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This fonds contains the records of the World Bank Group units responsible for donor-based resource mobilization functions related to cofinancing, trust funds, and International Development Agency (IDA) replenishments. The fonds does not include records related to the Bank's traditional resource mobilization efforts of acquiring IBRD financing through the world's financial markets because the function does not share a provenance with the units described. This administrative history describes the provenance of the administrative units for cofinancing, trust funds, and IDA replenishments separately. After 1996, the functions merged under one vice presidency. As a consequence, the post-1996 section focuses on all functions together.
Cofinancing is defined as additional funding sought by borrowing member countries from external sources outside of the World Bank. Cofinancing is meant to supplement funding resources provided by the World Bank (e.g. IBRD/IDA loans, credits, and grants), which may fall short of the funding needs for projects and programs associated with a borrowing member country. Cofinancing funding is sought by the Bank and its member countries from the following external official and private sources: agencies or government departments administrating bilateral development programs; multilateral agencies such as regional development banks; export credit agencies; and commercial banks. Cofinance funding is administered through two types of financing methods: 1) parallel cofinancing, in which the Bank and cofinanciers finance different goods and services or parts of the project; and 2) joint cofinancing, in which the Bank and cofinanciers finance expenditures from a common list of goods and services in agreed proportions, which adhere to the Bank's procurement guidelines. Cofinancing activities were developed in the Bank to help mobilize additional funding for sector-oriented programs and projects, fill funding gaps, and also foster greater international coordination to respond more rapidly to global macro-economic crises.
The first use of cofinancing in Bank operations was a joint cofinancing agreement drafted for the Mexico Power Sector Program in 1966. Initial Bank loans fell short of financing needs for projects under this program, so external funding sources were sought and renegotiated by members of the Bank's Loan Committee, cofinanciers, and the Government of Mexico. Similar agreements were negotiated thereafter for other programs and projects, including a parallel cofinancing agreement negotiated between the Bank, cofinanciers, and the Brazilian Government related to steel industry projects in 1971.
The use of cofinancing to mobilize resources significantly increased in World Bank operations during the oil and energy crisis that began in 1973. In this period, Arab/OPEC multilateral institutions emerged as a primary contributor for providing cofinancing sources. Newly founded regional multilateral institutions such as the Inter-American Development Bank, the Asian Development Bank, and the African Development Bank also emerged as valuable multilateral cofinancing partners.
In 1975, the Bank's cofinancing functions were formalized with the establishment of the Senior Adviser for cofinancing in the Front Office for the Senior Vice President of Operations (SVPOP). Regional Cofinancing Coordinators (RCC) were also established in the six Regional Vice Presidencies (RVP). The Senior Adviser for Cofinancing took lead responsibility in Bank-wide overall planning, policy making, communication, coordination, and monitoring of cofinancing operations. The RCCs were given line responsibilities of identifying operations to be cofinanced and arranging cofinancing with official sources in the Regional Programs Departments (RPD). The RCCs were also responsible for arranging cofinancing with export credit and commercial banking sources for the Regional Projects Departments. Roger Hornstein served as the Senior Adviser for Cofinancing.
In 1981, Frank Vibert succeeded Roger Hornstein as Senior Adviserfor Cofinancing in the SVPOP Front Office.
Demand for cofinancing sources grew in the late 1970s and the early 1980s with the ongoing oil crisis and emerging debt crisis. This demand strained the limited cofinancing operations in the Bank. As a result, the Vice President of Cofinancing (VPCOF) was established in May 1983. Teruyuki Ohuchi served as Vice President for VPCOF. The new VPCOF reported to the Senior Vice President, Operations (SVPOP). The VPCOF was created to strengthen and expand the Bank's cofinancing operations as a means to maintain and increase international capital flows to developing countries in times of constrained financial resources. The RPD retained line responsibilities for identifying and arranging cofinancing and also for arranging cofinancing for commercial and export credit sources. A new Regional Cofinancing Advisor was also established who would have functional control for cofinancing activities in the Region. The VPCOF was given responsibilities for:
- maintaining top-level contacts and promotion with cofinanciers;
- developing new cofinancing tools; and
- planning, coordinating, and monitoring the Bank's overall cofinancing program.
The VPCOF included the subordinate Cofinancing Advisory Unit (VPCAU), which was staffed by cofinancing advisers with expertise in commercial banking, export credits, and official financial sources.
During the establishment of VPCOF, the Japanese government emerged as the largest cofinancing contributor to the Bank by launching a number of cofinancing programs through the Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund (OECF), Japan's development aid agency, as well as the Export-Import Bank of Japan (UEXIM). This marked the beginning of strong Japanese leadership in the Bank's cofinancing operations, which extended from the 1980s into the early 2000s.
In 1983, the Bank's "B-Loan" program was launched to expand private cofinancing efforts and channel commercial bank resources to Bank operations. Shortly after, multilateral, bilateral, and export credit agency cofinancing programs were launched as part of the Japanese Grant Facility (JGF, later renamed the Japanese Policy and Human Resources Development [PHRD] Fund). In 1985, the multi-country official cofinancing (bilateral and multilateral) programs, the Special Facility for Sub-Saharan Africa (SFA) and the Consultant Trust Fund (CTF) Program, were launched.
In June 1986, Teruyuki Ohuchi was succeeded by Kunihiko Inakage as Vice President for VPCOF. In the May 1987 Reorganization, the Cofinancing Vice Presidency remained structurally unchanged but new acronyms were assigned to the Office of the Vice President (COFVP) and to the Cofinancing Advisory Unit (COFAU).
In June 1989, the COFVP was terminated and its functions were combined with the former Vice President of Financial Intermediation (VPFIS). This merger broadened cofinancing functions to include technical assistance in debt management and resource mobilization. The new combined VP was renamed the Vice President of Financial Intermediation and Cofinancing (CFSVP). The CFSVP reported to the Senior Vice President, Operations (OPNSV). CFSVP responsibilities included:
- assisting member countries in restructuring debt;
- assisting member countries with deregulation, public sector restructuring and privatization;
- advising member countries on management of their foreign financial assets and liabilities;
- procuring cofinancing arrangements from commercial and public sources;
- developing a Bank-wide strategy and capability for dealing with privatization requests; and
- developing new lending products to mobilize financial resources in commercial markets.
At the time of its establishment, the CFS had one subordinate unit, the Cofinancing and Financial Advisory Services Department (CFS), which incorporated the financial engineering functions of the former Debt Management and Financial Advisory Department (DFS) formerly located in the Vice President of Financial Intermediation (VPFIS), as well as most of the staff of the former CofinancingVice Presidency (COFVP). CFS consisted of the following units: the Cofinancing Group (CFSCO); the Financial Advisory Services Group (CFSFA); and the Private Sector Development Group (CFSPS). The CFSVP was also supported by a Front Office consisting of advisers in the following areas: commercial finance; official sources; export credits; and banking institutions.
Koji Kashiwaya assumed the role of Vice President for the new CFSVP.
In late 1989, the CFSPS was transferred from the Cofinancing and AdvisoryServices Department (CFS) to the Front Office of the CFSVP. In December 1990, the CFS Department was restructured, splitting the CFSCO into the new Official Cofinancing Group (CFSOC), and the new Private Cofinancing Group (CFSPC). In this same year, the Expanded Cofinancing Operation (ECO) program replaced the "B-Loan" program.
In 1990, the CFSVP was renamed the Vice President of Cofinancing and Advisory Services (CFSVP).
In February 1992, the CFSVP underwent a comprehensive reorganization to strengthen private sector development work and streamline the process of financial resource mobilization. This entailed building up the cofinancing and financial advisory capabilities in the regional Country Departments, which were given primary responsibility for implementing private sector development programs, and a consolidation of CFSVP's subordinate units. Specific responsibilities included:
- mobilizing official and private equity financing to cofinance Bank supported projects;
- managing and reducing the external debt of heavily indebted countries;
- developing programs for public enterprise divestiture;
- restructuring and privatizing of specific major public enterprises; and
- developing new approaches to attract private sector investment into major infrastructure projects.
The CFSVP restructuring included the merging of CFSPC and CFSPS, as well as some of the functions of the CFSFA, to create the new Private Sector Finance and Advisory Services Group (CFSPS). The responsibilities of the former CFSOC were also redefined and the unit was renamed the Official Cofinancing and Trust Fund Management Group (CFSOC). The remaining functions of CFSFA created the new Project Finance Group (CFSPF).
In April 1992, the CFSPS was further restructured, and became the Private Sector Development and Privatization Group (CFSPS).
In 1994, Hiroo Fukui succeeded Koji Kashiwaya as Vice President for CFSVP.
In March 1996, CFSVP was terminated and the subordinate CFSOC and the CFSPF staff and functions were absorbed by the new Resource Mobilization and Cofinancing Vice Presidency (RMCVP). The CFSPS staff and functions were removed from cofinancing operations and absorbed by the Private Sector Development (PSD) Department located in the Finance and Private Sector Development Vice Presidency (FPDVP).
A trust fund is a financing arrangement set up with contributions from one or more donors and, in some cases, from the World Bank Group. The Bank establishes and administers trust funds as a complement to IDA and IBRD financing to promote development and aid effectiveness by leveraging its capacity and development knowledge. The Bank encourages trust funds that: draw on its operational role; include contributions from more than one donor; reinforce country capacity and ownership; and promote harmonization and alignment of donor aid modalities. Selectively, the Bank also provides specific administrative and financial services to the international community for trust funds that support work on issues of global importance and where the Bank may not perform an operational role. Trust funds differ to cofinancing arrangements in that trust funds are not limited to being tied to an existing Bank loan or grant for a program or project. Trust funds are also not generally initiated by the recipient member country like cofinancing. Many funds acquired through cofinancing arrangements are distributed into a Bank administered trust fund, but cofinancing arrangements serve as one example of a more restricted type of trust fund. Trust funds have a diversity of arrangements, which provides donors flexibility to target a variety of sectoral, regional, and global initiatives.
The earliest use of trust funds in World Bank Group operations can be traced to 1960 when the Bank administered the multi-donor Indus Basin Development Fund to help finance the Indus Basin Project in Pakistan. In the 1970s, the Bank also served as a financing partner in multiple global programs in partnership, with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and the World Health Organization (WHO). The most notable examples were, the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), established in 1972, and the River Blindness (Onchocerciasis) Control Program established in 1974.
Significant growth of trust fund mobilization, however, occurred in the early-1980s. At this time, the Bank lacked a formal trust fund administrator or central authority charged with implementing, coordinating, and monitoring trust fund administration, and developing trust fund related policies, guidelines, and procedures. Instead, trust fund administration responsibilities were fragmented among multiple Bank units. In this period, trust funds fell into two broad categories: 1) cofinanced trust funds; and 2) trust funds that are not tied directly to Bank loans (non-cofinanced), but augmented or diversified the sources of funding for a wide range of activities, including studies, institutional development training, and technical assistance.
The first category, cofinanced trust funds, were tied to existing Bank loans or credits, and were arranged either through a joint or parallel cofinancing agreement. Joint cofinancing required an agreement between the Bank and the cofinancier on the expenditure of a common list of goods or services for a project, and abided by the procurement and disbursement procedures of the Bank. Agreed upon joint cofinanced funds were deposited into a Bank administered trust fund. With parallel cofinancing, the Bank and the cofinancier agreed to finance different services, goods, or parts of a project, but the cofinancier was not required to use the procurement and disbursement procedures of the Bank. This allowed for the cofinancier to disburse funds to colenders according to their own procedures, and not have to be part of a Bank administered trust fund. Parallel cofinancing funds were part of Bank administered trust funds, however, if the parallel cofinancing agreement was "untied" and the cofinancier chose to have the Bank administer funds on the cofinancier's behalf.
The second category of trust funds were not tied directly to a Bank loan (non-cofinanced). Instead, the Bank served the role of trust fund administrator either as a fiscal agent or as the Executing Agency for trust funds financed by external donors. Such trust funds included contributions from governments, private foundations, or intergovernmental organizations. Many of these trust funds were either one-time contributions, or were subject to periodic replenishments, and were also free-standing programs with their own independent administration, executive secretariat, committee structure, and funding apparatus (e.g. CGIAR and the Global Environmental Facility [GEF]). Administering trust funds as a fiscal agent simply implied the Bank was responsible for the financial management functions of accounting and disbursement for a trust fund. The role of Executing Agency was more complex in that it included accounting and disbursement functions, but also responsibilities for hiring consultants and consulting of firms, procuring goods, organizing training activities, administering project budgets, and reviewing studies and reports prepared by consultants. The Executing Agency functions not related to financial management were generally handled by program coordinators, project officers, and advisers located in the Bank's sector departments, or country program departments and country project departments located in the Regional Vice Presidencies. An executive secretariat or independent administrative unit was also usually established to administer this type of trust fund.
In 1983, the newly established Vice President of Cofinancing (VPCOF) served as a focal point for the arrangement and management of cofinanced trust funds. VPCOF evolved into the central unit responsible for the management of some of the Bank's largest pooled and multi-donor technical assistance and consultant trust funds. In the early 1980s, the Japanese Government emerged as the largest cofinancier for the Bank and took a strong leadership role in leading cofinancing operations in the Bank. This included the launch of numerous grant-based trust fund programs through their donor agencies, the Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund (OECF) and the Export-Import Bank of Japan (JEXIM). The Japanese led programs were collectively referred to as the Japanese Grant Facility (JGF).
In 1984, the Chief United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)/Trust Funds Section (LOATF) of the Loan Department (LOA) located in Vice President of the Treasurer (TREVP) was established to administer financial management (accounting and disbursement) of the Bank's trust funds, including the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) financed trust funds in where the Bank served as the Executing Agent. Kah Hie Lau served as Chief for the UNDP/Trust Fund Section. The VPCOF continued to be the unit responsible for the arrangement of cofinanced trust funds, but the LOATF handled the financial management of cofinanced trust funds.
In 1985, the multi-donor Special Facility for Sub-Saharan Africa (SFA) and the multi-donor Consultant Trust Fund (CTF) Program consisting of donors from multiple Bank member countries were launched. They were also managed by VPCOF and its subordinate Cofinancing Advisory Unit (VPCAU).
In 1986, LOA and its subordinate LOATF were transferred to the Vice President of the Controller (CTRVP). LOATF was renamed and upgraded to the Trust Funds Division (LOATF) due to the expanding use of trust funds.
In 1987, the VPCOF remained structurally unchanged but new acronyms were assigned to the Office of the Vice President (COFVP) and to the Cofinancing Advisory Unit (COFAU).
In the same year, the Resource Mobilization Department (FRM) was established in the Vice President of Financial Policy and Risk Management (FPRVP). The FRM focused on resource mobilization of official IDA concessional resources and IBRD capital resources, but also played a role in managing donor negotiations and relations related to trust funds that helped supplement the concessional lending of IDA operations. This was done in close collaboration with the COFVP, or other trust funds operations focused on providing concessional resources. For instance, the Special Facility for Sub-Saharan Africa (SFA) consisted of trust funds designed specifically to supplement IDA projects and programs. The COFVP and FRM worked closely to mobilize resources for SFA, and to help foster agreements between the Bank, borrower, and donor.
In 1989, the COFVP and the subordinate COFAU were terminated, and replaced by the Vice President of Financial Intermediation and Cofinancing (CFSVP). Within CFSVP, the new Official Cofinancing Group (CFSOC) served as the focal point for managing the Bank's cofinanced trust funds. CFSOC served as the key unit responsible for managing the technical assistance portions of the Consultant Trust Funds (CTF) Program, and the Japanese Policy and Human Resources Development (PHRD) Fund, which consolidated numerousgrant-based programs of the former Japanese Grant Facility (JGF). Specific responsibilities of CFSOC included:
- developing and maintaining institutional relations with the main donor agencies;
- establishing and monitoring formal arrangements for cofinancing so that clear operational procedures and policies are in place for cofinancing with colenders;
- assisting both potential cofinanciers and task managers in bringing together financing interests and funding needs; and
- mobilizing grant funds for consultants to be used for the Bank's operational work, and other special purposes.
John Taylor served as the Manager for CFSOC.
In same year, the Bank issued Operation Manual Statement (OMS) 4.40, Trust Funds. This statement designated the role of Trust Funds Administrator (LAOTF), and assigned this role to the reorganized Loan and Trust Fund Department (LOA). This was done to expand the responsibilities of the former LOATF Chief, strengthen trust fund policies and guidelines, consolidate the fragmented trust fund administration functions, and strengthen trust funds administration Bank wide. Specific responsibilities included:
- implementing the policies and guidelines for administering funds;
- ensuring the consistency of information given to donors on the terms and conditions on which funds are administered by the Bank;
- coordinating within the Bank to ensure compliance with Bank policies and with the specific provisions of each agreement;
- participating in negotiating agreements and clearing them before signature;
- ensuring that disbursements are for eligible countries only;
- preparing financial reports on each fund in accordance with the agreement;
- coordinating the preparation by Task Managers of implementation reports and other reporting requirements; and
- requesting the donor to replenish trust fund accounts as needed.
The new Trust Funds Administrator of the Loan and Trust Fund Department (LOA) remained in the CTRVP. Kah Hie Lau was promoted to the Trust Funds Administrator.
In1991, the Global Environment Facility (GEF) was launched. The COFVP and the FRM served as the key units in the Bank responsible for the resource mobilization and replenishment of the GEF trust funds. In the same year, the Trust Funds Administrator was transferred to the Resource Mobilization Department (FRM) located in the Vice President of Financial Policy and Risk Management (FPRVP), and its acronym changed to FRMTF.
In February 1992, the CFSVP underwent a comprehensive reorganization and the CFSOC wasrenamed the Official Cofinancing and Trust Fund Management Group (CFSOC). The newly reorganized CFSOC responsibilities included:
- administering the Japanese Policy and Human Resources Development (PHRD) Fund;
- administering the Consultant Trust Fund (CTF) Program;
- managing institutional relationships with bilateral and multilateral cofinanciers to include proactive initiatives to increase cofinancing; and
- maintaining the Bank's Cofinancing Database and CTF Management Information system.
CharlesMeissner served as the new Manager for the reorganized CFSOC.
In 1993, the Trust Funds Administrator was removed from FRM, and transferred to the Trust Funds Administration Department (CTRTA) in the Controller Vice Presidency (CTRVP).
In March 1996, CFSVP was terminated and CFSOC staff and functions as well as the Resource Mobilization Department (FRM) were absorbed by the new Resource Mobilization and Cofinancing Vice Presidency (RMCVP). CFSOC was placed in the new Cofinancing and Project Finance Department (CAP), and renamed the Official Cofinancing and Trust Funds Group (CAPOC).
The Trust Funds Administrator was transferred to the new Trust Funds Division (ACTTF) in the Accounting Department (ACT) of the Controller Vice Presidency (CTRVP), and supported the new RMCVP in financial management of trust funds, and implementing policies and guidelines related to trust fund administration.
This section focuses on the units responsible for the following functions: leading and supporting IDA replenishments negotiations with the Bank's IDA Deputies; managing the finances of IDA's concessional lending funds; managing the allocation of IDA resources; and monitoring the implementation of IDA mandated policies within Bank operations.
The International Development Agency (IDA) was established in 1960 to complement the role of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) in promoting economic development by offering concessional financing to the poorer developing countries within its membership. The IDA replenished its resources through negotiations held every three years, wherein the Bank sought donations from its wealthiest Part I member countries.
The first replenishment of IDA resources was held in 1962. The Bank's Board of Governors requested that the Board of Executive Director's assess financial requirements for IDA operations. Subsequently, the Financial Policy Committee of the Board was given the task of leading replenishment negotiations, and did so in a number of informal meetings with Part I member country leaders.
In 1965, the second replenishment was held and, much like the first replenishment, it was initiated by the Board of Governors with a request to the Board of Executive Directors. The second IDA replenishment negotiations established Part I member country representatives as the new IDA Deputies, and the formal IDA replenishment negotiations became known as the IDA Deputy Meetings. IDA replenishment negotiations included senior officials of the Bank andthe IDA Deputies.
The third replenishment was held in 1968, and the process of initiating formal negotiations by a Board of Governors request to the Executive Directors was discontinued. Formal donor meetings with the IDA Deputies where arranged by Bank management after this point. The Office of the Vice President of Sir Denis Rickett (OVPDR) established on April 1, 1968 was the unit responsible for such IDA replenishment arrangements. The OVPDR was created in conjunction with the appointment of PresidentRobert McNamara, and reported directly to him. This OVPDR was established as a liaison office of the Bank with Part I countries. Specific responsibilities included leading negotiations for IDA replenishments, and providing information on the Bank's lending programs and policies. The OVPDR was not assigned any direct responsibility for department supervision.
On October 4, 1974, with the resignation of Vice President Rickett, the OVPDR was terminated. The functions of OVPDR were absorbed by the Vice President of Finance (VPF) led by I.P.M. Cargill. The VPF was also responsible for managing the Bank's financial operations and advising the President on Bank financial policies, and consisted of the following subordinate units: the Treasurer's Department (TRE) and the Programming and Budgeting Department (PAB). The IDA replenishment function was supported by two Special Assistants in the VPF Front Office. The PAB Department's Financial Analysis Division (PABFA) was responsible for providing staff support to IDAreplenishment efforts of the Front Office assistants.
In 1977, the Financial Analysis Division (PABFA) of the PAB Department absorbed greater responsibility for supporting IDA replenishment from the former IDA Special Assistants of the VPF Front Office due to increased workload of the function, and planned retirement of one its assistants. The VPF continued to lead IDA replenishment negotiations, but was primarily supported by PABFA. Within PABFA, the IDA replenishment related functions were merged with financial policy, financial projections, and IBRD capital increase support responsibilities. Specific responsibilities of PABFA included:
- maintaining analysis of Bank Group financial policies and activities as they affect the soundness and financial needs of the institution;
- alerting management to potential financial problem conditions and proposed changes to the Bank Group's financial policies;
- providing staff support related to IBRD capital increases, including periodic reviews of the appropriate capital structure of the Bank and analysis of the size, timing, and distribution by country of increases in subscribed capital;
- providing staff support for the periodic IDA replenishment negotiations, including analysis of the size of replenishment burden-sharing arrangements, voting rights issues, method of payment, maintenance of value, and other topics;
- preparing periodic reviews of the Bank's lending rate, liquidity policy, and allocation of net income;
- preparing the sections on Bank/IDA financial position and prospects for inclusion in the annual review of the five-year program as well as for the mid-year review of operations;
- preparing standard long-term financial projections for the Bank and IDA;
- reviewing the changes in the quality of the Bank's overall loan portfolio; and
- maintaining awareness of changes in the external financial environment.
The PABFA was led by Division Chief David Bock at the time it absorbed IDA replenishment related functions.
In July 1978, VPFI.P.M. Cargill was promoted to Senior Vice President of Finance (SVPFI) to further assist the Bank President more broadly on priority areas, and serve as Acting President and Board Chairman in the absence of the President. The position of Vice President of Finance (VPF) remained, and Cargill relinquished most of his responsibilities of overseeing the operations of the Finance Complex to the new VPF Moeen Qureshi. With this change, PABFA reported to the VPF, but still supported the SVPFI, who continued to lead IDA replenishment negotiations.
In 1980, SVPFI I.P.M. Cargill retired from the Bank. Moeen Qureshi was promoted soon after as the new SVPFI, and retained the responsibility of leading IDA replenishment negotiations. The position of VPF was terminated.
At the same time, the PABFA and the Financial Studies Division (PABFS) of Programming and Budgeting Department (PAB) were transferred to the new Financial Policy and Analysis Department (FPA), which reported directly to the SVPFI. The FPA Department was assigned the following responsibilities:
- performing analytical work on Bank financial policies, and supporting the Senior Vice President, Finance in such key activities as IDA replenishment negotiations, IBRD capital increases and analyzing the financial impacts of new initiatives;
- producing long-term financial projections and plans beyond a one-year horizon;
- assessing and managing financial risks; and
- providing support to Operations in areas involving financial analysis.
The former Financial Studies Division and Programming and Budgeting Department maintained their titles in the new FPA, but their acronyms were changed to FPAFA and FPAFS, respectively. The function supporting IDA replenishment negotiations was moved to the FPAFS Division.
In 1983, the FPA reported to the new Vice President of Financial Policy, Planning, and Budgeting (FPBVP).
During the 1987 Bank-wide reorganization, the FPA was terminated. As a result, the FPAPP and FPAMA divisions were absorbed by the new Risk Management and Financial Policy Department (FRS), and the FPAFS, which maintained responsibility for IDA replenishment negotiations, was absorbed by the new Resource Mobilization Department (FRM). Both departments reported to the new Vice President of Financial Policy and Risk Management (FPRVP), which reported to the new Senior Vice President of Finance (FINSV) Ernest Stern.
FRM was given the responsibility of securing official funding necessary to fund the Bank's planned programs. Official funding sources sought by FRM included capital subscriptions by Bank shareholders for IBRD lending operations and IDA concessional resources for its lending to countries which were not creditworthy for IBRD borrowing. Specific responsibilities included:
- maintaining a positive environment for Bank funding approaches;
- developing a system for monitoring funding approaches;
- monitoring the adequacy of the Bank's capital and taking steps to replenish it;
- managing the subscription payments and the release of local currency contributions;
- replenishing IDA;
- managing donor contributions to IDA's contributions;
- exploring new facilities that use official funding; and
- analyzing the role of Bank/IDA flows in relation to aggregate aid and commercial flows.
At its inception, the FRM had the following subordinate units: the Replenishment Policy Division (FRMRP) and the Replenishment Operations Division (FRMRO). Basil Kavalasky served as Director for FRM.
In 1991, the Trust Funds Administrator Kah Hie Lau was transferred from the Loan and Trusts Funds Department (LOA) of the Vice President of Controller (CTRVP) to FRM. In 1993, the Trust Funds Administrator was removed from FRM, and transferred to the Trust Funds Administration Department (CTRTA) in the Controller Vice Presidency (CTRVP).
In 1996, the Vice President of Financial Policy and Risk Management (FPRVP) was terminated. As a result, the Risk Management and Financial Policy Department (FRS), was absorbed by the new Office of the Vice President Financial Policy and Institutional Strategy (FPIVP). The Resource Mobilization Department (FRM) was transferred to the new Resource Mobilization and Cofinancing Vice Presidency (RMCVP).
Cofinancing, trust funds, and IDA replenishment (1996-present)
In April 1996, the cofinancing, trust funds, and IDA replenishment functions were merged under the new Resource Mobilization and Cofinancing Vice Presidency (RMCVP). More specifically, the functions of the former Official Cofinancing and Trust Fund Management Group (CFSOC) and the Project Finance Group (CFSPF) of the former Vice President of Financial Intermediation and Cofinancing (CFSVP), and the functions of the Resource Mobilization Department (FRM) of the former Financial Policy and Resource Mobilization Vice Presidency (FPRVP) were absorbed by the new RMCVP. The new RMCVP was created to enable the Bank to forge a more effective partnerships with the donor community and the private sector. RMCVP focused on mobilizing funds from official and private sources to IBRD and IDA operations and services and the Global Environmental Facility (GEF). Specific responsibilities included:
- expanding resource mobilization efforts to achieve greater financial sustainability through donor support, official cofinancing, export credit, and trust funds;
- accelerating the implementation of the guarantee Program, expand the use of guarantees, and increase the pipelines of guarantee operations; and
- supporting the Bank's efforts to mainstream the trust fund activities into the Bank's processes.
At its establishment, the RMCVP consisted of the following subordinate units: the Cofinancing and Project Finance Department (CAP) and the Resource Mobilization Department (FRM). CAP consisted of the Official Cofinancing and Trust Funds Group (CAPOC) and the Project Finance and Guarantees Group (CAPPF). The FRM Department consisted of the Replenishment Operations Unit (FRMRO) and the Replenishment Policy Unit (FRMRP). CAPOC served as the main unit for cofinancing related responsibilities, which consisted of promoting and monitoring official cofinancing of Bank Group operations. CAPOC was also responsible for trust fund functions including monitoring, mobilization, and administration.
Hiroo Fukui served as Vice President for RMCVP.
Soon after the establishment of the RMCVP, the Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Debt Initiative, a debt restructuring trust fund, was launched. RMCVP served as trustee for this fund. In 1997, the global trust fund program, Development Grant Facility (DGF), was launched. The RMCVP also served as trustee for this fund.
In 1998, the RMCVP was restructured. FRM remained unchanged, but CAP functions were divided into two new departments: the Trust Fund and Cofinancing Department (TFC) and the Project Finance and Guarantees Department (PFG).
In 1999, PFG was removed from the RMCVP, and its functions were transferred to the Private Sector Development and Infrastructure Vice Presidency (PSIVP).
The early 2000s marked a significant increase in the Bank's trust fund portfolio, primarily due to the 2002 launch of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This prompted the creation of numerous global programs and partnership trust funds to respond to the international initiatives of the MDG, including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (the Global Fund) and the Climate Investment Funds (CIFs), both established in 2002. The use of global programs and partnership existed prior to this period, most notably GEF and DGF, but their use rapidly expanded in the 2000s.
Furthermore, due to the growth and increasing complexity of trust funds, this period also experienced a shift in the type of trust funds arrangements used for various funds. This included the growing use of the following types of trust fund arrangements: Financial Intermediary Funds (FIFs); Bank Executed Trust Funds (BETF); and Recipient Executed Trust Funds (RETF). FIFs, in particular, saw significant expansion foster the arrangement of complex global programs and partnership trust funds. With the changing trust fund landscape, more traditional cofinancing arrangements experienced gradual decline as a source for external funding. Cofinancing, however, still remained a component of these trust fund arrangements, and the cofinancing function was integrated into broader trust funds operations.
In 2001, RMCVP was again restructured. The functions of TFC were split into two new departments: the Trust Fund Operations Department (TFO) and the Trust Fund Strategy and Donor Relations Department (TFS). FRM remained unchanged.
In June 2003, the RMCVP was terminated and its functions absorbed by the new Concessional Finance and Global Partnerships Vice Presidency (CFPVP). The responsibilities of the new CFPVP included:
- mobilizing and managing concessional and grant finance in the Bank;
- agreeing to the policy framework with which these resources are provided by donors; and
- facilitating and overseeing the robust and accountable framework of partnerships to take forward the Bank's strategic priorities.
At its establishment, the CFPVP consisted of the following subordinate departments and units: the Resource Mobilization Department (FRM); the Global Programs and Partnerships (GPP); the Trust Fund Operations (TFO); the Trust Fund Strategy and Donor Relations Department (TFS); and the Multilateral Trustee Operations (MTO).
Geoffrey Lamb served as Vice President of the CFPVP.
In 2004, the Finance and Risk Unit (CFPFR) and the Multilateral Trustee Innovative FinanceUnit (CFPMI) were added to CFPVP. In 2006, Phillippe Le Houerou succeeded Geoffrey Lamb as Vice President for CFPVP.
In 2008, the GPP and the TFO were merged to create the new Global Partnerships and Trust Fund Operations Department (CFPTO). CFPTO was assigned two subordinate units: the Global Partnership and Trust Fund Policy Unit (PTP) and the Program Administration and Management Unit (PAM).
In 2009, Axel van Trotsenburg succeeded Phillippe Le Houerou as Vice President for CFPVP. Around this time, the CFPVP was reorganized into the following subordinate units: IDA Resource Mobilization (CFPIR); the Global Partnerships and Trust Fund Operations (CFPTO); and the Multilateral Trusteeship and Innovative Financing (CFPMI).
In 2012, Joachim von Amsberg succeeded Axel van Trotsenburg as Vice President for CFPVP.
In July 2014, the CFPVP was terminated and replaced by the new Development Finance Vice Presidency (DFIVP).
The Development Finance Vice Presidency (DFIVP) absorbed the IDA replenishment, trust fund, and cofinancing related functions of the former CFPVP. It additionally absorbed functions related to IBRD capital monitoring, planning, and management from the former Vice President of Corporate Finance and Risk Management (CFRVP). The DFIVP includes the following subordinate units: the Development Finance Resource Mobilization Department (DFiRM); the Development Partner Relations Department (DFDPR); the Trust Funds and Partnerships Department (DFPTF); and the IBRD Corporate Finance Department (DFICF). Joachim von Amsberg serves as Vice President for DFIVP.