Deputy Division Chief in the Energy Strategy and Pre-Investment Division I (EGYS1), 1985-1986; Deputy Division Chief in the Industrial Development and Finance Companies Division of the Europe, Middle East, and North Africa Projects Department (EMPID), 1986-1987; Division Chief in the Industry and Energy Operations Division of the Europe, Middle East, and North Africa Country Department II (EM2IE), 1987-1991; Division Chief in the International Economic Department Debt and International Finance Division (IECDI), 1991-1993; Director of the International Economic Department (IECDR), 1993-1997; and Vice-President in the Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network (PREM), 1997-2000.

Ahmed's early Bank career included helping to manage and develop the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP), which provided technical assistance for energy development in low and middle income countries. From 1987 to 1991, Ahmed oversaw lending and advisory services for development projects in the Maghreb countries of Northwest Africa. From 1991 to 1993, as a Division Chief in the IEC, Ahmed took part in economic forecasting and policy development related to international capital flows and debt. As IEC Director from 1993 to 1997, Ahmed played a significant policy advisory role to develop the Joint International Monetary Fund and World Bank framework for the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative (HIPC). From 1997 to 2000, Ahmed participated extensively in the creation and implementation of the PREM Network, and continued to serve an important policy advisory role with the Bank's continued involvement with the HIPC Initiative. This includes his contribution in developing the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper approach, which provided heavily indebted countries a comprehensive and country-focused plan in alleviating long-term debt.

Masood Ahmed left the World Bank in January 2000.

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