Industry and Mining Sector

Identity area

Type of entity

Authorized form of name

Industry and Mining Sector

Parallel form(s) of name

Standardized form(s) of name according to other rules

Other form(s) of name

Identifiers for corporate bodies

Description area

Dates of existence


Sector departments were created as part of a World Bank-wide reorganization in 1972. The sector departments were responsible for improving and maintaining the quality of Bank lending and related operations through activities such as: sector policy and guideline development; support and review of operations; recruitment assistance; staff development and training; and liaison with external organizations. Although some departments like the industry sector initially had operational responsibility to identify, prepare, appraise, and supervise projects until a Bank-wide 1987 reorganization, sector departments were generally not responsible for leading project lending operations and member country relations. The Bank's projects and member country relations were the responsibility of Regional Vice Presidencies (RVPs). See the related units of description note below for the location of records relating to World Bank operations and the RVPs.

The Bank's industry sector work began in the Economic Department (createdApril 19, 1948 to September 1952) and the Technical Operations Department (TOD) (September 1952 to January 18, 1965). These departments had similar responsibilities for operational and sector work, providing expertise and assistance for projects and studies. TOD was organized functionally, with sub-units for industry, agriculture, power, transportation and so on. The Bank's industry sector included both manufacturing and mining.

The Bank's first loan supporting industry was a component in the Bank's first loan to France for reconstruction in May 1947. The loan funded the modernization of the steel industry including importing equipment and coal mining equipment. Subsequent industry sector loans in the late 1940s and 1950s were strictly for importing or constructing manufacturing machinery and parts and mining equipment to increase a plants' production output. The Bank did not lend for industrial development projects in the public sector until the late 1960s. Loans were either provided to large private enterprises through the Bank's sister organization, the International Finance Corporation (IFC, established in 1956), to intermediary institutions such as development banks and development finance companies (DFCs) for smaller and medium enterprises, or program loans for financing industrial imports.

The first standalone mining industry projects, Lota Coal Mine Modernization, P006582 and Schwager Coal Mine Modernization, P006583 were approved in July 1957, financing the development of mining facilities in Chile that would reduce costs of production.

1965 - 1972

A reorganization of TOD created the Projects Department (PRJ) on January 18, 1965. PRJ was responsible for the identification, appraisal, and supervision of projects, as well as policy formulation, research, and advice in support of the operational activities of the area departments. A separate industry sector unit, Industry Division (PRJIN), was first articulated in the Bank's organizational chart as a lower division of PRJ. Other divisions subordinate to PRJ were: Agriculture Division (PRJAG); Education Division (PRJED); Transportation Division (PRJTP); and Public Utilities Division (PRJPU). The Industry Division was transferred to IFC on April 19, 1965, and an IFC Engineering Department (FEN) was created, bringing together most Bank division staff connected with industry to join IFC engineers to support IFC projects for industrial enterprises in the private sector, and provide technical advice to the Bank on state-owned industrial projects, as few as they were at that time.

In late 1968, Bank Group President McNamara implemented a significant change in the Bank's lending policies to permit lending to publicly controlled industrial enterprises and DFCs. A year later, the new policy resulted in the transfer of industrial project activities from IFC back to the Bank, which hadbeen providing most of the Bank Group's financing for DFCs. The Bank's Industrial Projects Department (NDP) was created on October 2, 1969, and Hans Fuchs, who previously led the IFC Engineering Department, was appointed director. The department was responsible for expanding Bank lending in the industrial sector and advising developing countries on how to best accelerate their industrial growth. At the time of its creation, NDP had two divisions based on geographical regions: Division I - Asia and Latin America (NDPD1) and Division II - Africa, Europe and Middle East (NDPD2). In February 1972, a third division was created, and all divisions were reorganized along functional lines. The new divisions were: Division I - Economic and Sectoral (NDPD1); Division II - Projects, Mining and Mechanical (NDPD2) and Division III - Projects, Chemical (NDPD3).

In April 1972, the Industry Sector working paper was published, announcing a projected increase in direct financing of manufacturing projects to government owned or controlled companies. The paper also announced the Bank's move into new fields of activity, particularly for "non-industrial" countries: assisting small-scale industry; supporting extension services; and giving technical advice on sector priorities and project identification. The Bank would also plan to concentrate financing to "semi-industrialized" and "industrializing" countries where the infrastructure was sufficiently developed, and the manufacturing sector was sizeable enough to produce external economies. The report outlined the contributions that industrialization could make to economic development, but cautioned that industrialization, especially a concentration on heavy industry, by itself is insufficient, in that in some cases it could aggravate the problem of unemployment by penalizing the farmer, redistributing incomes in favor of manufacturing, and encouraging a mass departure from rural to urban areas.

1972 - 1986

In the October 1972 Bank-wide reorganization, most of the Projects Department staff were dispersed to regional projects departments in newly established Regional Vice Presidencies (RVPs) to more effectively fuse country knowledge and sector skills. With the bulk of operational project work responsibility transferred to the RVPs, this left five departments in the new Central Projects Staff (CPS), the departments of Education, Transportation, Public Utilities, Development Finance Companies, Urban Projects, with a core staff of advisors responsible for operational and development policy, research, operational support and quality control of project and sector work. However, some sectors were too small to decentralize to the Regions and continued to have full responsibility for all operational lending services to the RVPs in addition to the aforementioned activities. These units, known as the central operating project departments (COPDs) of CPS initially included NDP (still the Industrial Projects Department), Population, Tourism, African Development Finance Companies, and Agriculture. NDP was responsible for identifying, preparing, appraising, and supervising projects involving direct loans or credits to large-scale industrial enterprises. Lending to medium and small industries was undertaken through local financial intermediaries and managed by the Industrial Development and Finance Divisions in the regional offices. NDP retained its previous divisions. In July 1974, a Fertilizer Unit (NDPFU) was established in the department to coordinate planning of the Bank's technical and financial assistance for the improvement of supply and use of fertilizer in developing countries and for liaison with related external organizations.

In July 1977, the Bank's Board of Executive Directors approved an expansion of lending for developing fuel and non-fuel mineral resources in developing countries. A detailed five-year program for non-fuel minerals was formulated, identifying priorities for lending and sector work. To implement this program, a Mining and Non-Ferrous Metals Division (IPDD1) was created within the department. This division was focused on hard-rock mining and processing including coal, lignite, and oil shale. The department was given a new acronym, IPD, and by mid-1978, its other divisions were renamed accordingly: Fertilizer, Refining and Other Chemical Industries (IPDD2); Mechanical and Other Industries (IPDD3); Wood Processing, Textiles and Other Industries (IPDD4); and Fertilizer Unit (IPDFU).

During the 1970s and 1980s, the number of large-scale industry projects assisted by IPD increased substantially. Among the most common were manufacturing industry loans for fertilizer, steel, or forest products (pulp and paper) projects; mining of fuel minerals (coal, lignite) and non-fuel minerals (iron ore, coal, phosphate, lignite); and lending for exploration and engineering as prerequisites for mining activities.

In March 1982, the Central Projects Staff (CPS) was restructured into the new Operations Policy (OPS). Within the OPS complex, a vice presidency for Energy and Industry Staff (EIS) was established. EIS combined the two closely related sectors for which private sources of financing were of greater importance. The Energy Department (EGY) and a newly created Industry Department (IND) were led by separate directors that reported to the Office of the Vice President, Energy and Industry (EISVP). Senior Vice President, Operations Policy (SVPOP) Ernest Sternserved as acting vice president, EISVP until fall 1983 with the appointment of Jean-Loup Dherse. Hans Fuch continued as director of IND throughout this period.

IND absorbed the functions of the previous IPD and the Industrial Development and Finance Department (IDF), as well as the Telecommunications Division (TWTTL) of the former Transportation, Water, and Telecommunications Department (TWT). Some staff from the Office of the Vice President, Development Policy (VPD) was also transferred to IND to strengthen its policy and research functions. IND continued to operate as a central operating projects department (COPD), providing the full operational tasks of identifying, preparing, appraising and supervising projects in the industrial sector and telecommunications. Additionally, like other sector departments, it was also responsible for policy formulation and research of industrial and financial sector policy, and sector work.

IDF, created in March 1977 under CPS and formed from the previous Development Finance Companies Department (DFC, 1972 - 1977), had led the Bank's efforts in refocusing industrial economic and sector work on the problems of creating employment and income opportunities in member countries. Its previous responsibilities, now transferred to IND, included: industrial sector work and policy; lending to DFCs; all lending activities and operations to foster the development of small-scale enterprises; creating employment and income opportunities for the non-farming poor; and coordinationof the Bank's cooperative program with the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO).

At the time of its creation in 1982, IND was comprised of the following divisions: Mining and Non-Ferrous Metals (INDD1); Fertilizer, Refining and Other Chemical Industries (INDD2); Construction Materials and Mechanical Industries (INDD3); Wood Processing, Textiles and Other Industries (INDD4); Telecommunications, (INDD5); Policy Analysis Division (INDPA); and Operations Country Support Division (INDSU). The Fertilizer Unit (INDFU) was terminated later in July 1982, its functions transferred to INDD2 and a fertilizer adviser in the Director's Front Office (INDDR). By October 1982, INDPA and INDSU were merged into the Industrial Strategy and Policy Division (INDSP). A small unit, the Incentives and Comparative Advantage (INCA) unit, that was initially established as an applied research project by the Research Committee within IDF was incorporated into INDSP at this time. INCA's responsibilities were to:undertake applied research, including for the development of operational tools; support policy related studies; provide technical assistance and support to the regional operating units of the Bank; and work with the Regions, research institutions or other organizations in member countries to build local capabilities to undertake INCA analysis..

In July 1983, the responsibilities for divisions 3, 4, and 5 were redefined. Project and sector work on construction materials, mechanical, wood processing, and textiles industries were consolidated into Division 3 - Manufacturing Industries and INDD5 became Division 4 - Telecommunications, Electronics and New Technology (INDD4). In addition, two new units were created, one for Energy Conservation (INDEC) which had responsibility for developing a project pipeline in this emerging field, and one for Financial Development (INDFD) which was created in the context of the 1980s debt crisis and turmoil in developing nations' financial sectors and institutions. INDFD carried out policy, research, and review work concerning the financial sector, and coordinated work with financial intermediaries with other sectors, and with other Bank units, IFC, and International Monetary Fund (IMF).

On July 1, 1984, an Industrial Restructuring Unit (INDRE) was established. By January 1985, INDRE and INDEC were merged into the Industrial Restructuring and Efficiency Unit (INDRE) because both units had developed a common multi-industry focus which would make combining their resources more efficient. The Word Processing Unit (INDWP) was also created at this time.

On July 1, 1985, INDRE and INDFD were both upgraded from units to divisions and by December 1985, INDRE's name was shortened to Industrial Restructuring Division. At the start of the following fiscal year, Division 2 - Fertilizer, Refining and Other Chemicals was changed to Fertilizer and Chemical Industries (INDD2).

By 1986, IND consisted of seven divisions. The Mining and Non-Ferrous Materials (INDD1), Fertilizer and Chemical Industries (INDD2), Manufacturing Industries (INDD3), and Telecommunications, Electronics, and New Technology Development (INDD4) divisions were managed by the assistant director, operations while an assistant director, policy presided over the following divisions: Industrial Strategy and Policy (INDSP); Financial Development (INDFD) and Industrial Restructuring (INDRE).

1987 - 1996

On July 1, 1987, a Bank-wide reorganization resulted in the termination of almost all organizationalunits. The industry and mining sectors were relocated into the newly created Sector Policy and Research Vice Presidency (PRE, then PRS). As a result of the reorganization, PRE had no responsibility for managing operational activities. The vice presidency focused on operational support, the formulation of Bank-wide sector policies, and overseeing the ex post evaluation of Bank-wide sector work and lending. The units within the vice presidency concentrated on policy creation and analysis, support for operations, and sectoral research for emerging priority areas of the Bank such as the environment, women in development, and private sector development. Within the PRE Vice Presidency, the energy and industry sectors were merged into the Industry and Energy Department (IEN), led by Director Anthony Churchill. The operational functions of the previous IND were transferred to the regional Technical and Country Departments. The staff and functions of INDFD were transferred to the Financial Policy and Systems Division located in the Country Economics Department (CECFP) of the Development Economics Vice Presidency (DEC).

IEN divisions included: Industry Development (IENIN); Energy Development (IENED); and Energy Strategy, Management and Assessment (IENES).

On December 1, 1991, as part of President Lewis Preston's first reorganization, which abolished all Senior Vice Presidencies, the new Sector and Operations Vice Presidency (OSP) was created, and adopted functions previously supervised by senior vice presidents.

Following the 1991 reorganization, the Industry and Energy Department maintained two previously created divisions, Industry Development (IENIN) and Energy Development (IENED).

The department was responsible for:

  • formulating policies in the energy and industry sectors;

  • developing research priorities and conducting background research necessary to support policy development;

  • strengthening the Bank's intellectual leadership in the sector;

  • providing advice to the regions forthe design of country strategies and sector operations;

  • disseminating research results;

  • conducting an annual review of Bank operations in the sector;

  • developing and maintaining contact with the external community on industry and energy matters.

At some point in 1992, an Industry Sector Board was formed to: discuss issues of concern to the sector and raise attention to management as necessary; and serve as a network for better communications among staff across the Bank Group working inthe sector. Sector Board membership consisted of senior staff including regional advisers, division chiefs including IEN, and representatives from the Operations Evaluation Department (OED) and IFC.

On January 1, 1992, as part of a larger initiative to align the Bank's organization with the priority areas of its poverty reduction effort, the Sector and Operations Policy Vice Presidency was terminated. All research activities were removed from the departments in the Central Vice Presidencies, includingIEN, and were consolidated under the Chief Economist and Vice President for Development Economics (DECVP). The Policy Research Department (PRD) under DECVP became the principal research arm of the Bank; IEN was no longer responsible for energy or industry sector research.

OSP was replaced by three new thematic vice presidencies: Human Resources Development and Operations Policy (HRO), Finance and Private Sector Development (FPD); and Environmentally Sustainable Development (ESD). At the time of its establishment FPD had three subordinate departments:

Financial Sector Development Department (FSD);

Private Sector Development Department (PSD); and

Industry and Energy Department (IEN).

Each Sector Department was responsible for the following:

  • prepare policies, guidelines, standards, handbooks and analytical tools relevant to the sector;

  • identify, codify and disseminate best practices and lessons of experience, and evaluate weaknesses;

  • provide advice to the regions as needed;

  • monitor and track work in the sectors assigned to identify generic issues and identify, evaluate and influence trends and patterns;

  • perform surveys of experience and practice within the Bank and elsewhere, and develop innovative approaches;

  • participate in Bank-wide efforts to assess skill requirements, and to upgrade skills through recruitment, training, orientation, seminars, newsletters, etc.;

  • represent the Bank to external communities of interest;

  • maintain an awareness of relevant external practices and viewpoints.

The reorganization created five divisions within IEN: Power Development, Efficiency and Household Fuels (IENDP); Energy Policy and Strategy (IENEP); Oil and Gas (IENOG); Industry and Mining (IENIM); and Telecommunications and Informatics (IENTI). IENIM was responsible for mineral resource and industrial development issues including assisting client countries to attract private mining investment based on sound legal and fiscal frameworks, and to develop a modern and environmentally sustainable mining industry. Other assistance strategies emphasized development of modern geological databases, privatization of state mining enterprises, and regularization of small-scale and artisanal mining. IENTI was the technical arm of the Bank responsible for issues related to information infrastructure, which entailed: assisting countries with reforms to promote private investment; ensuring application of infrastructure such as distance education or health service delivery; providing connectivity to the poor, particularly rural and peri-urban areas; and technology for government service. Responsibilities of the energy sector units are outlined in the Energy Sector fonds.

Key initiatives of the industry units in the early to mid-1990s included the policy paper, Fundamental Issues and Policy Approaches in Industrial Restructuring published in 1992 and the jointly sponsored Conference on Development, Environment and Mining held in Washington, DC in June 1994. The conference, organized in partnership with the International Council on Metals and the Environment, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), was organized to discuss how mining could contribute to economic development and be compatible with environmentally sustainable development inunison. Two years later, in June 1996, a Bank roundtable on the Clean Coal Initiative for industry and governments was hosted by IENIM. The roundtable concluded with the aim of building a global partnership with client countries and public and private stakeholders to support and stimulate reforms to improve the efficiency and environmental performance of coal by studying the coal-energy chain in coal-dominant countries and mechanisms for financing.

1997 - 2014

Three years later, in 1997, the thematic Vice Presidencies were reorganized by World Bank Group President James D. Wolfensohn to strike a better balance between country focus and sectoral excellence. To facilitate sharing of expertise and knowledge, the Bank established Networks that linked Bank-wide communities of staff working in the same field across organizational boundaries and with external partners. The networks formed a virtual overlay on the existing Bank organization and were intended to link staff working in the same sectors throughout the Bank, whether the staff was in the Regions, in the Central Vice Presidencies' Sectoral Departments, or other vice presidencies.

Each of the three thematic Central Vice Presidencies were transformed into the central units, or anchors, of each Network and were embodied in the existing Sector Departments. On a Bank-wide basis, sector specialists were grouped into regional sector units or into central Sector Departments which worked with country departments in a matrix relationship.

Each Network Anchor had a Network Council to oversee the entire network, and sector boards covering the individual sectors within a network. The Network Council was composed of the top network managers from each region and was responsible for setting the overall agenda for the network and for promoting the effective deployment of skills across network units. Sector Boards brought together the sector leaders from each region and from the Central Vice Presidencies. Staff from the central Sector Departments could become part of the regional operational teams when their sectoral expertise was required. The work programs of network staff focused on:

  • global knowledge - putting the best development knowledge in the hands of Bank task teams; ensuring that the knowledge base was accessible to external clients; and contributing to the growth of the knowledge base;

  • enhanced skills - developing and providing content to training courses; establishing professional and technical standards for professional development;

  • shared strategies - assisting regional and central units to develop a common sector agenda and ensuring that skills are effectively deployed across the entire network. Network leadership assumed responsibility for global programs, sector strategy development and evaluation, strategic partnerships, and learning and dissemination;

  • best teams and best practices - improving the Bank's flexibility and mobility by building stronger task teams and delivering higher quality products;

  • institutional initiatives - providing substantial support for new Bank-wide initiatives, such as Social Development, Rural Development, Financial Sector, Anti-corruption, Human Resources, and Knowledge Partnerships.

The next five years following the Bank-wide 1997 reorganization were marked by a series of Bank Group organizational changes and transfers of certain sectors and subsectors. As part of the 1997 reorganization, FPD was terminated and replaced with the Finance, Private Sector Development and Infrastructure Network (FPSI). The FSD, PSD and IEN departments were transferred to FPSI, joining the new Transportation, Water, and Urban Development Department (TWU). James Bond was appointed IEN director and chair of the Energy and Mining Sector Board. By January 1998, IEN units were each led by a manager and included: Energy (IENDP), Industry and Mining (IENIM), Oil and Gas (IENOG), and Telecommunications and Informatics (IENTI). The ESMAP and InfoDev programs were also functional responsibilities of IEN, and each ledby a manager. IEN's name changed to Energy, Mining and Telecommunications Department in late 1997 or early 1998 but its acronym did not change to EMT until several months later.

In early 1999, President Wolfensohn announced the need for greater integration of Bank operations and its IFC affiliate, which specialized in private sector development advisory and investment services. As a result, in February 1999, FPSI was terminated in place of the joint World Bank and IFC Private Sector Development and Infrastructure Development Vice Presidency (PSIVP). Functions and staff from PSD, EMT, and TWU departments of FPSI were transferred to the new PSIVP and the Project Finance and Guarantees Department (PFG) was also mapped in to PSIVP. EMT industry and mining functions were organized into the Industry and Mining Unit (EMTIM) alongside the Energy Unit (EMTEG), Oil and Gas Unit (EMTOG), Telecommunications and Informatics (EMTTI), Information for Development Administration (EMTIN), and ESMAP (EMTES), all reporting to the Office of the Director (EMTDR).

In January 2000, to improve the effectiveness of private sector development work, IFC and Bank departments were combined in selected global industry product groups. PSD and parts of EMT were mapped into the newly established product groups, or joint departments, that integrated Bank and IFC business activities. For the first time since 1982, the sectors of industry, mining, and telecommunications and informatics that had remained together under the same department or division, became separate departments. The joint Bank/IFC departments reported to both PSIVP and IFC Vice President, Operations and included the following units: Private Sector Advisory Services (PSAS); Small and Medium Enterprise Department (SME); the Oil, Gas, and Chemicals Department (COC); the Global Information and Communications Technologies Department (CIT); and the Mining Department (CMN).

In 2002, CMN was merged with COC to form the new Oil, Gas, Mining, and Chemicals Department (COC) inPSIVP as an efficiency and cost-saving measure. COC continued to be led by Director Rashad-Rudolf Kaldany under the previous reporting structure. COC comprised the following six units each headed by a manager: IFC Oil and Gas Division (COCD1); Investment Division (IFC Mining, [COCIN]); IFC Chemicals Division (COCD2); Portfolio and Credit Review Division (COCCP); Policy Division, IBRD Oil and Gas (COCPO); and Policy Division, IBRD Industry and Mining (COCPD). In May 2003, a subsequent reorganization terminated PSIVP and split its functions and staff among the new joint IFC and World Bank Private Sector Development Vice Presidency (PSDVP) and the Bank's Infrastructure Network (INF). COC, CIT, EWD, and TUD were mapped into the Bank's INF Network. By 2005, COC units were: Mining (COCIN); Chemicals (COCD2); Portfolio and Credit Review (COCCP); and Policy Division, IBRD Oil, Gas and Mining (COCPO).

In the early 2000s, the joint Bank Group units participated in a major initiative concerning extractive industries. In June 2000, at the Annual Meeting in Prague, President Wolfensohn responded to criticism from the nongovernmental community about Bank Group involvement in extractive industries with a pledge to review the Bank Group's role in this sector. The Extractive Industries Review (EIR) was initiated in July 2001 with the appointment of Dr. Emil Salim, former minister of the Environment for Indonesia, to lead the review. EIR examined Bank Group activities in the oil, gas, and mining sector, collaboration between sister organizations, and whether the Bank Group's involvement in the extractive industries was consistent with its goals of alleviating poverty through sustainable development. Activities of the review included multi-stakeholder consultations across broad groups worldwide, regional workshops, six research projects, project site visits, information consultations, and attendance at conferences. The final report of the review was published in December 2003 under the title, "Striking A Better Balance: The World Bank Group and Extractive Industries". The report reaffirmed the mandate for Bank Group activities in these sectors with recommended measures to implement and enhanced focus on community development. As the EIR report was being prepared, the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), was launched in 2003. A year later, an EITI multi-donor trust fund was set up to help countries aligntheir systems with the requirements of EITI and was managed by COC.

In June 2006, President Wolfowitz announced the consolidation of the former ESSD and INF Vice Presidencies into the Sustainable Development Network (SDN) with the objective of mainstreaming environmental issues, improving synergies, better integrating core operations, and strengthening focus on sustainability. SDN was operational on January 1, 2007. The aim of the network integration in relation to the energy sector was to:

  • treat water issues more broadly by building water resource management strategies that cover agriculture, rural and urban dimensions, while linking these with energy and environment concerns;

  • integrate more systematically rural development approaches in energy, transport, or ICT projects;

  • develop a holistic approach to climate change mitigation and adaptation, expanding the work on the clean energy investment agenda.

At this time, energy and water functions were combined with the transport sector to form the Energy, Transport and Water Department (ETW) in the new SDN. The energy units from the previous reorganization remained in ETW and only reflected a change in acronym: Energy Unit (ETWEN) and ESMAP (ETWES). COC was also moved to SDN. By September 2008, the four units under COC were: Chemicals, and Oil and Gas (COCD2); Mining (COCIN); Policy and Reform, Oil, Gas and Mining (COCPO); and Portfolio and Credit Review (COCCP).

In September 2010, restructuring of SDN separated the energy function from transport and water. SDN departments were as follows: Sustainable Energy (SEG); Transport, Water, and Information and Communication Technologies (TWI); Environment Department (ENV); Agricultural and Rural Development Department (ARD); Concessional and Sub-National Finance (CSF); Finance, Economics and Urban Development (FEU); and Social Development (SDV);

SEG was led by Director Subramaniam V. (Vijay) Iyer, appointed in 2011. The priorities of the director were to: (i) provide strategic leadershipand direction for the Bank Group's newly integrated sustainable energy and mining practice; (ii) provide leadership for the World Bank Group's Sustainable Energy Strategy, which will support access to clean, efficient, reliable and affordable energy; and (iii) in the context of the emerging global Bank, enhance the alignment of the SDN network to support the green growth and knowledge agenda, skills and mobility of staff and the development of a strong energy and mining practice, well integrated with othersectors. Subordinate units of SEG included: Energy Unit (SEGEN), Oil, Gas, Mining Division (SEGOM), ESMAP (SEGES), and Extractive Industries (SEGEI). SEGOM was reorganized from the former COCPO, no longer a formal joint Bank/IFC unit, although "dotted line" links in the organization chart remained with the IFC oil and mining group.

A key publication of SEGOM during this period was a study titled "Increasing Local Procurement by the Mining Industry in West Africa". The study, published in February 2012, established that raising the share of local procurement by mining companies would spread the benefits of mining more evenly across a country's economy, creating jobs and stimulating the sustainable development of local enterprises.


On July 1, 2014, a Bank-wide reorganization introduced by President Jim Yong Kim restructured the Bank into fourteen Global Practices (GPs) and five Cross-Cutting Solution Areas (CCSAs). Sector staff from the RVPs were removed and placed in the GPs or CCSAs. The GPs were responsible for each of the major thematic areas that the Bank supports through projects. Each GP also functions as a vertical pillar of technical expertise. Responsibilities of the GP include:

  • defining the strategic direction and the Bank's work in the energy and extractives sectors;

  • providing reliable electricity to the unserved and inadequately served people of the world;

  • developing and deploying expertise globally;

*delivering comprehensive solutions to client countries through environmentally and socially sustainable approaches;

  • capturing and leveraging knowledge in the energy and extractives industry.

SEG, established from the 2010 restructuring, now became Energy and Extractives Global Practice or EEX GP (GEEDR) reporting to the Sustainable Development Practice Group Vice Presidency (GGSVP), along with the GPs of Agriculture, Environment and Natural Resources, Social, Urban, Rural and Resilience, and Transport and ICT.

Anita M. George was appointed senior director, EEX GP and Charles M. Feinstein, director. The senior director continued to lead the Sector Board. EEX GP practice managers reporting to the director were responsible for the following units divided into Energy GP Africa 1 (GEE01), Energy GP East Asia and the Pacific (GEE02), Energy GP Europe and Central Asia (GEE03), Energy GP Latin America and Caribbean (GEE04), Energy GP MNA (GEE05), Energy GP South Asia (GEE06), GP Africa 2 (GEE07), Energy and Extractives Department 1 (GEED1), Energy and Extractives Department 2 (GEED2), Energy and Extractives, and Energy Sector Management Assistance (GEEES).

Past sector directors or leaders:

1969 - 1983 Hans Fuchs (director, NDP later IPD, IND)

1983 - 1984 Chauncey F. Dewey (acting)

1984 - 1987 Amnon Golan (director, IND)

1987 - 1993 Anthony A. Churchill (director, IEN)

1993 - 1997 Richard D. Stern (director, IEN)

1997 - 2000 James P. Bond (director, IEN later EMT)

2011 - 2014 Subramaniam V. (Vijay) Iyer (director, SEG)

2014 - 2016 Anita M. George (senior director, EEX GP)

2016 - 2020 Riccardo Puliti (senior director, EEX GP)

Joint IFC/World Bank Department directors:

2000 - 2002 James Bond, director, Mining Department (CMN)

2002 - 2007 Rashad-Rudolf Kaldany, director Oil, Gas, Mining and Chemicals Department (COC)

2007 - 2010 Somit Varma, director COC


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