- 1946 - 2010 (Creation)
Level of description
Extent and medium
Name of creator
The World Bank's external affairs function can be described as a hybrid: combining diplomatic and consultative activities commonly associated with a government's foreign ministry, with the public relations activities of a strategic communications firm. A functional definition of external affairs used in this fonds includes:
- Developing and maintaining relations with external groups and shareholders, such as the media, the public, development community and Bank member countries in order to increase public support for, and awareness of, the mission and work of the World Bank Group;
- Supporting high-level Bank staff in their interaction with external groups and shareholders;
- Liaising with non-governmental and international organizations, including the United Nations. Note that, beginning in 1987, this sub-function was shuttled in and out of the units responsible for the external affairs function. As a result, records related to liaison can be found in other fonds. See the Related Units of Description below for location of records in other fonds;
- Managing an internal communications program responsible for informing Bank staff of significant events and developments inside the Bank;
- Publishing and distributing Bank research and technical and informational publications;
- Coordinating technical assistance coordination activities. Note that EXT-related units were not the only ones responsible for this sub-function in the Bank and that in 1981 this sub-function was permanently and completely transferred to the Bank's regional operations units. See the Related Units of Description below for location of records in other fonds.
The following administrative history provides detail on the transfer of functions into and out of the units responsible for external affairs and provides more information on the nature of the functions described above.
The World Bank's external affairs function appears to have been established in 1947; there is no mention of it in the Bank's 1946 directory. Its first iteration was as the Public Relations Department (PRD) with Drew Dudley acting as Director. The Department reported to Vice President Robert Garner and was responsible for:
- the development and application of Bank policies for the dissemination of information concerning the purposes, activities and accomplishments of the Bank;
- planning, promotion, and execution of information programs in the Bank's member countries through print, media, and published speeches and booklets;
- maintaining contact with the United Nations (UN) and other international organizations;
- cooperating with the Marketing Department on information programs affecting the sale of the Bank's securities;
- and monitoring the press for commentary on the Bank and its work and circulating this information through the institution.
In late 1949, Drew Dudley was sent to Paris to be the Bank's new Director of Public Relations for Europe. The Bank's European Office was responsible for:
- maintaining liaisons with the European member governments and European international organizations;
- arranging for the sale of Bank securities in Europe, including the sale of portions of Bank loans;
- carrying out information programs;
- and performing administrative functions, particularly regarding accommodation and secretarial arrangements for meetings, translations, travel within Europe, etc.
Over the subsequent decades, the Bank opened offices in a number of other cities, including London and Tokyo, in order to perform public relations activities.
William Ayers briefly replaced Dudley as Director of PRD on 1 November 1949 but passed away shortly thereafter. Harold N. Graves was named the Department's new Director on 20 November 1950. He served in this role for the next seventeen years.
In 1951, responsibility for liaising with the UN and other international organizations was removed from PRD and placed in the new Technical Assistance and Liaison Department (TAL).
In 1953 the Department's name was changed to the Office of Public Relations. Two years later, in 1955, its name was changed again, to the Office of Information (INFO). The 1955 change coincided with an addition of new staff and new responsibilities. In addition to previously described activities, INFO was given the following responsibilities:
- providing public relations services for the new International Finance Corporation (IFC);
- publishing the Bank's Annual Report;
- maintaining regular relations with the media;
- arranging and publicizing speaking engagements for the Bank's Executive Directors, managers and staff, and assisting in writing speeches and scripts;
- maintaining a films and photograph library on the Bank and its development work;
- and clearing all materials proposed for publication by staff members.
INFO continued to report to Vice President Garner until his retirement from the Bank in 1956. Over the next decade INFO reported to: Vice President W.A.B. Iliff (1956-1962); Vice President Geoffrey M. Wilson (1962-1966); and Vice President and Chairman of the Loan Committee, J. Burke Knapp (1966-1967).
In 1967 the Office of Information reported to the Technical Assistance and Liaison Department's (TAL) successor, Development Services Department (DSD; see below for more detail on these two units). That same year William Clark replaced Harold Graves as the Office's Director.
The following year the Office was renamed the Information and Public Affairs Department (IPA). At the same time, divisions were created within the Department: Public Affairs Division (IPAPA); Afro-Asian Division (IPAAA, renamed the Africa, Middle East and Asia Division [IPAAM] in 1969); IFC Information Services (IPAFC); and the European Information Services Division (part of the European Office). In 1968, the Department's responsibilities included:
- monitoring and analyzing outside events and opinion with regard to the Bank's operations;
- preparing and distributing news announcements, brochures, reports, speeches and other items on subjects relating to the Bank Group's activities; .
- maintaining relations with information media, academic institutions, business organizations, public affairs groups and other bodies;
- organizing speaking programs and information conferences;
- commissioning, obtaining and arranging for the outside use of films, photographs and radio tapes dealing with the Bank Group's activities;
- supervising the production and distribution of books published by the Bank Group;
- and maintaining an internal communications program aimed at keeping Bank staff informed of significant events and developments inside the Bank.
In January 1970 the IPA was moved out of the DSD and began reporting directly to the Office of the President (EXC). At the same time the Public Affairs Division (IPAPA) was terminated and, early the next year, an Editorial Division (IPAED) was created. IPAED's primarily responsibility was to handle the production of the Annual Report as well as the semi-regular publication "Policies and Operations" and the in-house publication, "Bank Notes". Note that "Bank Notes" was the successor to "International Bank Notes". The latter had been published by the Bank's Personnel Division since 1946.
In 1973, a major organizational change occurred with respect to the IPA and the aforementioned Development Services Department (DSD). A new External Affairs Staff (ERS) complex was created that was composed of the IPA, the Economic Development Institute (EDI), the European Office (EUR), and the DSD, which was renamed the International Relations Department (IRD). William Clark was named Director, External Affairs (DER); Lars J. Lind served briefly as Clark's replacement as Director of IPA before John E. Merriam became the new permanent Director. The following year, in 1974, ERS was elevated to the status of Vice Presidency (EXTVP) and William Clark was promoted to Vice President, External Affairs (VPE).
IPA and IRD would reside in the same Vice Presidency together until 1987. IRD had its origin in the Technical Assistance and Liaison Staff unit (1946-1961) and the Development Services Department (1961-1973); the latter was formed when the Technical Assistance and Liaison Staff (TAL) unit was combined with the Economic Development Institute (EDI), although EDI was removed from DSD soon after in 1964.
As of 1971, functions of the DSD included:
- coordinating technical assistance and formulating policies and procedures for the administration of such assistance in conjunction with the operating departments;
- establishing and maintaining formal relationships and working arrangements with Part I countries and other intergovernmental organizations, including the UN and its specialized agencies. Note that liaison with the UN was the responsibility of DSD's Special Representative to the UN, a position created in 1964 as a result of increased liaison activities with UN organizations and the Bank's expansion into agriculture and education project lending;
- and conducting studies and proposing policies on questions of general concern to the Bank as assigned by the Bank President.
Prior to its inclusion in the new ERS, DSD also briefly included an Office for a Special Representative for Inter-American Organizations from 1970 to 1972 (at which point it was moved to the Front Office of the Vice President, Latin America and the Caribbean [LCNVP]). DSD also included the Secretariat of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) from 1971 to 1973 (at which point it briefly reported to the Director, External Affairs before being reorganized into the Agriculture and Rural Development Department [AGP]). In 1973, the Bank's Economic Development Institute (EDI) began to report to IRD. The following year, however, EDI began reporting directly to the new EXTVP.
Between 1973 and 1982, the Information and Public Affairs Department (IPA) underwent only a few minor divisional changes. In 1973, the Africa, Middle East and Asia Division (IPAAM) was terminated and its functions were transferred to the re-established Public Relations Division (IPAPA), which consequently assumed responsibility for communications activities in all Part II countries. Further, an Audio-Visual Division (IPAAV) was opened to handle contacts with broadcasters and photographers, maintain a library of audio-visual materials documenting Bank projects, and provide technical support for audio-visual equipment to the rest of the Bank. That same year, the IFC Information Services Division (IPAFC) was transferred out of the Department to the IFC Executive Director, External Relations. In late 1975, a Professional and Technical Publications Unit (IPAPT) was established to take on the administration of the Bank's ever-growing professional and technical publications program, which included the publication of country economic reports, sector reports, staff papers and books. And in early 1979, a News Unit (IPANS) was established in the Front Office of the Director, IPA; the Unit would later be upgraded to the Press and Information Office (IPAPI).
In 1978, the Bank's liaison activities with UN agencies in Europe were delegated to a newly established Geneva Office (IRDGO), staffed by a World Bank Representative to the UN and two assistants. The Geneva Office was established to reduce the workload of the Special Representative to the UN in New York, who was previously responsible for representation at all UN agencies of interest to the World Bank. Like the New York Office, the Geneva Office reported to the Director of the International Relations Department (IRD) in EXT.
In 1981, as a result of a joint ERS/Organization Planning Department (OPD) review of the Bank's external affairs function, the Information and Public Affairs Department was reorganized more significantly. The Public Affairs Division (IPAPA) was strengthened through the addition of a Unit responsible for Part I countries and additional staff for Part II country activities. In addition, the publishing functions located in IPA's Editorial Division and Professional and Technical Publications Unit were transferred to the newly established Publications Department (PUB) which would exist alongside the IPA, IRD, and European Office within the EXTVP. Staff and budgetary resources of PUB were increased and an effort to develop a more comprehensive publications program was undertaken. The department initially consisted of: an Editorial Division (PUBED); a Professional and Technical Publications Unit (PUBPT); and a Publications and Distribution Unit (PUBPD).
An important change in the International Relations Department occurred as a result of the ERS/OPD review. To satisfy a growing demand for technical assistance by member countries and for technical assistance experts by the regions, the Technical Assistance Division (IRDTA) and the Advisory Planning Division (IRDPL) were terminated and their activities were transferred to the regional vice presidencies and to the Central Projects Staff (CPS). As a result, IRD's primary responsibility became liaison with the UN system and other international organizations.
The following year, Frank R. Vogl replaced John Merriam as Director of IPA. The same year saw a number of divisional changes occur within IPA, although there was minimal impact on the unit's functions.
A more significant change was that, effective 1 April 1983, EDI was removed from the EXTVP and assigned to the Vice President, Operations Policy (OPS). From this point on, EDI, later renamed the World Bank Institute (WBI), would never again be part of the external affairs complex of functions.
As part of the 1987-88 Bank-wide reorganization under President Barber Conable, the Information and Public Affairs Department (IPA) was dismantled as was the Office of the Vice President, External Affairs (EXTVP). A new External Affairs Department (EXT) was established effective 1 February 1988 and it reported to the Office of the Senior Vice President, External Affairs and Administration (EAASV) alongside such sizable units as the Internal Auditing Department (IAD), General Services Department (GSD), Information, Technical, and Facilities Department (ITF), and Office of the Vice President, Personnel (VPPER).
Within EXT, among other smaller divisional changes, a new Internal Communications Review Committee was created to review all matters of internal communications requiring management attention. However, the most significant change internal to the EXT complex was the termination of the International Relations Department, which had been responsible for maintaining relationships with international organizations, NGOs, and the UN, among others, and the transfer of its responsibilities to the newly established Strategic Planning and Review Department (SPR). However, this departure was only temporary, as the departments related to the former IRD were returned to EXT by 1990 following the termination of SPR.
EXT only reported to EAASV through 1989. The Department then reported to the Office of the Senior Vice President, Policy, Research and External Affairs (PRESV) on 1 January 1990 alongside SPR, the Vice President, Sector Policy and Research (PREVP), and the Vice President, Development Economics and Chief Economist (DECVP). As part of this minor reorganization, the Public Affairs Division (EXTPA) and the Media and Communications Division (EXTMC) were merged into the new Information and Public Affairs Division (EXTIP). At this point, Alexander Shakow was named Director of EXT.
In 1990 the reorganized External Affairs Department was responsible for:
- setting objectives and priorities, in conjunction with the EAASV, for the Bank's external affairs program;
- marshalling support for the Bank and its work in Part I and Part II countries;
- informing and maintaining regular contact with print and electronic media and with influential constituencies such as non-governmental organizations (NGOs), academia, parliaments and business groups;
- publishing and disseminating Bank research, policies, and views on development issues;
- gathering and feeding back information on outside events and opinions that bear on the Bank's operations;
- and supporting and coordinating activities of the decentralized External Affairs staff.
In October 1991, all Senior Vice Presidencies, including the Senior Vice President, Policy, Research and External Affairs (PRESV), were abolished. EXT was transferred to the Personnel and Administration Complex and the EXT Director started reporting to the new Vice President, Personnel and Administration (PAAVP). No functions were altered during this change and the Department's divisions remained essentially the same. In the Bank's 1992 Directory, the functional responsibilities of the Department's Information and Public Affairs Division included: media information; editor: "Banks World"/Weekly Bulletin; editor; "World Bank News"; and business, finance, and community relations. The International Economic Relations Division responsibilities included: non-governmental organizations, United Nations, O.E.C.D., and E.C. liaison; Small Grants Program; and Development Committee. The publication function continued within the Department in the new Office of the Publisher (EXTOP).
On 1 January 1993, the International Economic Affairs Division as well as the UN Special Representative in New York were again removed from EXT and, with them, functional responsibility for liaison with NGOs and international organizations. The two were moved into the new Operations Policy Department (OPR) in the Human Resources Development & Operations Policy Vice Presidency (HRO).
By March 1994, EXT had been removed from PAAVP and began to again report directly to the Office of the President. In the fall of the same year, Mark Malloch Brown took over as Director of EXT. The Department's functions remained relatively unchanged. At this point, it maintained Information and Public Affairs (EXTIP) and Europe (EXTEU) Divisions as well as a number of units: Distribution (EXTDI); Editorial and Production Services (EXTEP); Film (EXTFM); Marketing (EXTMT); and Publications (EXTPB). The London Office (EXTLO), Office of the Publisher (EXTOP), and Tokyo Public Affairs staff also reported to the EXT Director.
At some point between November 1995 and January 1996 the Department was upgraded to a Vice Presidency, making Brown the Vice President of EXT. In April of the same year, the UN liaison function was returned to EXT in the form of the United Nations Affairs Office (EXTUN). Functions otherwise remained constant in the new VP with the exception of the creation of a small grants program. Functions related to rights and contracts and regional operations support were added in 1998.
Bank President Jim Wolfensohn's Bank-wide reorganization of 1997-98 introduced a small number of managing directors through which Vice Presidents would report to the Office of the President. However, External Affairs reported to both Managing Director Sven Sandstrom and directly to the Office of the President. Despite the reporting structure and other changes in the Bank, the functions of the EXT Vice Presidency were not changed. This is reflected in the units that constituted EXTVP: Media; Part 1 Relations; Internal Communications; Regional Operations; Office of the Publisher; and the Special Representative, New York UN Office. The Vice President, Europe as well as the Resident Representative to the U.K. and the Special Representative, EU Institutions, also reported to EXT.
In the summer of 1999, Mats Karlsson became the Vice President of EXTVP. At some point between September 1999 and September 2000 the VP changed its name to emphasize the inclusion of the UN liaison activity, becoming the External Affairs and UN Affairs Vice Presidency.
In 2002, EXT partially regained responsibility for liaison with NGOs and international organizations. In 1997 the function had moved from the Operations Policy Department (OPR) to the Social Development Department's Non-Governmental Organization Division (SDVNG). In 2002, functional responsibility for coordinating the Bank's corporate engagement work with international and non-governmental organizations was returned to EXT. This was, however, limited to the external aspects of the function; SDVNG maintained responsibility for internal policy and planning work related to liaison. As part of this team-based approach, the two cooperated on activities such as dialogue and consultation, staff training, and knowledge management.
In 2002 Vinay K. Bhargava served briefly as acting VP of EXT. He was replaced by Ian A. Goldin in 2003. That same year saw a change in name to the VP that more accurately reflected its responsibilities: External Affairs, Communications, and United Nations Affairs. According to the 2003 Bank Directory its functional responsibilities now included: media relations and broadcast services; internal communications, including web and "Bank's World Today" publication; community outreach; UN relations; US relations; civil society (i.e. international and non-governmental organizations) relations; speaker's bureau (i.e. speechwriting for high-level Bank staff); World Bank InfoShop management; publications production services; publications marketing and rights; publications acquisitions and client relations; and resource management.
In 2007, Marwan Muasher replaced Goldin as head of EXTVP. He served in this position until 2010. Caroline Anstey acted as EXTVP for about a year before Cyril Muller assumed the position in November of 2011.
In 2013, EXTVP was part of a broader reorganization of the Bank's corporate support functions. The external relations of the IBRD and IDA managed by EXTVP were integrated with the International Finance Corporation's (IFC) Corporate Relations (CCR) to form the new External and Corporate Relations Vice Presidency (ECR). ECR formed one part of the new World Bank Group Integrated Services (WBGIS) along with the Human Resources Vice Presidency (HR) and the Information and Technology Solutions Vice Presidency (ITS). Together, the three VPs reported to Managing Director Caroline Anstey. Cyril Muller continued on as Vice President of the new unit.
Aside from the integration of IFC support, ECR's functions remained relatively unaltered. As of February 2015, the unit's website described its activities as follows: "ECR manages corporate communication and relationships with key stakeholders, including media, civil society, private sector, donor countries, and international organizations, as well as coordinating staff engagement and internal communication within the Group. ECR publishes the WBG's research and knowledge products, and manages the Group's corporate identity and branding. ECR is also responsible for the Bank Group's corporate online and social media presence, and produces content for a wide variety of platforms, including print, broadcast, and web."
Immediate source of acquisition or transfer
Content and structure area
Scope and content
Records in this fonds relate to the functions of the external relations complex as described in the Administrative History field above. In addition, records created and received by EXT Vice Presidencies are also included. Note that, periodically, the EXTVP contained units responsible for functions not included in the above definition. See Related Units of Description below for direction to the fonds containing those records.
See tree-view at the top of this page for link to series-level description.
Bank staff speech reference collection
See tree-view at the top of this page for link to series-level description.
Publicity, outreach, and educational programming
This fonds consists of records from 1965 to 1972 and 1976 to 1977 related to seminars, tours, press junkets, information conferences, luncheons and other events organized or sponsored by EXT units in order to explain and gain support for the Bank's mission and operations. Records include guest lists, acceptances and regrets, and correspondence related to participation at past and future events.
Also contained in this fonds are records from 1985 to 1996 relating to the Bank's program involving deposit of Bank publications in non-US national library systems. Records include certificates of agreement, annual reports, and correspondence with libraries. Also included are short films, audio tapes, and teaching guides intended to be used as educational materials for high school audiences
Support and communications of high-ranking staff, including Office of the President
Fonds includes original and copies of correspondence forwarded to EXT from the Office of the President accompanied by EXC's request for action (i.e. response, filing, advice, etc.). Correspondence between EXC and EXT regarding action to be taken often accompanies the correspondence; in some cases, this only takes the form of notes on the pieces of correspondence. Topics of correspondence relate to a wide range of topics, including requests for interviews, invitations to conferences and meetings, research proposals, letters of introduction, etc.
Also included are records related to interviews with Presidents Robert McNamara and Barber B. Conable by major print, radio, and television news outlets. Records include correspondence leading up to the interview, internal memoranda concerning logistics and proposed questions and answers, and a record of the actual interview, often in the form of a transcript.
Fonds includes briefing books prepared between 1990 and 2008 by EXT staff for the use of the President and other staff in preparation for trips, meetings, press conferences, and other activities.
Finally, records from 1997 to 1999 related to EXT's management of the Executive Website are included in this fonds. These records consist of internal correspondence, briefing notes, print-outs of website screen captures, and copies of content (primarily President Wolfensohn's speeches) that were added to the site. Records related to the "Renewal" Website (an EXT managed site devoted to staff issues and the 1997-1998 Bank-wide reorganization) are also included.
Staff communications, community relations, and support
Fonds contains copies of the various in-house publications produced for Bank staff and retirees, including: "International Bank Notes" (1946-1971); "Bank Notes" (1971-1981); and "Bank's World" (1982-2000); the collection of these publications is complete with a very small number of exceptions. The publications were primarily internal communication tools designed to keep Bank staff appraised of significant events and developments within the Bank as well as to allow staff to share both personal and professional experiences. Note that "International Bank Notes" was published by the Bank's Personnel Division while the two subsequent versions were produced by units responsible for EXT functions. Also note that in 2000, when "Bank's World" was discontinued, an online version called "Bank's World Today" was produced in its place.
This fonds contains a variety of newsletter-type publications intended primarily for Bank staff. This includes copies of "Report - News of the world Bank Group" from the years 1973 to 1982, complete except for a small number of missing issues. The publication, produced by the Information and Public Affairs Department and the Publications Department for both internal and external audiences, offered general news of economic development as well as reports on World Bank Group activities. Fonds also includes a newsletter published by the Development Services Department. The publication was intended to be sent to field staff to keep them abreast of current activities in the Bank Group such as Bank membership, borrowing, IDA financing, and staff and organizational news. The publication was probably produced from 1962 to 1973; issues from 1966 to 1973 are included in this fonds. Finally, the fonds includes copies of the EXT-produced Development News Weekly Supplement from 1981 to 1985 and Development News Daily Summary from 1995 to 1998. The Supplements were an internal publication that compiled external press reports concerning the Bank and its activities.
Records related to EXT's internal communication strategies from 1988 to 1997 are contained in this fonds. These include correspondence and other materials related to the 1997 Bank-wide reorganization, including communication strategies related to the Bank's 1997 Strategic Compact, a reform and renewal plan intended to increase Bank efficiency and effectiveness. Other records relate to the development of a comprehensive Bank-wide communications strategy for fiscal year 1989.
Records related to Bank community relations programs are also included in this fonds. Records consist of administrative materials for programs such as the United Way campaign and other charitable fundraisers.
Communications with financial and business community
Staff of EXT were responsible for establishing and maintaining relationships with members of business and financial organizations that might support the Bank or purchase Bank-issued bonds. Records related to this activity are included in this fonds. Records include the chronological files and loan books of William Bennett, the Bank's first "Financial Editor" and later its Financial Relations Adviser within IPA. Bennett's loan books consist of press releases, statements of loans and credits, and official memos. These relate to Bank operations (from 1947 to 1971) and to bond issues (from 1947 to 1965). Bennett's chronological files from 1960 to 1976 contain correspondence and attached materials related to travel, conferences and meetings, information exchange, and other activities related to Bennett's employment at the Bank. Also included are Bennett's collection of articles relating to the Bank and Bank projects authored both by Bank staff and external authors. These records are in a variety of formats, including pamphlets, clippings, portions of magazines, as well as typewritten contributions written by Bank staff for publication. This collection dates from 1946 through 1977 and is organized alphabetically according to publication.
Publication of Bank-authored materials
This fonds contains records relating to the Bank's publication function. The publications function of the external relations unit produces a range of materials for a variety of audiences, including: the broader public (speeches, regional and country booklets, press releases, fact sheets, informational pamphlets, education materials); partners and clients (Annual Report, Policies and Operations, various "guidelines" and handbooks); development practitioners (sector papers, Country Economic Reports, occasional papers); and the academic community (monographs and articles).
Fonds consists of records documenting the publication of books in EXT's publications departments. Records relate to: selection and initiation; editorial review; production specifications; distribution; translation; and republication. Records relate primarily to publications from the mid-1970s through the early 1990s. Note that records related to manuscripts that were reviewed for publication but ultimately not published are also included. Records consist of initiating memoranda, editorial review comments, production correspondence and memos (related to typesetting, copy-editing, design, and printing), contracts, and production specifications. In some cases manuscript drafts (often with comments), galley proofs, and final published versions are included. Records of this type related to the 1981 World Development Report's Background Staff Working Papers are also included.
Records maintained by EXT's editorial division related to the Bank's Publications Committee are also included in this fonds. The Committee, initially established in 1957 to review and approve Bank publications, had overall responsibility for the Bank's publications program at least until 1983. It was made up of staff from the Bank's Secretary and Development Policy Vice Presidency as well as the editorial division of EXT. Records include: Publications Committee correspondence, agenda, and minutes (1960-1983); Editorial Committee correspondence, agenda, and minutes (1966-1980); IPA Departmental Director meeting agenda and minutes (1974-1976); and IPA chronological files, containing correspondence and country subject files (1972-1979).
A collection of Finance & Development is included in this fonds. The quarterly publication was published jointly by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) from June 1964 until June 1998 when the IMF became the sole publisher. English-language issues from 1964 to 1993 are included in this fonds; Spanish (1964-1980), French (1964-1979), and German (1974-1980) language editions are also included.
A collection of World Bank Staff Working Papers published between 1976 and 1986 and transferred to the Archives by EXT's Editorial and Production Services Unit (EXTEP) are also included in this fonds.
A copy of each World Bank Annual Report published between 1946 and 2003 is included in this fonds. As well, Annual Meeting Summary Proceedings are included from 1950 to 1991.
Records related to the management, planning, and budget of publication activities are also included in this fonds. Records related to current and proposed publications, work and production schedules, annual meeting requirements, publications budget, unit organization, and publication schedules. Chronological files from 1973 to 1974 of Donald Pryor, Chief of the Editorial Division and Publications Coordinator, are also included.
Activities related to the Bank's liaison with the United Nations and its organs were, at the time of the Bank's opening in 1946, the responsibility of the Public Relations Department (PRD). Responsibility was transferred to the Technical Assistance and Liaison Staff (TAL) Department and then, upon TAL's termination in 1961, to the new Development Services Department (DSD). In 1964, DSD created a Special Representative to the UN Organizations position that operated out of an office in New York. In 1978 a Geneva Office was opened in order to reduce the workload of the Special Representative in New York. DSD and its various responsibilities were absorbed into EXT in 1973 as part of the new International Relations Department (IRD). The UN liaison function has been located in the EXT complex ever since, with the exception of 1987 to 1990 when it was moved into the Strategic Planning Department and from 1993 to 1996 when it was located in the Operations Policy Department in the Human Resources Development and Operations Policy Vice Presidency (HRO).
Records related to UN liaison are contained in this fonds. These records document the relationship between the World Bank and the United Nations and its numerous organs, organizational units, and specialized agencies. These include: the General Assembly; the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC); regional and functional commissions such as the Economic Commissions for Africa (ECA) and Latin America (ECLA); the Special Fund (UNSF, later renamed into the Development Program [UNDP]); the Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC); Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO); UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD); the UN Office of Public Information; and the UN Security Council, among others. Included is correspondence between the Bank and the UN, subject files, agendas, reports and memos from joint committees, and resolutions of meetings, as well as UN documents containing statements by Bank staff. Briefing books prepared for VIP visits, talking points for meetings, and background information may also be included.
Many of the records relating to the UN liaison function and contained in this fonds were created or received by the New York Office. The Office's work often extended to matters not directly related to the UN, such as communicating and meeting with non-governmental organizations (NGOs), attending world conferences on development-related topics, and organizing and managing its office and staff. Records related to these activities, as well as subject files on sectoral topics and World Bank Group operations and initiatives, are also included in this fonds. In addition, records created and received by the Bank's Geneva Office are also contained in this fonds.
Liaison with other multilaterals, international and non-governmental organizations (NGOs)
Activities related to the Bank's liaison with other multilateral, international, and non-governmental organizations (hereafter referred to as "external organizations") were, at the time of the Bank's opening in 1946, the responsibility of the Public Relations Department (PRD). Responsibility was transferred to the Technical Assistance and Liaison Staff (TAL) Department and then, upon TAL's termination in 1961, these activities were moved first to the new Development Services Department (DSD) and then, as the International Relations Department (IRD), into EXT upon DSD's termination in 1973. External organization liaison remained the responsibility of EXT until 1987 when it was briefly moved into the Strategic Planning Department (SPR) from 1987 to 1990. After returning to EXT from 1990 to 1993, liaison activities were moved into the Operations Policy Department in the Human Resources Development and Operations Policy Vice Presidency (HRO) and then the Social Development Department's Non-governmental Organization Division (SDVNG) in 1997. Around 2002, however, functional responsibility for coordinating the Bank's corporate civil society engagement work returned to EXT; the Bank's core operational, "internal" work related to NGOs remained in SDVNG. This final change introduced a team-based approach in which EXT was responsible for external aspects of the function and SDVNG was responsible for the internal while both cooperated on activities such as dialogue and consultation, staff training, and knowledge management.
Records related to external organization liaison from 1946 to 2009 are contained in this fonds. These organizations include governmental and international agencies (with the exception of the United Nations), development banks, religious groups, universities, private foundations, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). International organizations include but are not limited to the Berne Union, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), the Organization of American States (OAS), and the development-oriented departments and ministries of numerous countries. Records consist of correspondence, invitations, information exchange, and meeting and conference planning and reporting. The liaison records of those institutions that maintained a continuing association or a cooperative agreement with the Bank often form a single set of chronological files.
Records of the Bank's international offices, such as the Tokyo and Paris offices, are also included in this fonds. Records include internal correspondence involving or relating to the respective offices, regular Office Bulletins, and other related records. Correspondence related to the earliest trips of Bank staff to various international locations are also included. Trips were undertaken in order to establish relations, encourage financial and political support, and develop projects. The bulk of the correspondence is between Bank staff representatives abroad and staff in Washington DC.
Also contained in this fonds are records related to the External Grants Committee (later named the Small Grants Committee) that was created in 1981 and operated out of EXT until it moved along with other external organization liaison activities to HRO in 1993. Records include grant proposals from NGOs and other organizations as well as internal committee meeting records. Records date from 1981 to 1992.
Records related to EXT's International Relations Department's (IRD) support of the Bank's participation in the Joint Ministerial Committee of the Boards of Governors of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund on the Transfer of Real Resources to Developing Countries (also known as the Development Committee) are also included in this fonds. The IRD was responsible for a variety of functions, including: contributing to preparations for the Committee's biannual meetings, including the development of the meetings' agendas; coordinating with other departments of the Bank on background papers for meetings; preparing the Bank President's Report for the meeting and supporting the President in other ways; and consulting with Bank Executive Directors to prepare groundwork for the meetings. The IRD was also responsible for publishing Committee papers and pamphlets. Records include agendas and minutes of meetings as well as correspondence, background documents, and Development Committee press releases.
Fonds also contains the records of J. W. Stanton, Senior Advisor to the Office of the President, External Relations, relating to his role as liaison with the United States Congress. Stanton, a former Representative in Congress, was responsible for maintaining relationships with those Congressional Representatives involved with legislation pertaining to the Bank, including IDA replenishment. Records date from 1983 to 1986 and consist of correspondence and speeches. Stanton's records from 1983 to 1987 relating to his communication with the Vatican are also included.
A small amount of records related to the management of EXT's International Relations department during the 1990s and 2000s are also contained in this fonds. These include records related to: budgeting; staff retreats; and conference and seminar attendance and planning.
The planning and direction of the Bank's technical assistance activities were, in consultation with the Bank's Area Departments and, later, the regional vice presidencies, undertaken by the Technical Assistance and Liaison Staff (TAL). Upon TAL's termination in 1961, these activities were moved to the new Development Services Department (DSD) and then into the EXT complex upon DSD's termination. Technical assistance coordination activities remained the responsibility of EXT until 1983 when they were completely transferred to the regional vice presidencies, where they have remained ever since.
Records related to technical assistance coordination that were created or maintained by the TAL, DSD, and EXT are contained in this fonds. After 1959, the majority of the projects are funded by the UNDP (or its predecessor, the UN Special Fund [UNSF]) and executed by the Bank; some projects are Bank-financed and Bank-executed. Project records are arranged by country and then by project. Each project file may include: project plans; appraisals; contracts; project administrative correspondence; project documents; budget revisions; issues papers; credit agreements; President's reports; consultant contracts; manuscripts; draft reports; final reports; relevant project correspondence; newspaper clippings; and miscellaneous project-related materials. Also included are: "Miscellaneous" country records which contain records of projects that were financed and executed by the UNDP; records labelled "General" country records, which include records on the country, country economic reports, newspaper clippings, and other general material related to the country; and "Planning Organizations" country records which are not project specific, but contain information on planning organizations within each country.
Also contained are internal correspondence files of the International Relations Department (IRD, DSD's successor within EXT) not related to specific projects. These records primarily contain correspondence between IRD staff, other Bank staff and external bodies, including the UNDP. It also contains semi-annual reports on the Bank's technical assistance activities and other ad hoc reports as well as records related to UNDP's annual General Council meetings.
Office of EXT Vice President and Directors' records
Fonds contains the records of high-level EXT staff. These include the chronological files of EXT Vice President Mark Malloch Brown from 1994 to 1999. Also included are the chronological files of: Rachel Weaving (Chief, EXT Internal Communications Division) from 1998 to 1999; Judith Maguire (Advisor to the EXT Vice President) from 1996 to 1998; Bill Stanton (Senior Advisor to the EXT Vice President) from 1992 to 1994; Tim Cullen (various EXT positions, including Senior Advisor to the EXT Vice President) from 1980 to 1999; Max Ebstein (Assistant to the Director) from 1974 to 1975; and Pastor B. Sison (Assistant to the Director) from 1974 to 1975.
Also included are the records of William Clark, Director of IPA and Vice President of EXT, related to the Pearson and Brandt Commissions. Records relating to the Pearson Commission on International Development date from 1968 to 1970. Records include discussions of Commission members, copies of statements of various national and international development agencies, as well as a copy of the President's memoranda on the Report recommendations. Records relating to the Independent Commission on International Development Issues, better known as the Brandt Commission, date from 1976 to 1980. Records consist of chronological and subject files and relate to: the establishment and membership of the Commission; public reaction to its establishment; the Bank's follow-up on its conclusions, including lists of Commission proposals to be reviewed by the Board (some of which are heavily annotated by Bank President McNamara); and correspondence handled by Clarke for President McNamara.
Fonds also contains the records of International Relations Department Director Shirley Boskey from 1965 to 1982. Boskey served as Policy Planning Officer and Senior Policy Planning Advisor of IRD's predecessors, the Technical Assistance and Liaison Department (TAL) and the Development Services Department (DSD) prior to becoming the Director of the IRD in 1975. Records include: correspondence between the Director and various United Nations agencies; minutes of UN conferences and Bank meetings; draft working papers, reports and proposals intended for presentation by Bank staff; annotated copies of draft speeches prepared for Bank President McNamara; and a small amount of Boskey's own handwritten notes.
Chronological files of Assistants to the Director Max Ebstein and Pastor B. Sison from 1974 to 1975 are also included. Records are filed separately.
Unit budgeting and administration
Fonds contains records related to the administration and budgeting of departments and Vice Presidencies responsible for the external affairs function in the World Bank. Records are primarily from the early 1970s and mid-2000s and include correspondence, memoranda, reports, and ledger sheets as well as budget reviews and managerial summaries of budget issues.
Included in this fonds are a variety of reference materials used by various EXT units. These records contain information collected by EXT staff on numerous topics, events, organizations, and countries on which EXTVP may need to make a public response. Records include external news articles and other materials related to the World Bank as well as correspondence discussing the Bank's public response and records created in advance of or accumulated during attendance at meetings and conferences.
Also included are a collection of reports, articles, staff meeting minutes and speeches by Bank officials intended to be used as reference in response to questions on Bank policy. As well, a file titled "Irreverent Inquiries" that provides responses to common Bank queries and criticisms is included. These records date from between 1973 and 1977. A Briefing Book prepared by the IDA in 1977 is also included; it explains Bank policies on a variety of topics.
Also included are International Development Association (IDA) Case Books created by the IPA in the 1960s and 1970s. These books include information on a variety of topics, including: IDA replenishment; health and nutrition; and IDA's relationship with the United States government. A complete list of IDA publication credits from 1961 to 1969 is also included. In addition, a small number of Country Operations Reports, authored by the IPA between 1964 and 1972, are included. These summaries describe the relations between certain member countries and the World Bank Group and appear to be intended for public distribution.
Promotional film and radio program production and distribution (including collection of Bank-produced films)
Textual records related to film and radio program production are also included in this fonds as is correspondence between the Bank and those interested in exhibiting Bank-produced promotional films or participating in the production of the films.
EXT's collection of promotional films and radio programs are also contained in this fonds. Included are films produced by the Bank throughout its history. In most cases, EXT was responsible for producing the material. Materials include a variety of formats including 16mm film and numerous video formats.
Radio programs were produced by EXT's Radio Services Department. Those contained here date from 1971 through 1979. Program titles include: Special Report; Global Perspective; Pioneros del Siglo XX; Development News; News of the Development World; Progressive Asia; Africa Today; Finance and Development; and others.
A/V Documentation of Bank meetings, press conferences, interviews and other events
EXT departments are responsible for recording, either with video or audio, Bank events. This most often involves events at the Bank's Annual and Spring meetings as well as at other events organized, sponsored, or attended by Bank staff. The collection of recorded speeches and press conferences, either on audio or video tape or film, are included in this fonds. While the majority of speeches are given by Bank senior staff including Bank Presidents, many speeches by Executive Directors, world leaders, and other prominent individuals are included. The fonds includes recordings of a small number of staff meetings. In addition, audio tapes of aid coordination consortia and consultative group meetings between 1965 and 1980 are included as are a small number of television addresses and interviews featuring Bank Presidents and other senior staff.
Distribution of World Bank produced materials
Included in this fonds are Month End Reports of EXT's Distribution Division (EXTDI) from 1990 to 1994. These records consists of sales and accounting reports summarizing all activities of EXTDI.
This fonds contains copies of press releases relating to World Bank Group operations and activities. Press releases date from the opening of the Bank in 1946 until 1993. Press releases of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), International Development Association (IDA), and the International Finance Corporation (IFC) are included; versions of the press releases in multiple languages, including French, Spanish, German, Arabic, Chinese, Italian, Japanese, and Portuguese are included, although not for every release. Also included is a series of press releases relating to Bank loans, combined with other loan-related information such as statements of loans and credits, and other memoranda on the current status of Bank Group operations. Versions of Bank staff speeches in the form of press releases are also included. These date from 1946 to 1990 and include speeches by Bank Presidents Woods and McNamara as well as other high-ranking Bank officials.
Appraisal, destruction and scheduling
System of arrangement
The following arrangement is provisional. Records are arranged into seventeen series:
- Photograph library (see tree-view at top of this page for link to series-level description)
- Bank staff speech reference collection (see tree-view at top of this page for link to series-level description)
- Publicity, outreach, and educational programming
- Office of the President and high-ranking staff support and communications
- Staff communications, community relations, and support
- Communications with financial and business community
- Publication of Bank-authored materials
- UN liaison
- Liaison with other multilaterals, international and non-governmental organizations (NGOs)
- Technical assistance
- Office of EXT Vice President and Director records
- Unit budgeting and administration
- Communications support
- Promotional film and radio program production and distribution (including collection of Bank-produced films)
- A/V Documentation of Bank meetings, press conferences, interviews and other events
- Distribution of World Bank produced materials
- Media relations