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Personal papers of Gloria Davis Reeks
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Indonesia transmigration notebooks

This series consists of notebooks that Davis kept or obtained during surveys of villages in Indonesia involved in transmigration. The first five notebooks relate to villages that she studied for her Ph.D. dissertation, of which the first four are Davis' notes and the fifth is a report written to her.

The next four notebooks are numbered, and the last is annotated very rapid general survey please hold and return. The second notebook is dated 12-3-78, giving the date for the survey. Each reports survey data from the villages of Pulung Kencana, Candra Kencana, Penumangan, Panaragan Jaya, Tara Karya, Bangun Sari, Sidomukti, Purbasakri, Makari, Marga Mulyo, Daya Sakri and Daya Murni. The names of the persons interviewed are not included. The data are date of arrival, originally from, type of migration, how many people were at home and how many migrated, what property is owned here and what property in Java, what type of house, occupation in Java, money brought from Java when migrating, number of times returned to Java, number of people who followed you here, and questions about the land given and purchased, crops grown and productivity of farm, fertilizer use, off-farm work, income here and in Java, expectations as against reality, and biggest difficulty.

The third set of notebooks are numbered 1-5 and labeled Unit Desa I (3 volumes) and Unit Desa II (2 volumes). They contain the same type of data as the second set of notebooks. These villages were organized by blok; in village I the bloks had letters for identification (for example, Blok E) while in the second village the bloks carried both a letter and the numeral II (Blok C II). In these surveys the name of the family surveyed is included.

Finally, 1 notebook marked Way Abung Apr. May 1978 Baturaja Mar 78? and 1 notebook marked Sitiung contain lists of variables and codes to be used in analyzing data.

Fiji economic mission

Gloria Davis was a member of the June 1984 World Bank economic survey mission to Fiji, and this series is the set of subject files she compiled before and during the mission. The files contain correspondence, notes she took while in Fiji and while doing research, drafts, schedules, and information obtained from other Bank missions and from governments with projects in Fiji. At the end of the subject files is the draft report she wrote following the mission, Fiji: Equity Issues and Rural Development. Also included are two files of background information.

Although this series is small, Davis assembled a quantity of grey literature on Fiji that makes it a useful supplement to research on Fiji in the 1970s and early 1980s.

Writings not by Gloria Davis

This series contains writings, primarily on Indonesian topics, that were given to Gloria Davis by their authors. Both published and unpublished items are included. Some are papers that were presented at conferences; others are student papers, theses, and dissertations; many are reprints from journals. A few have annotations. The series concludes with the papers from the International Seminar on Settlement Concept as an Integrated Part of Regional and Rural Development, August 23-28, 1987, which Davis maintained as a set.

Indonesia project and research reports (English)

Each project, whether funded by the World Bank or by other donors, requires formal reports. In addition, research reports on Indonesia published by various institutions were obtained by Gloria Davis as background to her work on Indonesia, including a few pre-publication versions.

This series contains project and research reports in English; Bahasa language reports are in a separate series. The first section includes reports from the Government of Indonesia and reports to it by its contractors. The second section has reports of research undertaken by Indonesian institutions. Of particular interest are the reports of a Bogor Agricultural University project established in 1977 to do long term social-economic monitoring of the two transmigration settlements of Batu Marta, South Sumatra, and Way Abung, North Lampung. The third section has reports from projects undertaken by a foreign government, the fourth section has reports from projects and research undertaken by international institutions., and the finalsection contains reports by research institutions outside Indonesia.

Correspondence file

The series appears to have been established by Davis when she began work at the World Bank. It contains incoming letters and memoranda, almost all relating to Indonesia, some mission reports, notes, and drafts of working papers by Davis and others. Documents from the Government of Indonesia are found in the file, primarily as duplicate copies.

The file begins in 1978, but the heart of the series is the period after the completion of the World Bank's transmigration program review in Indonesia (published in 1981) and leading up to the publication of the Bank's transmigration sector review in 1986. The records provide a good overview of the steps in preparing a major sector review, from the first memos in 1984 outlining the possible topics to be covered, through the data collection phases and statistical analyses, to the drafting and review within the Bank, to the final publication.

Edited conference volume

A Conference on Indonesian Culture was held at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, July 3 through August 3, 1976. Gloria Davis edited the papers from the conference for publication in 1979 as :What Is Modern Indonesia Culture? in Ohio University's Southeast Asia Series. The series consists of the conference papers, with editorial changes, sometimes in several versions. Also included is some correspondence with the authors. The publication is not included.

Dissertation and data collection sheets

Gloria Davis completed her Ph.D. in anthropology at Stanford University in 1976 with a dissertation titled, Parigi: A Social History of the Balinese Movement to Central Sulawesi, 1907-1974. The series consists of a copy of the dissertation and the data sheets that Davis compiled in preparing it.

As Davis describes in the introduction to the dissertation, In early 1973 I began a systematic census of the migrant area [Parigi, central Sulawesi], followed by a detailed questionnaire administered to 1,000 migrants. In this effort I was assisted by a number of school teachers in the various villages, and also by two assistants . . . who together administered about one-half the questionnaires and coded and compiled all the results. In early 1974 the three of us returned to Bali and gave the same questionnaire to 500 Balinese from sending areas for migrants in Sulawesi. The original questionnaires, filled out by hand and including the name of the person interviewed and the location, make up the series. Nine groups were surveyed in Sulawesi and six in Bali. Within each group, each survey sheet was numbered, and they are in numerical order. Appendix B of the dissertation provides an English translation of the survey form.

Because of the completeness of the survey data, the data sheets are an important resource for persons interested in tracing communities, families, or individuals in the survey area; reviewing the early stages of the transmigration program in Indonesia; or replicating the survey.

Subject files

In 1993 Gloria Davis became the chief of the World Bank's Social Policy and Resettlement Division and in 1997 she became the director of the Department of Social Policy. In these positions she directed studies, authored papers, and participated in major Bank task forces and initiatives. This series of files is organized by subject, principally around major topics in social policy. Within each subject the files are chronological and often include background materials used for studies and drafts at various stages of the writing process.

These files are a rich resource for the study of the social policy debate within the Bank. Through the drafts and comments on them, the user can see the varied influences on the final version of a study and the role that Davis played in the outcome. Because many of the topics overlapped, a researcher interested in one topic might find very useful information in another subject file on a related topic.

Clusters of files are found around topics that were the focus of a working group or task force in which Davis participated; see, for example, the files on participation in development by local communities, on safeguards, and on the fiftieth anniversary of the World Bank. In early 1996 the Bank formed a Task Group on Social Development, which had ten satellite groups to work on specific areas. Davis was a member of the Task Group and deeply involved in the work of the satellite group on social capital. The main files are Task Group on Social Development, with additional files under Social capital - Correspondence. The files include printed email messages, drafts, and background information shared among the group members.

During 2001 and 2003, Davis was one of the representatives of the Bank on a collaborative effort by the African Development Bank, the Asian Development Bank, the European Investment Bank, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the Inter-American Development Bank, and the International Finance Corporation and the World Bank to develop a common framework for environmental impact assessment. The group developed a report, A Common Framework: Converging Requirements of Multilateral Financial institutions. The series includes meeting agendas, draft papers, and comments by World Bank staff members on the harmonization effort.

Another set of files are those Davis assembled when writing her major study, History of the Social Development Network in the World Bank, 1973-2002. For this work she pulled together materials from the 1970s to the present,often in copies but sometimes in originals. The files on the history contain correspondence from readers of drafts or persons to whom she directed questions; in addition, many of the items listed in the annex to the History can be found scattered throughout this series.

In addition, Davis retained her lifelong interest in Indonesia, and a small amount of material on Indonesia is also found in the series, both as a separate subject and in areas such as Social capital. Local level institutions study, which looked intensively at institutions in Indonesia.

Any researcher interested in the development of the social policy in the Bank will find these records useful, particularly those on the Task Force and on the history Davis wrote of social development in the Bank.

Indonesia project and research reports (Bahasa)

This series contains project and research reports on Indonesia that were prepared by or for the Government of Indonesia or as part of the regular work of an Indonesian institution. A few are pre-publication versions. They were obtained by Gloria Davis as background for her work on Indonesia.

In a few cases Gloria Davis obtained part of a series of reports in English and part in Bahasa; see, for example, the Survey Agro Ekonomi where working papers 8, 9 and 11 are English and the rest of the seriesis in Bahasa. Similarly, the early monitoring reports of the Baturaja and Way Abung monitoring by Institut Pertanian Bogor are in English, but the draft final reports are in Bahasa.

Indonesia transmigration program subject file

The first Indonesian transmigration program that the World Bank financed (Transmigration I) involved the areas of Baturaja and Way Abung. Transmigration II involved the areas of Rimbo Bujang, Alai Hilir, and Singkut along the trans-Sumtra highway in Jambi province. The files in this series are primarily on those locations, with additional files on topics such as cassava and land tenure. Davis incorporated in the files documents from her previous work on Indonesia, such as a bibliography from 1972, and writings from other Indonesia specialists that she used. The files Baturaja - Way Abung Computer Analysis and Notes include notes that Davis made in 1976.

Some interview notes are included, as are maps, documents from the Government of Indonesia, reports from consultants, and a draft of Beyond Subsistence: A Report on the Agricultural Economies of Way Abung and Baturaja, a study prepared by Davis. The Way Abung file includes summaries based on a brief survey of 240 informants in 12 WA villages and supplementary material from a report from IPB Bogor based on interviews with 90 migrant families. A survey was conducted in the Rimbobujang area, and the files contain information, data, and analysis from that survey.

While most of the files relate to the geographic areas included in the transmigration program review that was conducted between 1979 and 1981, the series also includes a file on a review of the North Sumatra smallholder development project. At the end of the series is a file containing progress reports 3 through 10 on the South Sumatra and Lampung Transmigration and Rural Development Project, prepared for the Government of Indonesia by its consultants.

The files are useful for an historical perspective on the villages and areas where transmigration occurred.

Personal file

The series appears to have been established by Davis when she began work at the World Bank, although it incorporates two papers that she wrote before coming to the Bank. Each file is titled with her name, the subject of the document it contains and usually a date. A file of drafts, primarily of papers Davis wrote in the 1970s, was added to the subject files.

Most of these items are memos or reports written by Davis during her first years at the Bank. They all concern Indonesia, and in them Davis' voiceand opinions are clearly expressed. Particularly interesting are notes she wrote following a visit to Saimen in August 1978, reporting on what residents told her about the Kali Tapan demonstration project.

Indonesia maps and charts

This series principally contains maps, but it also includes some oversize organization charts and schematic drawings. Approximately half are commercial maps of Indonesia, the remainder are maps created for projects funded by the Bank. Some project maps are hand colored or annotated.

The maps are extremely useful for studying the Bank funded transmigration projects, particularly the surveys undertaken in 1978 and 1979.

Indonesia projects file

In addition to the large program review of the Indonesia transmigration projects and the later review of the entire transmigration sector, Gloria Davis was involved with or closely followed other projects in Indonesia. This series consists of files on the Second Swamp Reclamation project, a Transmigration Income Survey project, the UN Development Program's Bank-funded Transmigration Management and Monitoring Service Project, and UN Food and Agriculture Organization/World Food Program projects. The files include correspondence, reports, survey forms, drafts, copies of contracts, and work plans.

The three files on the UNDP program are helpful to understand the background of the monitoring service. By 1979 the Bank and other funders were concerned that the transmigration project had grown beyond the capacities of the Government of Indonesia's current management structure. The Bank agreed that the Government could use $2 million of the funds already lent to the Government to establish a monitoring project; UNDP provided a grant of $1.5 million; and the Government of Indonesia made a contribution, all of which funds would be administered by UNDP which would contract with a management firm to provide assistance to the Junior Minister of Transmigration to improve the management of the overall transmigration program and to assist in establishing procedures and training for the staff and establish a system for monitoring and evaluating the development of and benefits of the Transmigration II project. In 1980 the firm of Resources Management, International, was awarded the contract. Gloria Davis was involved in the negotiations for the monitoring program, and reports on the program are found in her file of project and research reports and other correspondence on the monitoring project is found in the correspondence file.

Files regarding revision of the International Finance Corporation's safeguard policy

In 2004 Gloria Davis assisted the International Finance Corporation (IFC) in its review of its environmental and social safeguard policies. This review was triggered by the findings of the 2003 report by the IFC's Compliance Advisor and Ombudsman on the implementation and impact of the IFC's safeguard policies.

The series includes notes from meetings, drafts, printouts of email, and background materials.

Indonesia transmigration program - data and statistics

This series consists of the original data sheets, coded tabulations, and computer analyses from surveys in the areas involved in the first two transmigration projects funded by the World Bank, including Way Abung, Rimbo Bujang, Singkut, Sitiung, Upang, and villages designated only by unit number.

The first group, labeled Data sheets - Original Sit, Up & RB forms, consists of 3-page, 7-part completed interview forms in ten villages identified as Unit I through Unit X. Part 1 of the form gives basic demographic information, part 2 is on agricultural land provided by the government, part 3 is use of other land, part 4 is on water, part 5 on agricultural production (crop yields), part 6 is agricultural inputs, and part 7 is possessions. Names are not included. The survey was taken after May 1978 (the latest date recorded for arrival of migrants) and before the coding was done in September 1978. Included are the coding sheets and data analysis.

The second group of survey data sheets is from 1979. The survey covered the villages of Bataraja-Matapura, Sitiung, Upang, and Way Abung. The folder containing the Upang forms is marked Delta data collected June 79. The form used had 2 pages and asked many of the same questions as the 1978 form. After the initial section of demographic information, there are sections on agricultural land, agricultural production, agricultural inputs, house type, property (agricultural and personal), and information about returns made to Java, comparison of income in Java and in current location, expectations and reality, and problems encountered.

The 1979 data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) computer program. There are cross-tabulations for all villages or a subset of villages, variables broken down by village, and Pearson correlation coefficients.

In 1983, the project completion review team for the Bank's Transmigration I project, led by Gloria Davis, requested that a census of village units be conducted in village units V, VI, VII, VIII,IX, X and XI of Batumarta and Units XII and XII of the Transmigration I extension area. The data was to be collected on about 200 families. The 1979 form was used. No analysis of the data is included.

Because the survey forms appear to be complete, they could serve as a baseline for further analytical work in the same villages.

Indonesia transmigration sector review files

In September 1984 the Bank began preparing for a review of the entire Indonesian transmigration sector. Gloria Davis led the sector review, and she and two colleagues went to Indonesia in November 1984 on the initiating mission. The final report of the sector review was published on October 24, 1986.

The series consists of a few files arranged by topic, followed by computer printouts of statistical analysis concerning population projections and working files of data and analysis. The working files include information from previous World Bank studies. The series concludes with data and statistics from the Government of Indonesia, primarily dating from 1982 to 1985 but including two items from 1976. Related items from the Government of Indonesia from this period are found in the series of Indonesia project and research reports (Bahasa), and correspondence about the review is found in the correspondence files.