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Project officer, Industrial Projects Department (NDP/IPD/IND) chronological correspondence files

Series contains the chronological files created by Rischard during his time as a project officer in the Industrial Projects Department (NDP/IPD/IND) from 1976 to 1982. The records in this series relate to the various activities of sectoral project officers. Regarding involvement with lending operations, records evidence Rischard's role in multiple projects and countries. Common project types include funding of chemical industries, fertilizer production, and industrial energy conservation and diversification. Specific projects include: P008691 - Tecuci Fertilizer Project (Romania) P006289 - Copesul Petrochemical Project (Brazil) P008710 - Craiova Chemical Project (Romania) P009665 - Gorakhpur Fertilizer Expansion Project (India) P009369 - Ashuganj Fertilizer Project (Bangladesh) and P008639 - Industrial Energy Conservation and Diversification Project (Portugal) Records related to travel logistics and expenses and the exchange of information within the World Bank and with external organizations are also included.

Records primarily consist of correspondence between Rischard and other World Bank staff (in the form of office memoranda and telexes) and official correspondence between Rischard and external individuals, including country representatives. In addition to correspondence, back-to-office reports, Terms of Reference, and reports and studies on industrial sector topics are included.

Governance, management and oversight

This series mainly contains records that were created and/or maintained by John M. Kalbermatten between the 1970s and 1980 while working as an adviser and then a consultant in both urban and rural water supply initiatives in various iterations of the water sector departments (i.e., Public Utilities Department-PBP; Energy, Water, and Telecommunications Department Office of the Director-EWTDR; Transportation, Water, and Telecommunications Water and Wastes Advisory Staff-TWTWW).

Kalbermatten contributed to World Bank policies and training on water supply and rural development, as well as research on appropriate water supply and sanitation technology. This series also contains records authored by other individuals, primarily by Yves Rovani (1972 - 1980: director, Public Utilities Projects Department-PBP; director, Energy, Water & Telecommunications Department-EWT) and Richard Middleton (1972 - 1978: sanitary engineer, Public Utilities Division-WAPPB; sanitary engineer, Public Utilities Division Office of theDirector-PBPDR; senior sanitary engineer, Energy, Water, and Telecommunications Office of the Director-EWTDR).

Records contain information relating to a panel on Measuring the Health Benefits of Investments in Water Supply; PBP project monitoring; 1970s work programs; annual staff training course on water supply; research on appropriate technology for water supply and waste disposal in low-income countries; case study reports on residential demand for water and sewerage service in countries in Africa; cooperation with external organizations (e.g., WHO and UNDP); and many more.

Record types include but are not limited to office memoranda, correspondence, articles and discussion papers, journals, training course documents, programs, questionnaires, and case study reports.

Governance, management and oversight

Series contains records of the Industry and Energy Office of the Director (IENDR), its predecessors, and divisions that relate to planning, organizing, and directing subordinate units as well as developing business plans, work programs, and budgets. Most records were maintained by Director Richard Stern, Senior Adviser Dennis Anderson, and Division Chief Afsaneh Mashayekhi. The series also contains the chronological and subject files of Assistant Director Efrain Friedmann that represent the department's energy sector work in the early 1970s as well as subject files of the mining units under IEN and later, the joint Bank/International Finance Corporation (IFC) Oil, Gas, Mining and Chemicals Department (COC).

Strategic planning, business development, and management

Records in the series document changes in divisional structure, reporting lines, resources, and activities of the responsible units. Individual subject files relate to IEN reorganization (1993 - 1997), energy practice management (1993 - 1996), and others.

Specific types of records include internal memoranda, All-in-1 message hard copies, organizational charts, vision and mission statements, budget sheets, reports regarding IEN departmental structure, IEN background and staff profiles, job descriptions, functional descriptions (outlining organization, functional areas, reporting, division management) and reports on activities of the Oil and Gas Division (IENOG).

Another set of records (1990 - 1997) relate to the department's midyear review,retrospective review, portfolio management, business plan and budget, and preparation of the Annual Report on Portfolio Performance (ARPP). Record types include: copies of ARPP by the Operations Evaluation Department (OED); minutes of review meetings; drafts and final text of IEN divisions; and portfolio improvement program review reports by the Quality Assurance Group (EXCQA) unit.

Two correspondence files containing incoming and outgoing memoranda with FPDVP (1992 - 1997) cover the period when Richard D. Stern was ESMAP Manager (ESMMR), then IEN director. Some memos are in the form of briefing notes and background for meetings and discuss department activities, papers produced, reorganizations, ESMAP products, and private sector investment in infrastructure projects. Also in the files are sector papers on topics including industrial restructuring, and a comparative survey of public and private ownership of gas companies.

There are also files maintained by IEN divisions and predecessors regarding the organization and activities of divisions carrying out United Nations Development Programme / World Bank Group Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP). Included are: files related to ESMAP operations (1989 - 1993); Office of the ESMAP Manager (ESMMR, in existence from 1991 - 1992); ESMAP reorganization (1990 - 1992); ESMAP activities and schedules (1990 - 1991); and ESMAP procedures and guidelines for operations coordination (1991, 1993). General files (1986 - 1995) contain mostly internal memoranda and accompanying reports that cover a variety of topics such as meeting summaries, ESMAP operations, knowledge and learning events, sector work program, division status reports, recruitment, reporting to vice presidencies, and general administrative information such as for cross support activities.

Other files relate to industry and mining budgeting, work programs, and business planning (1994 - 2005), the latter maintained by unit staff of the Mining Department (CMN) and successor Oil, Gas, Mining and Chemical Department (COC) senior staff including Division Chief, later Manager Peter van der Veen. Also included is a briefing book prepared for IFC Vice President Peter L. Woicke related to a 2003 visit to Bolivia.

Operational support oversight

A smaller volume of files titled "cross support" created by IENDR (1992 - 1996) contain mostly internal memoranda between Director Stern, IEN divisions, Finance and Private Sector Development Vice Presidency (FPDVP), and regional units concerning projects and support to the regions in terms of delivery plans, allocation of tasks, and enhancing collaboration. Some memoranda also provide information about regional unit reorganizations, trust fund management issues, and network performance measures. Filed with the correspondence are back-to-office reports (BTORs), meeting minutes, data tables, and other records.

Another set of records document communications between Director Stern, IEN units, and Bank senior management regarding certain Bank projects (1980 - 1997), such as the Arun Hydroelectric Power Project in Nepal. Files include correspondence, draft discussion papers, external press articles, President's Memorandum, project documents (staff appraisal report, project agreement etc.), and other material.

Several files related to general energy and environmental sector work contain correspondence and other records (1994 - 1996) maintained by Senior Adviser Anderson (IENDR). Included are invitations and follow ups to meetings, events, publications and reviews written by Anderson, communication about the Bank's energy work, current and potential studies, comments on internal or external papers and reports, and other matters.

Efrain Friedmann chronological and subject files

The series contains records created and received by Efrain Friedmann during the period 1972 to 1980 when he held the following positions: energy specialist, then energy adviser in Public Utilities Department Director's Office (PBPDR, 1972 - 1977, later Energy, Water, Telecommunications Department [EWT]); assistant director, Energy and Fuels (EWTDR, 1977 - 1979); and senior adviser in the Energy Policy Advisory Staff (EGYEP, 1979 - 1980).

Chronological files span the periods from November 1972 to August 1974 and April 1977 to March 1980 and includes internal memoranda, cables, and incoming and outgoing correspondence with representatives of the United States government and other country or international organization officials, oil companies, engineers, and academics regarding the world energy situation and the Bank's mineral and energy programs. Correspondence covers topics such as oil surveys, energy projects and studies, research and policy development activities, department work program and budget, staff development seminars on energy planning, hiring of consultants, international conferences, meetings with oil companies, participation in missions, comments on draft correspondence to be sent by vice president, Operations Policy, and administrative matters. Also included among the correspondence is a paper prepared by Friedmann for Bank Group President Robert McNamara's meeting with U.N. General Secretary Waldheim in December 1979 which presents the Bank's views on energy conservation and the search for new energy supplies, and a memorandum on a White House meeting with President Carter, which indicates Carter's growing interest in developing oil reserves in developing countries.

Friedmann subject files represent his various activities such as: liaison with consultant O.B. Falls regarding Impact of Primary Energy Cost on Electric Power study (1974); liaison and meetings with banks and development banks (1977 - 1979); meeting on assistance to the energy sector in developing countries, Paris (1979), attendance at various conferences (1978 - 1979), and sector work (1979). There are also several files concerning nuclear power (1972 - 1976) and a nuclear study (1975 - 1976) which mostly contain memoranda and correspondence with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or national atomic energy agencies.

Record types in the Friedmann files include memoranda, cables, incoming and outgoing letters, summaries of meetings and consultations, Terms of Reference (TORs), BTORS including copies from regional staff, approach papers, briefing notes, sector reports, externally authored conference papers and reports, draft study outlines (some annotated), and press clippings. The Paris World Energy meeting files contain agenda and list of delegates, copy of "Program to Accelerate Petroleum Production in Developing Countries" Bank report, list of oil and gas production projects, summary of development partners' energy assistance and activities, and other items.

NRIC and EISIC correspondence and related records

Also included in the series are several correspondence files (1978 - 1986) sent and received by division chiefs, senior advisers or occasionally directors that were originally sent to the Non-Regional Information Center (NRIC) and arranged under the Bank-wide classification system. Files are titled "general" and include mostly internal memoranda (some in the form of BTORs), letters, and cables that cover management of the various sector activities and division objectives such as: workshop or roundtable preparation and participation; selection of consultants for projects; direction of energy policy and lending including comments on policy papers and draft guidelines for lending; ESMAP program; and collaboration with external organizations. Reports, discussion papers and other records are sometimesfiled with the related correspondence. Two files that are thin in volume relate to a proposed World Bank energy affiliate (1981 - 1982) and contains memoranda from Senior Vice President of Operations Ernest Stern to Bank Group President Clausen.

Series also contains a set of thematic, or subject files (1974 - 1987) that were originally maintained in the Energy and Industry Information Center (EISIC). Files contain internal memoranda and cables, many are copies sent by the Energy and Industry Vice Presidency (EISVP), the Office of the Senior Vice Presidency, Operations (SVPOP), by regional directors, and unit or sector staff. There are also some original incoming letters to industry and energy directors or division chiefs. Correspondence is occasionally attached to draft and final internal reports, discussion or issues papers, BTORs, Board reports, briefing notes, summary of discussions, and other items.

The more voluminous files relate to activities regarding petroleum, natural gas, environment, ecology, cofinancing, budget and work program, project implementation review, and project performance audit. Because of the EISIC filing system that interfiled sector records, these files also represent the industry sector including industrial development finance (IDF) operations. Files titled "general energy correspondence" cover a broad range of topics ranging from routine to substantive matters. The latter includes: confirmations on appointments and divisional assignments or responsibilities from regional chiefs copied to sector; Bank programs and activities in related sectors; procedural changes (i.e. project pre-briefs); training requirements, and Industry Department implementation review. Routine administrative matters cover staffing, Bank employment, word processing, travel schedules, and Board schedules.

A set of "energy and industry staff" files relate to the EIS departments that reported to EISVP under SVPOP between 1982 and 1987. These department files discuss recruitment, management and divisional retreat summaries, sector work, ESMAP tasks and country work, and assignment of responsibilities. Memoranda between Vice President Jean-Loup Dherse (EISVP), SVPOP, and Director Rovani and others discuss operational initiatives such as an issues paper regarding project financing on limited recourse basis in Bank projects, proposal of EIS support, and other business activities.

Governance, management and oversight

Series consists of records created and received by the Industry Department (IND) units, previous units and successors, related to managing the industry and mining portfolio and strategy and directing the research, policy, and project work of the department.

EISIC Subject files

A substantial portion of records are thematic, or subject files (1972 - 1987) primarily organized by specific industry subsector that contain correspondence, reports, and other material created by division chiefs and seniorstaff and often copied to the Office of the Director that were maintained in the EISIC. The more predominant subjects include the following industries or subsectors: alcohol; coal; fertilizer (phosphate and nitrogen); mining and minerals; pulp and paper; lead and zinc; steel (including iron ore); textiles; oil shale; refinery; science and technology; capital goods; as well as individual files on several other industries.

Files contain mainly copies of internal memoranda or cables between the Office of the Director (INDDR) to division chiefs and other IND staff and Bank departments including in the Regions, or to INDDR reporting office, Senior Vice President, Operations Policy (SVPOP). A broad range of subjects are covered, such as: summaries of visits to external organizations and meetings; representation at conferences or other events; arrangement of consultants for studies or reviews; review and comments on department papers or data (including commodity price projections); compilation and sharing of project data; discussion of project practice and impact of sector review (pricing, subsidization); sector issues and trends (new technologies, commodity pricing systems). Memoranda are occasionally in the form of Terms of Reference (TORs) for studies or missions, and back-to-office reports (BTORs) including copies of regional staff BTORs. There are also originals and copies of incoming letters and outgoing letters between IND senior management or staff and representatives of external organizations or government offices regarding: invitations or confirmations to participate in external meetings or conferences; proposed projects for the sector; and sharing of information on projects and common issues.

Other record types occasionally filed with the correspondence include: consultant reports; draft and final background papers or reports; agenda; list of participants; commodity and industry data such as price projections, company revenues, and production; external journal articles or press clippings; and other items.

Several files are titled "Industry Department general correspondence" (1977 - 1987) and industry sector reports (1973 - 1986). The general correspondence records cover a broad range of topics ranging from routine to substantive matters originating from IND successor, the Industrial Projects Department (NDP, later IPD). Topics of the latter include: division work program and budget, Bank lending program, confirmations on appointments and divisional assignments; Bank programs and activities in related sectors; procedural changes; and training requirements. Routine matters cover staffing and consultants, recruitment, bidding process, and other administrative matters. Files also contain copies of memoranda from Operations Vice President Ernest Stern to operational vice presidencies and Regional Vice Presidencies.

A set of "industrial strategy and policy" files (1982 - 1987) mainly reflect the various activities of the Industrial Strategy and Policy Division (INDSP). Memoranda covers arrangement of seminars, draft guidelines, summaries of meetings with external organizations representatives and government officials, budget and work plan, dissemination of draft papers including policy papers for comments, delegation of authority, and other matters.

NRIC correspondence and related records

The series also contains some correspondence files (1978 - 1986) authored by IND senior management and advisers and chiefs that were originally sent to the Bank's centralized records in the Non-Regional Information Center (NRIC). Files are titled "industry", "mining", and "general" and include mostly memoranda and letters that cover the various sector activities such as policy work, sector studies and projects, division work programs and organizational structure, and liaison with external organizations. "General" correspondence files cover various routine and substantive matters; among the latter includes notes about sector projects, policy and analysis, comments on regional lending program, IPD lending/work program, training components in Bank projects, sector activities in Regions, and external meetings. Attached documents include sector-authored yellow cover papers, published technical reports, draft policy papers or publication chapters, work program summaries, data tables (including lending operations); and external reports. A "General PIN" file contains drafts and final report, titled "World Bank Role in Non-Fuel Mineral Development", that outlines the potential for developing non-fuel indigenous resources in developing countries. "Mining" files are thin in volume. There is some overlap in certain records between these NRIC files and those above maintained in the EISIC as the department "working files"; however, this set of NRIC files is considerably smaller in volume and scope of sector activities.

Liaison, partnerships and program collaboration

Series consists of records related to collaborative activities and partnerships between the Industry and Energy (IEN) Department units and mostly external organizations, but liaison with Bank Group institutions and internal committees as well. Records cover the period from 1975 to 2013 and provide information about common initiatives with partners, director and senior staff participation on high-level committees or events, and development of collaborative global programs. Most records relate to the energy sector, but content within certain files frequently includes the industry and mining sectors as well. See the arrangement note below for more information.

Liaison with external organizations

The series contains records organized by external organization or Bank Group body, including the International Energy Agency (IEA, 1993 - 1996), Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC, 1975, 1986 - 1988), non-governmental organizations including Bretton Woods Committee (1992 - 1997), Solar Development Corporation (1996 - 1997), the International Finance Corporation (IFC, 1991 - 1992), Economic Development Institute (EDI), now World Bank Institute (WBI, 1994 - 1996), Enron (1993 - 1996), Organizacion Latinoamericana de Energia (OLADE, or Latin American Energy Organization, 1988 - 1990), European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD, 1991), and other research institutions, private foundations, and United States government agencies. A file on the G7 Nuclear Safety Working Group discusses the Chernobyl, Ukraine nuclear plant closure and energy strategies.

These records were primarily maintained by the Power Development, Efficiency & Household Fuels Division (IENPD) and the Office of the Director (IENDR). Files contain internal memoranda, All-in-1 messages, and letters between IEN units and representatives of organizations regarding arrangement of and discussion at meetings, discussion of partnerships and current or potential collaborative activities preparation of implementing agreements, information about ESMAP activities, and knowledge sharing. Other memoranda are between IENDR and Finance and Private Sector Development Vice Presidency (FPD) and other Bank departments including the Office of External Relations. Memoranda are also occasionally in the form of Terms of Reference (TORs) and back-to-office reports, describing events attended. Some files only contain United Nations agency reports and other external annual reports, press clippings, or booklets as reference. A single file consists of a 1975 preliminary briefing note on OPEC regarding optimal pricing policies for OPEC among the records.

Also included in the series are a set of records originally maintained in the Energy and Industry Information Center (EISIC, 1975 - 1987). Most of the files concern the Bank's relationship with United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and contain general correspondence with UNDP (1975 - 1987). Some liaison files reflect joint initiatives between the EGY and Industry Department (IND) departments when they were two separate departments under Energy and Industry Staff Vice Presidency (EISVP).

Other record types consist of copies of Board documents, draft Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs), meeting and seminar agenda, meeting minutes and summaries, presentation slide hard copies, concept papers, TORs, curriculum vitae (CVs), external brochures and reports, and copies of Congressional committee papers.

Global Gas Flaring Reduction Partnership (GGFR)

A large volume of records in the series (2001 - 2013) relate to the Global Gas Flaring Reduction Public-Private Partnership (GGFR) that originated in 2002. Records document the origins of the Bank Group-led Gas Flaring Reduction Initiative in collaboration with the Government of Norway and the role played by the joint Bank and International Finance Company (IFC) department, the Oil, Gas, Mining and Chemicals Department (COC), and its Policy Division (COCPO), later the Sustainable Energy, Gas, Oil, Mining unit [SEGOM]). COCPO was central to planning and organizing the Oslo 2002 conference and discussion of the GGFR Terms of Reference (TORs), arranging subsequent conferences and stakeholder consultations, and preparing and disseminating GGFR studies and reports. Most records were maintained by GGFR Program Manager Bent Svensson who led the task team responsible for implementing GGFR activities and liaising with stakeholders in coordination with the GGFR secretariat.

Correspondence records consist of draft and final outgoing letters, facsimiles, and email hard copies, including invitations to GGFR members and facsimiles sent by IFC Executive Vice President Peter L. Woicke and jointly authored letters with partner European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) inviting attendees to workshops, forums, and similar events. Other correspondence is with consultants recruited to conduct gas flaring studies and internal hard copy emails regarding meeting planning, launching events, and press arrangements. Other records filed with correspondence include: draft and final TORs including for the GGFR partnership; summary action plans and activity descriptions; draft country profile information including summary of Bank work activities; progress and final reports; consultation briefing notes; agenda and meeting summaries with stakeholders and partners; data tables; budget sheets; GGFR promotional materials such as brochures; draft workshop session notes; speeches and talking points; presenter biographies; presentation slides; handwritten notes; and reference material suchas newsletters and webpage hard copies.

A small volume of records relate to financing GGFR activities through a multi-donor trust fund and include: agreements and amendments signed by COC director; initiating brief for trust funds (IBTFs); notice of contributions; letters and hard copy emails with donors or between COC units and GGFR secretariat regarding financing agreements and the transfer and use of funds; quarterly and annual financial reports, and other reports prepared and submitted by Svensson; GGFR steering committee minutes; briefing papers; and confidentiality agreements.

GGFR is governed by a Steering Committee that was chaired by COC Director Rashad-Rudolf Kaldany at its establishment. Steering Committee records (2002 - 2013) were maintained by COCPO and SEGOM in addition to International Gas Flaring Reduction conferences, GGFR regional conferences, and workshops on carbon credits and best practice, standards, and guidelines for flaring reduction. Records include invitation letters, quarterly updates to committee members, agenda, minutes, list of participants, briefing papers, and reports for review. Also included are two files related to the World Summit on Sustainable Development (2002).

Extractive Industries Review (EIR)

Series also contains records related to the Extractive Industries Review (EIR) to examine the role, and future of, the Bank Group in the oil, gas, and mining sectors that was established in July 2001 and led by Dr. Emil Salim. Salim, a former minister of the Government of Indonesia, was appointed by Bank Group President Wolfensohn. Records cover the period 2000 to 2004 and appear to be maintained by both the EIR secretariat and the joint Bank-IFC Oil, Gas, and Chemicals Department (COC), Policy Division, Oil and Gas (COCPO), and the Mining Department director (CMNDR) in support of planning and developing EIR activities. Files relate to EIR activities and events including the planning workshop in Brussels (2001), multistakeholder consultation workshops in Africa, Asia Pacific, Europe and Central Asia, and Middle East and North Africa (2003), advisory group feedback meetings and final workshop (2003), and other meetings. These files, as well as a set of chronological correspondence files, contain mostly email hard copies between the EIR secretariat, consultation participants, and consultants and between COC and IFC senior management and staff. Topics covered in the correspondence include comments on EIR drafts and submissions to the review, nominations for advisory group membership (with participant lists and CVs), representation of regions, comments on consultation workshop reports, budget and trust funds, communications strategy, planning and discussion around Bank Group oil and gas activities, and event administration and logistics. Correspondence between Salim and EIR secretariat discuss managing and planning EIR work, schedule, budget, consultants, sharing of information and articles, status of EIR recommendations and finalizing report, planning of meetings with Bank senior staff, country visits and itineraries, advisory group member selection, and withdrawals of EIR process. There is also correspondence between Salim and Bank Group President Wolfensohn, Director Kaldany, Mining Director James Bond, and IFC officials, discussing EIR activities, meetings, and an amendment to the EIR TORs.

Record types consist of: EIR executive summary recommendations draft outlines; meeting minutes or summaries; lists of participants; hard copies of slide presentations; draft and final EIR TORs; aide-memoire; consultation reports; testimonial reports and transcripts of regional and informal consultations; background papers including one on Bank Group activities in the extractive industries by COCPO; hard copies of slide presentations; handwritten notes; draft and final OED approach paper Evaluation of World Bank Group Activities in the Energy and Extractives sector; external reports, brochures, and articles regarding extractive industries; and more.

A smaller volume of files concerning Salim's project field visits (2000 - 2003) to Asia and Africa (Chad Cameroon oil pipeline project) include a briefing book, and planning records such as: email hard copies of travel arrangements discussion of case studies, outreach and workshops, and Bank group oil, gas and mining investments data; agenda and itineraries; EIR project sheets; country briefs; and external reports, press clippings, and other reference documentation on oil spills and pipelines.

Records are mostly in English with some correspondence and press clippings in French. EIR official reports and stakeholder letters are also in French, Russian, and Spanish.

Committees, task forces, and working groups

The series also contains records of energy sector management and senior staff participation in various external and Bank-wide committees. Most records relate to the International Gas Union (IGU) Council meetings and committees (1988 - 1994) that energy division chiefs participated in, on behalf of the Bank. Energy Development Division Chief Gunter Schramm (IENED) presented in 1989 on the Bank's work in hydrocarbons and future liaison with Bank-IGU. Included in the records are council agenda, minutes, reports, background papers, study proposals, BTORs following meetings, and mostly routine correspondence regarding administrative arrangements.

There are also files relating to the Energy Sector Board (1992 - 1996) created in 1993 and its sub-committee on staffing including meeting announcements and lists of participants, occasionallyagenda and minutes focusing on project updates, reports, position descriptions, and All-in-1 notes regarding board membership, energy policy strategy. Other files relate to the sector's participation in the Multilateral Development Bank Task Force (1995 - 1997), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 1995) and smaller files on Finance and Private Sector Development Vice Presidency (FPD) task forces, advisory committee, working groups on quality enhancement of projects and on large dams (1993 - 1997).

Trust fund program management

A small set of records relate to IENDR, its divisions, and successors' management of trust funds to support energy sector programs and activities in member countries. Three files document the establishment of the Danish Trust Fund for Rural and Renewable Energy and subsequent activities financed by the Government of Denmark (1997 - 2003) including the Africa Rural and Renewable Energy Initiative (AFRREI). Correspondence is filed with Bank-authored progress reports, financial statements, presentation slide hard copies, and other items. There is also an individual file related to an agreement and financial support between the Government of Israel and the Bank for a gas strategy study for Israel (1995).

Knowledge and learning events and products

Series consists of records related to conferences, symposia, seminars, workshops, roundtables, and similar knowledge and learning events that were developed and hosted by Industry and Energy Department (IEN) energy units or attended by sector directors and staff. A portion of files also relate to sector staff's participation in preparatory work for events such as conference steering committees and the vetting of papers submitted. The series also contains newsletters as well as published and unpublished articles and reports authored or co-authored by sector staff. The earliest records dated 1984 are copies of externally authored discussion and presentation papers. Records were created and maintained by various units such as: Industry and Energy Office of the Director (IENDR), Natural Gas Development Unit (IENGU), Power Development, Efficiency & Household Fuels Division (IENPD), and ESMAP Operations Division (ESMOD).

Conferences, seminars, and similar events that were organized as Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) technical assistance or relating to other ESMAP projects are not included in this series if there was a clear distinction. See the related units of description note below for more information.

Conferences, seminars, other knowledge and learning events

Records reflect IEN Director Richard Stern's attendance and or participation including as a panel member at various international conferences and symposia such as the World Energy Council Congress (1995) and World Economic Development Congress Power Project Finance Summit. Stern also maintained records of World Bank seminars conducted by his division chiefs and staff as reference (Seminar on Technical and Economic Nuclear Issues, 1994). There is also a small volume of files containing papers presented by IENDR Adviser Dennis Anderson on the Bank's solar initiative experience to date at the International Symposium on the Grand Solar Challenge (1995) with other event records. Also included are a draft and three computer disks relatedto Anderson's paper "Energy, Environment and Economy". Knowledge and learning event records were largely maintained by IEN divisions. The whole of the records of IENDR and divisions cover the period 1988 to 1998.

Records consist of facsimiles and letters sent to participants or organizers covering invitations to the event and preparation of the agenda, and internal memoranda between IENDR, division management, and staff discussing the organization of speakers, selection of panels and topics, administrative arrangements, and follow-up to various events. Memoranda are often in the form of Terms of Reference (TORs), back-to-office-reports, and summaries of discussions, together with an attached event program, drafts and final agenda, presentation slide hard copies, or the paper presented at the event, some of which are externally authored papers. Additional record types in the series include: conference session papers; lists of participants and speakers; program and presentation outlines and notes; papers prepared by sector staff or consultants; working papers and reports produced by participants or external authors; transparency slides; biographical sketches of presenters; and press clippings or articles.

Specific topics represented in the knowledge and learning events include, but are not limited to: seminars concerning power sector regulatory issues; structure and pricing; energy policy; power system planning; natural gas; electricity and gas trade; financing energy; roundtables on energy efficiency; independent power projects; or power supply in low- and lower-middle income countries; International Gas Trade Roundtable; and workshops on renewable energy; oil and gas; commercialization of natural gas; and annual World Bank Energy Workshops.

There are also individual files regarding Bank Group and International Monetary Fund Annual Meetings (1994 - 1996), IEN road shows and products (1992 - 1994), Task Managers' Workshop on Global Environment Facility Global Warming Projects sponsored by Global Environment Coordination Division (ENVCG) and partners, Mining and the Community for Asian and Pacific Nations (1998), China Coal Sector Development and Reform Conference World Bank and ESMAP (2003), and various other events.

Speeches, newsletters, publications, and other material

The series contains speeches of the first IEN Director, Anthony Churchill, given at various external conferences and events (1990 - 1993) and speeches on the topic of energy and the environment given at conferences and similar events by Churchill and others including Bank Group President Barber B. Conable and Energy Strategy, Management, and Assessment (IENES) Division Chief Robert J. Saunders at the ESMAP consultative meeting, 1988. A single file containing material for speeches on gas mostly contains papers authored by IENGU chief and draft papers used for the 1992 World Development Report (WDR) related to natural gas benefits to the environment, gas activities of ESMAP, and letters to external peers requesting review and comments.

Series also consists of two files of publications and computer disks maintained by Anderson on various energy and environment topics that he mostly authored and co-authored (1988 - 1996). Files contain an item list of papers, final drafts, final papers published in academic journals and at conferences, and a draft for the new Finance and Private Sector Development Vice Presidency (FPD) series on "Approaches to Private Power". Publication topics include: cost effectiveness in addressing the CO2 problem; cost of nuclear power and fossil fuels; sustainable development; energy efficiency and pollution; industry and the environment; and more. The files also contain some papers by other colleagues including "Transportation and CO2 Emissions: Flexing the Link - A Strategy for the World Bank".

There are also two files containing internally produced newsletters (1994 - 1996), including Oil and Gas, Energy Notes, FPD Notes about the activities of Finance and Private Sector Development Vice Presidency, internal memoranda about the publications, and external press articles about the Bank sectors.

Three training-related files relate to Monitoring Training Program and IEN Support Staff Workshop (1993 - 1995) as well as IENGU gas training (1989 - 1990).

Knowledge and learning events

Series consists of records related to the Industry and Energy (IEN) industry units' participation and attendance at international conferences and other knowledge and learning events. Records were primarily maintained by Industry and Mining Division (IENIM) staff including Economist and Lead Mining Specialist Craig Andrews and Principal Mining Engineer Christopher Wardell and relate to four major events. The records also reflect the role of IENIM in planning and organizing these events.

The Conference on Development, Environment and Mining (Washington, D.C., June 1-3, 1994) co-sponsored by the Bank, United Nations agencies, and the International Council for Metals and the Environment (ICME) addressed the contribution of mining to economic development and management of environmental impacts for sustainable development. Other records relate to: IENIM-organized international roundtable, Mining in the Next 25 Years, on the future of the mining industry and management of risk (1997); Mining and the Community Conference (Quito, 1997 - 1998) to share experiences and research in the mining sector and local communities including indigenous communities, and environmentally sustainable mining; and the Mongolia Investors Conference (Ulanbataar, 1997) organized by Wardell and co-hosted by the Europe and Central Asia Vice Regional Vice Presidency (ECAVP) and Resource Mobilization and Private Sector Development Department (acronym unknown). The purpose of the conference was to promote investment in the areas of oil, gas andmining and to facilitate bilateral discussions between the Government of Mongolia and participants from various countries that included ambassadors, technical specialists and other representatives from the mining, engineering, financial and banking sectors.

Records consist of draft and final outgoing facsimiles and letters to participants or co-organizers covering the development of the conferences or other events, invitations and incoming replies, preparation of the agenda, or requests for funding from government agencies and subsequent financial arrangements for certain events. Internal memoranda between IENIM management and staff discusses the organization of speakers or consultants, selection of panels and topics, and administrative arrangements.

Additional record types that are filed with the correspondence include: agenda; objectives and discussion group descriptions; draft and final list of participants; curriculum vitae (CVs) of speakers; draft session papers; case studies; IENIM staff-authored articles; consultant reports (i.e. mineral resource and petroleum exploration in Mongolia); discussion paper proposals; background reports; conference brochures; printed material of other external institutions; and ?Mining and the Community: Results of the Quito Conference?, EMT (Energy, Mining and Telecommunications) Occasional Paper No. 11 (1998).

Records of the World Bank Institute

  • WB IBRD/IDA WBI
  • collection
  • 1952 - 2007

The fonds consists of records related to the activities of the World Bank Institute (WBI, previously the Economics Development Institute [EDI]). Records in this fonds most commonly relate to the training and programming offered by the WBI. Topics of WBI training classes, programs, seminars and other events are generally aligned with the Bank's networks and sectors; these include, for example, training courses related to the environment, health, social protection, education, etc. Other training programs represented in these records include: Women Entrepreneurship Development (WED); Women's Management Training Outreach Program (WMTOP); Women in Enterprise Management Training Outreach Program (WEMTOP); Portuguese Speaking African Countries (PALOP); South Pacific Development Management Program (SPDMP); UNEDIL (UNDP/EDI/ILO program for Strengthening African Management Institutions in Africa); Agricultural Management Training in Africa (AMTA); Agricultural Rural Development Network (ARDNET); Gender and Developing Training Programme (GAD); and the Social Policy Reform in Transition Economies (SPRITE). Also included are records related to: programs organized in cooperation with the Joint Vienna Institute; the Foundation for Advanced Studies on International Development (FASID); Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO); and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

Prior to 1994, the EDI division responsible for a training activity would, at the conclusion of the project, create a 'Master' training file. This consists of the records considered to be the essential products of the training unit. Included in these files are: terms of reference; seminar/training course programs and agendas; data on participants, including participants' registration questionnaires; activity briefs; activity completion reports; and final reports. After 1994, divisions and units sent master copies to the Internal Documents Unit (IDU) and the Infoshop for public dissemination and, consequently, no longer maintained these types of files.

The fonds contains a variety of other records related to training programs organized by WBI/EDI or in cooperation with other agencies and institutions. Records from these programs may include, but are not limited to: participants lists; activity briefs; timetables; agendas; administrative arrangements; budget information; strategic plans; mission statements; descriptions of functional responsibilities; terms of reference; program goals; structure and management records; periodic reports; policy papers; substantive correspondence; chronological files; Memoranda of Understanding; liaison reports; background information on organizations; Back-to-Office reports; and aide memoires. Program evaluation studies and impact evaluations of specific EDI programs are also included. Studies may involve use of questionnaires or site visits, and may be conducted by EDI or by cofinancing partners or external agencies.

Records relating to a program organized and provided by EDI for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to strengthen the participation of [NGOs] in the planning and execution of development policies/programs are also included. Records related to this program take the form of the training program records described previously.

Records of the African Virtual University (AVU) are also included. Records relate to: learning centers; content providers; satellite service providers; researchers; the digital virtual library; the language laboratory; accreditation; conferences, seminars, and forums. Also included are: AVUboard documents; legal documents; commitment summary reports; trust fund and budget reports; and course-related materials like those described above.

Records related to seminars organized and presented by EDI in the 1990s are included in this fonds. These include: seminar proposals; aide memoires; summary sheets; activity briefs; lists of resources and participants; evaluation reports; course curriculum; Back-to-Office reports; general correspondence; and final versions of program materials that were distributed to participants. A small amount of records relating to EDI's Senior Policy Seminars in the late 1980s are also included.

The fonds also consists of divisional and departmental work program and budget records. Divisional work program and budget records from the early to mid-1990s include: budgets; payments and expenditures; budget reviews; trust fund letters of agreement; budget and cofinancing allocation; accrual payment reports; and regional and topical work programs. The fonds also includes retrospective, quarterly, and mid-year work program and budget reviews from 1985 to 1992, as well as records related to the Institute's periodic reorganizations.

Also included in this fonds are a variety of records related to cofinancing of EDI/WBI projects and programs; these records are from the late 1980s through the 1990s. Included are fact sheets summarizing training activities undertaken in developing countries through cofinancing. These consist of: program statements; correspondence; progress reports; Summary Activity Briefs; evidence of expenditures; and related materials. The fonds also consists of correspondence with governments and international agencies regarding their commitments or intentions to participate as cofinancer or Trust Fund provider for activities/programs conducted by EDI. These records include: summaries of coordination meetings; copies of original legal agreements; copies of initiating briefs; and correspondence, reports, memos, etc., concerning expenses and the release of monies.

Thefonds also includes liaison records between EDI and various states, agencies, institutions, and international organizations. These records were created at both the divisional and departmental level and primarily take the form of correspondence. Funding, programming, and information exchange are the most common topics discussed.

The fonds contains records related to the Joint Japan/World Bank Graduate Scholarship Program and the McNamara Fellowship Program. Joint Japan/World Bank Graduate Scholarship Program records primarily include scholars' information (applications, reference letters, etc.) from the late 1990s through the mid 2000s. However, Steering Committee records from its inception (1987 to 1991) and Annual Reports and Director of Scholars (1990 to 1993) are also included. Records related to the McNamara Fellowship Program are similar. Records include: applicant correspondence and reference letters; applicant proposals; letters of award; payment information; quarterly progress reports; and final reports. McNamara Fellowship budget records from 1983 to 1989 relate to: scholars' tuition; travel expenses; subsistence allowances; insurance costs; and other records related to the administration of the Fellowship. An Annual Report for 1989 is included.

A variety of EDI/WBI network/departmental and divisional chronological and subject files are included in this fonds. Records include: WBIVP chronological files (2000 to 2005) and meeting files (2001 to 2003); EDI Directors' chronological files (Amnon Golan [1990 to 1994], Alexander Ter Weele [1991 to 1996] and Vinod Thomas [1995 to 1999]); Coordination and Development Administration Division (EDICD) Chief Robert Lacey (1988 to 1992); Regional Capacity Enhancement (WBIRC) Director Michael Sarvis (2003 to 2004); Joint Vienna Institute (1995 to 1998) subject files; and small amounts of EDI regional coordinators', researchers', and consultants' chronological files.

The fonds contains a variety of the Institute's publications. These include: copies of EDI Bulletins from the 1980s and 1990s; the EDI Preliminary Prospectus (1955); EDI booklets and pamphlets from the 1950s to the 1970s; copies of Selected Readings and Source Materials on Economic Development published by EDI (1963/64 and 1965/66); EDI Curricula of Courses publications (1968 to 1976); and EDI Directory of Fellows (various years, 1967 to 1980).

Records related to the Development Education Program (DEP) are included as well. The DEP, formerly the Schools Program, was begun in the late 1970s with the objective of producing and marketing education materials about economic development for secondary schools in the U.S. and other countries. Records include: published materials based on DEP materials; catalogues; marketing and outreach materials; budget and human resource records; program records; and chronological records.

The fonds also contains briefing books prepared for the WBI Vice President by WBI staff for the years 2001 to 2003. A small number of briefing books prepared for Bank President Wolfowitz (2006 to 2007) are also included.

Finally, the fonds contains records created from the early-1950s through 1968 that relate to the origins of the Institute and its early operation. These records include chronological files from 1952 to 1968 that contain correspondence between the Bank and academics, civil servants, politicians, institutions, agencies, and others. Minutes of the Bank's Staff Loan Committee that relate to EDI's creation and its early operation are also included in these files as are proposals, planning, and budget records for the creation of the EDI. Topics of other records include: EDI's library project; administration of the Institute; funding of the Institute by the Ford and Rockefeller foundations; public relations; reports to the Bank Board; reviews of the Institute; EDI Advisory Board meeting minutes; and travel. Also included are anniversary publications and transcripts of interviews of prominent EDI administrators and instructors conducted in the mid-1980s.

World Bank Institute

Operations support and supervision

The operations support and supervision series consists of records relating to Garcia de Truslow's work in the Latin America and Caribbean regional vice presidency between 1981 and 1987 as an Urban Planner and between 1990 and 1998 as Senior Projects Officer. The series includes records relating to both project support and to sectoral and country research and planning. Records relate to work in countries throughout South and Central America including Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay. Of these, Argentina and Panama are represented the most.

Series consists of records maintained by Garcia de Truslow relating to specific projects. Garcia de Truslow maintained her own binders of records on projects that she was involved in and these are contained in this series. Projects that are represented most abundantly include: Bolivia - Urban Development Project (P006132) Dominican Republic - Project for the Institutional Development of the Municipality of Santo Domingo (P006993) Argentina - Yacyreta Hydroelectric Project (P005937) Ecuador - Mining Development and Environmental Control Technical Assistance Project (P007129) Argentina - Mining Sector Development Technical Assistance (P006055) and Panama - Colon Urban Development Project (P007810) Project records include: copies of official loan documents (including drafts); project briefs (including revisions); back-to-office reports;internal memoranda; correspondence with external parties, including government officials; Terms of Reference; mission notes, itineraries, and other records collected while on mission; project status reports; newspaper clippings; environmental assessment reports; and aide memoires.

Country operation records are also included in this series. These records relate to project identification and preparedness, mission travel, and the preparation of Country Economic Memoranda (CEM) and other papers. In some instances, country operation files include records related to ongoing projects for which Garcia de Truslow provided support. Research and reference materials are also included. Note that country operation records from the 1980s were created and collected during Garcia de Truslow's time as an Urban Planner and, as such, records related to urban planning and housing are numerous. Many of the country operation records were contained in black binders. Record types include: country and country sector reports; investment reviews; aide memoires; back-to-office reports; correspondence between Garcia de Truslow and parties external to the Bank including country officials; Terms of Reference; project briefs; and Bank- and external-authored reports related to the country's economic development and lending operations.

The operations support and supervision series also contains country-focused subject files. The majority of the country subject files are general in nature. A small number relate to the specific sector of a given South or Central American country, such as science and technology or urban development. Country subject files contain small amounts of internal memoranda related to project support, research, and mission travel. Correspondence with external parties, including country officials, is also included. However, the majority of the country subject files consists of reports, background papers, and reference materials. Some of the reports and papers are drafts that had been sent to Garcia de Truslow for comment.

Liaison, partnerships and program collaboration

Series consists of records related to partnerships and collaborative activities between external organizations and the Industrial Projects Department (IPD) units and successors between 1979 and 1985 and 1995 to 1999. Records provide information about common initiatives with partners in the industrial and mining sector, collaborative programs, and senior staff participation on high-level committees or events.

Most of the small set of files that were maintained in the Energy and Information Center (EISIC) document the participation of Division Chief L. Hartsell Cash, Projects, Mining and Heavy Machinery Division (IPDD2) in the United Nations Revolving Fund for Natural Resources Exploration working groups and Joint Operations Group (JOG) meetings (1979 - 1983). Other individual files include the International Labor Organization (1983 - 1986), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Research and Development in Integrated Resource Recovery programme (1984), and Business Partners for Development (BPD) mining cluster (1997 - 2000). Record types include: draft and final reports; minutes of United Nations Revolving Fund working group and JOG meetings; JOG progress and quarterly reports; internal memoranda and letters with representatives of external organizations.

The series also contains four files (1997 - 1999) related to the Bank-led Clean Coal Initiative (CCL) launched at a roundtable in June 1996. Specific records include: letters and facsimiles from IENIM Division Chief Peter Van der Veen to Energy Sector Management and Assistance Program (ESMAP) donors and stakeholders concerning financial support for a pilot "project" based in China; letters with consultants; strategic framework and reform priorities for China; draft articles on the Bank's involvement in coal and CCL; project description (also referred to as study program); Terms of Reference; coal price data; back-to-office-report; and other external reference articles and reports. Records were maintained by Principal Mineral Engineer John Strongman who was later succeeded by Principal Mining Engineer and Task Manager Christopher Wardell

Project lending and operational support

Series consists of records created by the industry units carrying out operational work including project lending, technical assistance, economic and sector work, and support to the Regional Vice Presidency units in the manufacturing and mining sectors. Prior to the Bank-wide 1987 reorganization and creation of the Industry and Energy Department (IEN), predecessors including the Industrial Projects Department (NDP, later IPD) formed in the 1972 reorganization operated as a central operating project department (COPD). The Bank's five COPD departments, including IPD, reported to the Central Projects Staff Vice Presidency. These units, which were too small to decentralize, had full responsibility for managing operational activities. This involved providing planning, direction, supervision, and personnel to the Region, as if it were a regional projects division. IPD and its successor, Industry Department (IND, 1982 - 1987) were specifically responsible for identifying, preparing, appraising, and supervising projects involving direct loans or credits to large-scale industrial enterprises. This function is reflected in the volume of Bank project lending records created in this earlier period from the 1960s to the mid-1980s.

Types of records in this series include: internal memoranda and incoming and outgoing letters, cables, telexes and hard copies of electronic messages between industry units, regional staff and other Bank units, government officials, and other external organizations; Terms of Reference (TORs) of studies, missions, and consultants; aide-memoires; back-to-office reports; project cycle documents such as staff appraisal reports, agreement drafts and copies, and President's Reports; consultants' reports; feasibility study reports; project financial statements and projections; balance sheets; minutes of meetings; data tables and statistics on industrial and mining operations or commodities (refinery revenues and costs, production costs, crude prices, consumption, forecast and actual production); handwritten notes; technical specifications documents; Bank and external newsletters; and other externally-authored reference material on countries in support of projects, sector studies, and reviews. Reference materials created and compiled by staff and consultants also consist of manuals and publications or working papers, United Nations reports, and annual reports including many of member country public enterprises. Lastly, there are an undetermined number of geologic and topographic maps (minerals prospect plans or drilling plans), technical drawings (engineering, construction), flow diagrams (plant extraction, production models) and, less commonly, photograph albums or photocopies of images depicting project sites.

Project lending and Economic and Sector Work (ESW)

Records in the series reflect NDP/IPD and successor IND's project identification, preparation, and supervision of investment, structural adjustment, and other development projects that were financed or cofinanced by Bank loans and credits beginning from the late 1960s. The earliest records are government or other externally produced documents and reports that were kept as reference for projects, including a copy of a private sector company incorporation certificate (1949) and a geological survey regarding lignite mining in Sierra Leone (1951). The series includes records relating to completed and dropped projects.

Among the most common projects reflected in the records are manufacturing of iron and steel, wood processing (pulp and paper), fertilizer, cement, and mining of non-fuel minerals (nickel, iron ore, bauxite or aluminum, phosphate) and fuel minerals such as coal and lignite. Project records also relate to exploration and engineering as prerequisites for mining activities and mining safety. Some of the projects containing the largest volume of records in this series include: Industrial Research Development and Engineering Project - Spain (P032983) (1978 - 1982); Nickel Exploration Engineering Project - Burundi (P000182) (1964 - 1985); Oil Shale Engineering Project - Morocco (P005402) (1975 - 1981 and National Mineral Exploration Fund Project - Bolivia (P006134), (1979 - 1989).

Other lending projects represented in the series in lesser volume, relate to chemicals and petrochemicals, refineries, copper, gold, diamond, alcohol, tin, potash, small scale mining, pharmaceuticals, industrial energy conservation, and trade (export diversification).

Related sectors such as energy, transport, and environment are occasionally represented in the project records, as components of a particular project, or through collaboration and information sharing. One such project that generated a large volume of files is the Bukit Asam Mining and Transport Project - Indonesia (P003811) (1970 - 1985). A small volume of records relate to IND's involvement in petroleum exploration in collaboration with the energy sector units that operated alongside IND under the Energy and Industry Vice Presidency (EIS, 1982 - 1987).

Series also contains a small volume of records (1978 - 1993) created and compiled by industry units to produce the ESW analytical reports that helped direct development programs and project lending. These records mostly relate to the mining sector in African countries and include sector studies and review, privatization technical assistance, mining sector rehabilitation, exploration and promotion of mines and metals, and an industrial restructuring strategy review for Hungary (1985 - 1990).

Operational support

The series also contains project-related material created by the Industry and Mining Division (IENIM) and successor units while advising and reviewing development projects and providing technical assistance. Operational support records cover the period from approximately 1987 to 2007. The bulk of the projects were managed in the regional units supported by IENIM. The files contain standard project documents, as well as correspondence and reports generated by IENIM as part of their review function. Numerous files relate to the [Mining Sector Development and Environment Project, Ghana (P000966) (1990 - 2002), Economic Recovery and Investment Promotion Technical Assistance Project - Zambia (P040642) (1982 - 2001), and Mineral Sector Development Technical Assistance Project - Tanzania (P002812) (1985 - 2003). Other projects supported by industry units relate to coal sector adjustment loans, coal and mining sector rehabilitation, mining sector legal and regulatory reform, environmental management capacity building, steel industry restructuring, privatization and private sector development, cement industry modernization, and industry pharmaceuticals. Records also reflect industry and trade policy, and financial, economic and market analysis for industrial products.

A set of records originally identified as "own financed work" contain a combination of project support and sectoral studies (1988 - 2001). The papers and studies were sometimes conducted in conjunction with external agencies and/or consultants and topics include Latin America Mining Study, Hebei China Gas Study, steel industry restructuring, fertilizer sector study, and others.

Operational support and ESMAP project management

Series consists of records related to the Energy Department (EGY) and successor divisions and units' support to project lending, technical assistance, implementation of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)/World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) projects, economic and sector work (ESW), and other sector analyses. The earliest records in the series are externally produced geological maps (Ghana, 1958), seismic maps, and external technical reports starting from 1959 that were kept as reference mainly for ESMAP energy assessments and petroleum exploration projects.

Related sectors such as industry, forestry, and environment are occasionally represented in the project records, usually in the form of copies of staff appraisal reports, other sector project documents, or memoranda regarding collaboration and information sharing. The series also contains records created in support of mining operational activities primarily during the period of the Oil, Gas, Mining, and Chemicals Department (COC, 2002 - 2010).

The following are three major groupings of records: Energy Assessment Programme (EAP) and ESMAP projects; Bank project lending, cross support and ESW; and general country and topical files. These are described further below. Each grouping represents several different units that maintained the records and these units' separate recordkeeping systems over time.

EAP and ESMAP project records

The largest volume of records in the series (1958 - 2002) relate to energy sector projects to aid low- and lower-middle income countries, particularly oil-importing nations, that were carried out under ESMAP and its precursor program, EAP. In operation from 1980 to 1987, EAP was the technical assistance program co-sponsored by UNDP and the Bank to diagnose a country's most serious energy problems and evaluate options. Assessment missions produced reports for over 70 countries. ESMAP was created in 1983 as a trust-funded program to complement EAP and implement the assessment priorities. After EAP ended in 1987, ESMAP took over assessment work. As the executing agency for ESMAP and EAP, the Energy Department units and successor Industry and Energy Department (IEN) units were responsible for implementing the program and its projects, providing management and budgetary support, recruiting consultants, and preparing reports. From December 1991 to December 1992 when ESMAP was an independent department from IEN, the ESMAP Operations Division (ESMOD) and ESMAP Strategy and Programs Division (ESMPD) carried out ESMAP projects. Since ESMAP's establishment, projects were frequently undertaken in collaboration with consultants who visited project recipients and field sites, researched and collected data, and prepared reports.

ESMAP projects included various activities in the areas of: assessments, project formulation and justification (feasibility and prefeasibility studies), and institutional and policy support (technical assistance, strategies, etc.). Projects were financed or cofinanced by UNDP, theBank, and bilateral and multilateral donors.

The records document the initiation, analysis, preparation, and implementation stages of ESMAP projects in the energy subsectors in collaboration with the Bank's regional operational units, UNDP Division for Global and Interregional Projects, UNDP resident representatives, and occasionally the Bank's Industry Department units. Regional units were involved in the design, review, and dissemination of the country assessments and other ESMAP projects. Although a majority of projects are country-specific, a portion of records relate to regional and global projects. The records also provide insight into the program's evolution to meet the complex demands and diversity of the energy sector.

An early focus of ESMAP was household energy and a study series called ESMAP Household Energy Strategy Studies (HESS) was produced. These were country-based strategies to assist governments to improve capacity to transition from traditional to sustainable energy systems for households in urban and rural locations and establish regulatory reforms. Many, but not all, of the studies were conducted in African countries and published as ESMAP papers (ESM and other numbered reports) beginning in the early 1990s. There are also records from the early 1980s to the 1990s that are related to the Biomass Gasifier Monitoring Program.

Other ESMAP project topics and related research include: electricity; rural electrification; petroleum (oil and natural gas) development and conservation; improved stove; kerosene and liquified gas stoves; environment health and safety; power and gas pipelines; gas flaring reduction; greenhouse gas reduction; clean coal; heat supply restructuring and conservation; wind farm development; photovoltaic systems and technology; waste to energy; women in energy; and energy sector reform. Certain ESMAP project files also relate to the industry sector: industrial energy efficiency; industrial energy conservation (including Sri Lanka and Senegal); interfuel substitution and power generation; and energy efficiency in the fertilizer and cement industries (including Syria and Poland).

Record types include: ESMAP task descriptions; drafts and final Activity Initiation Briefs (AIB); AIB background and project proposals; initiating project memoranda; draft contracts; copies of regional unit back-to-office reports (BTORs) of project missions; BTORs of ESMAP assessment missions, project preparation, and follow-up missions; Terms of Reference (TORs); aide-memoires detailing conclusions of missions; final draft (yellow cover) Activity Completion Reports (ACRs) circulated for review and approval; approved draft (green cover) ACRs; project working papers; energy audit reports; consultant reports; agenda and minutes of internal meetings and with government officials and copies of review meetings prepared by regional units; budget sheets; final and draft ESMAP country assessment reports; assessment status reports; UNDP project documents; data tables, i.e. consumption calculations, conversion factors; handwritten notes and data; press clippings; and external reference material such as discussion and conference papers, government and corporate reports, guidelines, legislation, and equipment brochures. The reference materials were created and compiled by staff and consultants when conducting research work for ESMAP projects such as energy assessments, strategy studies, and surveys.

Correspondence consists of memoranda, letters, cables, facsimiles, or All-in-1 hard copy messages between the energy units and regional units or consultants, Bank resident missions, government officials, or UNDP representatives. Topics discussed in the correspondence include requests for ESMAP assistance, resource allocation, collaboration between energy sector units and regional units, sharing project information and updates, reporting on project issues or field investigations, data collection, financing and allocating resources for projects, dissemination of reports, recruitment and reporting of consultants, and other operational and administrative matters. In addition to textual records, there are also an undetermined number of technical drawings, geological and country maps, and computer disks.

ESMAP project records also relate to the organization and delivery of regional and country-based seminars, workshops, and conferences that were often included as a training component in the technical assistance projects as early as 1983. These workshops and similar events evolved into a knowledge dissemination function likely in the late 1990s or early 2000s. The events were organized by EGY and IEN division staff in coordination with regional staff, and often involved the recruitment of external consultants to develop materials or background papers or conduct the learning events. Specific conference or seminar topics include but are not limited to, energy efficiency, energy conservation, energy strategy for rural and low-income urban communities, reducing electric power system losses in Africa, and a global windmill testing program workshop.

Record types found in the seminar and workshop files are similar in content to other ESMAP operational files and include: draft and final AIB for the seminar or workshop; proceedings; speeches and addresses; conference agenda and program description with lists of participants; BTORs; TORs; aide-memoires; draft and final workshop reports; copies of consultant contracts; and evaluation summaries. Correspondence such as incoming and outgoing letters, cables, facsimiles, and hard copy emails between IEN staff, government officials, private sector, and consultants document administrative and financial arrangements, invitations, selection of speakers, participants and consultants, collaboration with Economic Development Institute (EDI), outreach, and event follow up. The correspondence also covers substantive matters such as roundtable discussions, policy, statistical data provided in support of a study or event, and sharing of country sector information.

Less commonly, ESMAP funds were also used for assistance in organizing energy sector donor meetings for specific countries such as Senegal (1985 - 1986); a very small volume of records relate to these meetings and preparations.

A small portion of correspondence and other records maintained in the Non-Regional Information Center (NRIC) indicate the UNDP project identifier number and are nearly all general files related to ESMAP (1981 - 1987) or assessments (1980 - 1986) and Biomass Gasifier Monitoring Program (1983 - 1987) that were financed, or partially financed, by UNDP under ESMAP. Other project files relating to testing and demonstration of solar pumping systems and renewable energy technologies do not always include mention of ESMAP and may be separate projects.

Project lending, cross support records, and Economic and Sector Work (ESW)

Records in the series also reflect EGY, IEN, and successor energy units' support to project identification, preparation, and supervision for investment, structural adjustment, and other development projects that were financed, cofinanced, or managed by the Bank's regional operations units (approximately 1980 - 2010) with reference material dating from the early 1960s. These include completed and dropped projects. Energy sector units aided project preparation by selecting and recruiting consultants and supporting consultant work and reports. They also reviewed operational documents and provided guidance, advice, or analytical tools to regional offices.

Projects involved, but are not limited to, petroleum exploration (both oil and natural gas), hydroelectric power, power distribution and efficiency, gas engineering, gas utilization, and energy sector rehabilitation. Specific projects supported by the COC mining and energy units that represent the more extensive files include: Mining Sector Capacity Building and Environmental Management Project - Burkina Faso P000283; Mine Closure and Social Mitigation Project - Romania P056337; Sustainable Management of Mineral Resources - Nigeria P086716; Mineral Resources Management Capacity Building Project - Mozambique P001808; Energy Conservation Project - China P003606; Coal Sector Rehabilitation Project - India P009979; and Environmental Management Capacity Building Pilot Project of the Hydrocarbon Sector - Bolivia P065902.

Record types include: memoranda sent and received by the energy units discussing project support, progress, or provision of comments on reports; minutes of meetings; notes for files; briefing papers; BTORs; aide-memoires; white cover reportcopies; supervision reports; project performance audit reports; aide-memories resulting from review missions by regional staff and or consultants; consultant proposals; CVs; draft reports, particularly from the gas industry; copies of loan agreements and related documents; and externally produced geological maps.

From time to time, ESMAP externally funded staff would provide cross support to the Bank's country departments on economic and sector work and technical assistance, as well as lending preparation and appraisal, at the financial expense of the country departments. Cross support records are also reflected in this series and include: ESMAP and consultant feasibility reports and studies; BTORs; curriculum vitaes of consultants; letters and facsimiles and other correspondence (between IEN, consultant, government officials) concerning progress on reports, project status and country energy situation, procurement matters; and internal memoranda or All-in-1 hard copy messages between IEN and regional units.

Series also contains records created and compiled by EGY and successor unit staff to produce the ESW analytical reports that helped direct development programs and project lending. Records span the period from approximately 1978 to 1996 and include: surveys; survey result reports; draft and final study reports, including World Bank Study of multiple country energy topics; working papers; TORs; Board documents; proposals; internal memoranda between IEN divisions and regional units; letters to and from external parties regarding collaboration on studies; statements and speeches of IEN director or Bank Group senior management; and background documents including external reports, national energy legislation, and supporting data such as pricing figures. Numerous files (for which approximate dates follow), relate to reviews of Bank lending for natural gas (approximately 1983 - 1992), petroleum, oil and gas contracts, privatization and other issues (1978 - 1991), Indonesia gas development planning (1988 - 1993), electricity (1989 - 1993), various environment matters (1988 - 1993), ESMAP, and files by country or region.

General country and topical files

General country and topical files in the series (1980s - 2005) are labeled as such and include a mix of reports, correspondence, and other records related to both ESMAP and Bank lending activities in oil, gas, and mining as well as country studies and reports in these sectors. A portion of the mining files titled "development activities" are organized by country. These records describe the status of mining projects, investments, and development activities, as well as discuss government policy in member countries and minerals and mining issues including conflict diamonds and coal. Other country and subject files (1992 - 2004), although fragmentary, contain mostly hard copy emails and related records maintained by Craig B. Andrews (Industry and Mining Division, IENIM) and Jeffrey Davidson (Policy Division, Industry and Mining (CMNPO), later the Policy Division, Oil, Gas and Mining (COCPO). These files relate to operational and project support of IFC/Bank projects in oil and gas and mining and mining activities in Nicaragua, Senegal, Burkina Faso, and Madagascar.

A set of IEN subject files (1987 - 1998) shared by the Power Development, Efficiency and Household Fuels Division (IENPD), Oil and Gas Division (IENOG) broadly cover project management and program support topics. The files were further classified into Country Area Programs (CAP) and Management or Program Support (MPS). There appears to be some overlap between the two. Many of the files relate to ESMAP projects including proposals, assessments, recruitment and reporting of consultants, and arrangement and delivery of ESMAP workshops. Other management or program support files relate to organization and delivery of Energy Week program, global themes such as energy efficiency and renewable energy, clean coal case studies, and country-level activities. Specific record types include many of those mentioned in the above sections.

Chronological files

The series contains chronological records sent and received by the Industry and Mining Division (IENIM), Industry and Energy Department that were forwarded to, and maintained in the IISC.

Many of the files maintained in the IISC are thin, some containing a single piece of correspondence. The IISC presumably implemented a file classification system that organized files by the creator unit code indicated on the physical folders. Files were subsequently titled by country, subject, or sector. Country files are secondarily labeled as subsector (coal, gas, oil, environment, steel, energy, etc.), by project title and loan or credit number, or general. The unit codes identify the correspondence as sent and received by the following: Industry and Mining (IEN IM); IENIM predecessor, Industry Development Division (IEN IN); and IEN DR (Office of the Director). The latter two are smaller in volume.

The majority of records relate to industrial manufacturing and mining activities and support to specific lending or technical assistance projects in various countries. The correspondence includes the division's comments and contributions to project documents (initiating memoranda, audit reports), draft papers and other products, as well as arrangements of missions or project consultancy services. General sector files that do not cover a particular country mostly pertain to industry, mining, minerals, coal, steel, and forestry and also contain IENIM's comments on project reports and other support activities.

A smaller portion of records, mostly individual files, relate to the division budget and work plan, training seminars, conferences, and a file titled "local committee". The training file contains information about Bank seminars organized by other units or external seminars. The agenda and related records of the Industry Sector Board's first retreat are included in the conferences file. The local committee file pertains to IENIM collaboration and sharing information with the International Committee for Economic Reform and Cooperation and its Raw Materials Working Group.

Correspondence consists of outgoing internal memoranda, letters, hard copies of All-in-1 messages, facsimiles, telexes, and attachments. Much of the correspondence is between division staff, regional technical units, and with Central Operations Department Office of the Director (CODDR). Other letters, facsimiles, or telexes are addressed to government officials or representatives of external agencies regarding collaborative activities and meeting arrangements.

The record types occasionally filed with the correspondence include summaries of meetings or seminars, agenda, Terms of Reference (TORs), Initiating Memorandum, aide-memoires, and external reports, some of which are authored by other international organizations.

Subject files

The files consist of correspondence, reports, legal memoranda, briefs, and printed items. The topics to which the records relate reflect issues of personal interest to Nurick or issues that he handled on behalf of his clients. Records relate to the World Bank as an institution, such as the Bank's Articles of Agreement, the Bretton Woods Agreement, sovereign immunity, the International Finance Corporation, immunities and powers of the Bank, and Bank membership issues involving China, the Palestine Liberation Organization, and Iran. Also included are records relating to bond issues and finance, taxation, co-financing, and securities and investment. Some records relate to litigation, such as a Federal Communications Commission case and a case involving university tuition payments. Files on specific World Bank lending projects include records related to the Volta River power projects in Ghana (including photographs), the Shashe projects in Botswana (Shashe Engineering Project and Shashe Construction and Supplementary Loan Project), the Falconbridge ferronickel project in the Dominican Republic, and the Boke UNDP Technical Assistance project in Guinea. Records also relate to personnel issues, such as staff rights and obligations, garnishment, and staff compensation.

Research Project Files Maintained in the Office of the Vice President, Development Policy (VPD) and the Office of the Vice President, Economics and Research (VPERS)

Most of the research projects for which there are files in this series were started in the 1970s to early and mid-1980s The remainder of the series consists of files for other research projects started in the later 1980s, as well as a smaller number of files for projects started after that time that were maintained by the Research Administrator. The series is arranged in four parts. The first three parts cover overlapping time periods from 1969 to 1995. The fourth part of the series is a research project file for the City Project or City Study (1975 - 1985).

The majority of the projects in this series fall into the categories of development policy and planning, international finance and trade, agriculture and rural development, industry, transportation, water, telecommunications, energy, urbanization and regional development, and population and human resources. Some of the projects were conducted in collaboration with bilateral aid agencies, outside research institutions, and government agencies.

The earlier projects were funded wholly or in part from the External Research budget (ERB) and the later projects by the Research Support Budget (RSB). The Development Economics Department (ECD), Development Research Center (DRC) and the Economic Analysis and Projection Department (EPD) were responsible organizations for most of the earlier projects with Sector and Regional organizations bearing responsibility for the remainder. Research project proposals for the later period were forwarded by the Development Research Department (later the Country Economics Department) or another department, a Sector, or Regional unit, or, in the case of jointly sponsored projects, by a department or Sector and a Regional unit.

A typical research file contains: the formal research proposal submitted on a standardized form and sometimes accompanied by a narrative description of the proposed research and methodology; a memorandum establishing the membership of the review panel; comments on the proposal from Regional or sector units; the report of the review panel; replies from the reviewers or from the review panel; minutes of the Research Committee meeting at which the project proposal was reviewed;a memorandum containing the Research Committee's decision for funding and the identification code (RPO number) assigned to the project; quarterly status reports submitted on forms or narrative progress reports; and an abstract of the project that was published in the World Bank Group Research Program that was first issued in August 1972.The abstract described specific objectives of the study and the research method, the organization of the project, the date when final output was expected, and the Bank staff involved in the project. Also part of the project file were Terms of Reference and Back-to-Office reports for missions connected with the project; correspondence between the project supervisors and the Research Administrator that may include requests for additional funding (which were sometimes accompanied by an additional project proposal) or for an extension of the completion date; budget tracking reports; a project completion report on a standard form; and project evaluation reports from internal and external reviewers that accompanied the final project evaluation, or a project evaluation report from an internal panel. Files for some of the earlier projects also include correspondence with evaluators of the project, comments from the evaluators, and the project manager's response to the evaluations. Occasionally, completion reports and evaluation reports for more than one project were combined and some files are without completion reports. Internal and external evaluation reports as well as REPAC evaluation panel reports are in some files. After 31 July, 1984, only projects receiving over $100,000 in RSB funds were required to be evaluated.

Some project files for the mid to late 1980s contain proposals in the form of memoranda or papers for funding from RSB small grants (usually under $20,000) for development of formal project proposals; preparation of papers for colloquia; organization of workshops, seminars or expert meetings to assist in the formulation of a formal research proposal; or for dissemination of papers or other output from previously conducted research projects. The proposals for funding from the small grants program were usually reviewed and approved by the Research Adviser (later Research Administrator). The other research files for this period for projects requiring larger amounts of funding from the RSB vary in content. All of these files contain a completed Request for Research Support Budget (RSB) funding which is often accompanied by a memorandum describing in some detail the proposed research and/or methodology. Sometimes revisions were made to the original proposal and additional request forms were completed. All of the files contain an identification or RPO number.

Among the more widely known of the early files in this series is a project file for what was in 1987 the longest running (18 years) research project in the Bank's history-Road Construction, Maintenance and Vehicle Operating Cost (also known as the Highway Design Study') (670-27). The International Comparison Project (670-68) was begun by the United Nations in 1968, was later funded as an external research project by the Bank, and was closed in December 1984. The Strategic Planning to Accommodate Rapid Growth in LDC Cities (The City Project or City Study) (671-47) project file covers the 10-year period from 1975 to 1985. In addition to the project completion report and evaluation, the file includes a November 1982 narrative report entitled The City Study: A Summary of Results and Policy Implications prepared by Gregory Ingram, Alvaro Pachon, and Jose Fernando Pineda. Another project file for the same project (RPO 671-47) contains manuscripts of some of the project papers and intermediate papers produced. According to the Project Completion Report filed by project manager Gregory Ingram, the intermediate papers were a means of compiling intermediate, mainly descriptive, results and usually resulted from the city study workshops. The project papers were usually more analytical and intended as finished results. These were intended for wide distribution and have mostly been published as World Bank Staff Working Papers or papers elsewhere in journals and books. Paper abstracts are in this series along with the manuscript of the monograph Understanding the Developing Metropolis: Lessons from the City Study of Bogota and Cali, Colombia by Rakesh Mohan, which was published in 1994 and summarized the main findings of the City Study.

Also found with the earlier files in this series is correspondence of Ernest Stern, Senior Adviser, Development Policy with the Ford Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation, the International Development Research Center (IDRC), the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID), and other government offices following the social science research on development conference in Bellagio, Italy, 13-15 February 1974 (RPO 670-92). The correspondence primarily concerns the continuation of international collaboration for development research and planning by holding meetings (referred to as Bellagio Plus meetings) during 1974 and 1975 in the areas of employment, income distribution, rural development, population, and education. Correspondence concerning planning and outcomes of these meetings is in the files along with correspondence of Benjamin King, Research Administrator, and Orville Grimes, Secretary to the Research Committee, with IDRC concerning Bank participation in the Social Science Research (SSR) information system and with Bank officials concerning the issue of Bank participation in DEVSIS, an international information system in the field of economics and social development sponsored by IDRC, ILO, OECD, UNDP, and UNESCO.

The earlier files also include documents brought together for the World Bank's Comparative Study of Poverty (673-73), an overall study and evaluation of poverty, equity and growth in 21 developing countries during the period 1950-1985. Included are unpublished papers concerning Ghana's agricultural commodity prices, political economy, and production costs for food crops; studies of poverty, equity, and growth issues; various development plans and reports, including World Bank reports; study outlines; notes and correspondence concerning project work; and newspaper articles pertaining to Ghana. With these documents is a heavily annotated typewritten timeline of economic and political events in Ghana from 1874 to 1983 that was used in the study, a sample questionnaire, computer printouts, and related correspondence. Research papers on the Political Economy of Poverty, Equity and Growth in Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, Malawi, Hong Kong, Thailand, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia developed for the study and several comparative research papers; printouts of computer data; and a draft introduction prepared for a multi-volume publication of the research papers developed for the study are part of the files.

For the later period the series includes project files for several multi-country Comparative Studies. The Timing and Sequencing of A Trade Liberalization Policy was the first of these studies that was initiated under a Research Policy Council program in 1985. An evaluation of the Comparative Studies was summarized in the FY 93 Report on the World Bank Research Program. A small number of project files for the later period were created for administrative purposes and assigned RPO numbers.

Files are included in the series for projects that extended beyond their authorized duration and never went beyond initial planning stages and projects that were cancelled because no contract was signed or funds expended to carry out the project. The titles of some projects were changed after approval of the research proposal and a few projects were shut down and never completed because of lack of department or division sponsorship or because no work was undertaken after the project proposal was approved.

Operations research and reference material

Series consists of records created and received by the Energy Department units, successors, and consultants in conducting research and analysis in support of operations projects, programs, initiatives, and sector topics. The results of research involving technical, economic, and environmental issues within the energy sector were often disseminated and published in the form of departmental working papers or ESMAP Papers.

Record types include: back-to-office reports (including copies of regional unit BTORs); Terms of Reference (TORs); ESMAP reports; proposals; staff appraisal reports; project completion reports (PCRs); consultant reports; statistical data tables and worksheets; background papers; handwritten notes; United Nations project documents; and external guidelines, reports, brochures, press clippings, and articles.

Research papers and studies

The largest volume of records in the series (1985 - 1992) are those concerning research related to the Electric Power Utility Efficiency Study (EPUES). EPUES was a research study funded by bilateral donors, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and the Bank that was organized in January 1989 to investigate the causes of poor power plant performance in developing countries, to measure related economic and financial costs, and prepare programs and guidelines to improve performance. As the executing agency on behalf of the Bank, records were created and received by Industry and Energy (IEN) unit staff including Energy Development Division (IENED) while managing the study and consultants. Records document the preparation of the study, development of guidelines, multilateral and research collaboration, and communication with donor agencies. There are also records concerning the EPUES Steering Committee such as draft and final minutes, and reports or summaries of UNDP and EPUES missions. The topicsexamined included power system efficiency, power transmission and distribution, power sector rehabilitation, power sector lending, and environmental and efficiency measures for diesel electric power plants. Several files relate to Somalia and general regions of Africa and Latin America.

Another set of records primarily maintained by Shigeru Kubota (Industry and Energy Division, EMTIE), relate to rural development, oil and gas, and energy situation in the Soviet Union and post-Soviet Russia (1991 - 1993).Several of the press clippings, articles, and reports are in Japanese language.

Two files relate to the research fellow program (1990 - 1991) that was launched by the Bank in 1989 to draw development research scholars into research activities. The file contains internal memoranda regarding nominations with curriculum vitae (CV)s, outline of proposed IEN study, and external reference material.

Reference material

Series also contains assorted reference materials maintained by the Natural Gas Development Unit, Industry and Energy Department (IENGU) and its successor, Oil and Gas Division (IENOG) concerning various oil and gas topics and information about Bank energy activities (1987 - 1993). There are several files of press clippings and articles from various international newspapers about the "new" natural gas unit (1989) and the petroleum industry. A portion of files also contain internal and external study papers, Policy Planning Review technical papers, memoranda regarding publication of papers andpeer review, and other items.

Another set of miscellaneous files (1990 - 1995) include worksheets, externally printed material of international oil companies, brochures, World Energy Council 15th Congress technical session bound reports, handwritten notes, and presentation slides of external presenters at the 1994 World Bank energy efficiency roundtable.

NRIC and EISIC correspondence and related records

A small portion of records originally maintained in the Non-Regional Information Center (NRIC) dated 1977 to 1984 are mostly comprised of internal memoranda between EGY assistant directors, division chiefs, advisers, and regional units. Topics include comments on EGY research proposals, internal EGY discussions on proposals, planning and preparation of studies, and research grants. Other records occasionally filed with the correspondence include study TORs and reports. Two of these files relate to a thermal generation study (1980).

Three files maintained in the Energy and Industry Information Center (EISIC) include mostly copies of memoranda between EGY director, division chiefs, and Central Projects Staff Vice Presidency discussing sector research priorities, the Bank's research program, quarterly progress report IDP policy and research functions, research activities on industry and trade, and Research Committee activities (1975 - 1986).

Records of the Financial Sector Development Sector

  • WB IBRD/IDA WB_IBRD/IDA_99
  • collection
  • 1971 - 2007 (predominately 1983-2001)

The fonds consists primarily of Economic and Sector Work (ESW) records produced by the various financial sector development department, division, and unit incarnations, including: the Financial Development Unit (INDFD) and the Financial Development Division (INDFD) located in the Industry Department (IND) of the Energy and Industry Vice Presidency (EIS) from 1983 to 1987; the Financial Policy and Systems Division (CECFP) located in the Development Economics Vice Presidency (DEC) from 1987 to 1992; the Financial Sector Development Department (FSD) located in the Finance and Private Sector Development Vice Presidency (FPDVP) from 1993 to 1997; the FSD located in the Finance, Private Sector Development, and Infrastructure Network (FPSI) from 1997 to 1998; the FSD located in the Financial Operations Vice Presidency (FIOVP) from 1999; and the FSD located in the Financial Sector Vice Presidency (FSEVP) from 1999 to 2001. ESW work was done on a country-wide basis and usually performed in collaboration with financial and economic operational staff located in regional offices of the Bank. Reports produced from ESW research helped inform subsequent financial sector development policy and lending decisions utilized for financial sector reform.

The financial sector development ESW records consist of country mission research records with extensive background research, including: newspaper clippings, journals, and articles related to financial sector issues; and statistical and financial data, research studies, annual reports, financial statements, and financial laws and regulations reports published by the central bank of a specific country, a particular country ministry office, or by other financial institutions specific to a country. External and Bank produced financial sector reports and studies specific to a country are also included with research records. The records also consist of ESW mission planning, reporting, and proposal records, including: project proposals; project initiating memoranda; back-to-office reports; mission reports; mission notes; terms-of-reference; project appraisal reports; and aide-memoires. Correspondence and memoranda between financial sector development devoted units, regional staff, and members of financial ministries or other financial sector institutions within in a country are also included.

The ESW records also consist of the reports and records produced after ESW mission work, which relate to subsequent financial sector development policy and lending decisions. This includes meetingagenda and minutes for meetings between financial sector ESW collaborators, and also reporting to the Executive Board of Directors, the Office of the President (EXC), and other World Bank officials concerning financial sector ESW progress, policy development, and lending. The ESW records additionally contain country analysis and case study reports produced from ESW research. The reports focus on financial sector related issues, such as: bank restructuring and privatization; capital market development; financial sector infrastructure; pension reform; financial laws and regulations; and insurance. Financial sector lending proposals, reports, and loan agreement records are also included for numerous types of financial sector development loan programs, including: Structural Adjustment Loans (SALs); Sector Adjustment Loans (SADs); Technical Assistance Loans (TA); and Financial and Enterprise Sector Adjustment Loans (FESAL).

The fonds also consists of records from the conferences, seminars, and workshops organized or attended by financial sector development related units of the CECFP from 1987 to 1992 and the FSD department of the Finance and Private Sector Development Vice Presidency (FPDVP) from 1993 to 1997. The records include speech transcripts of presenters from CECFP, FSD, and presenters from outside agencies or other World Bank units. The records also consist of printed presentation slides, transparencies, and conference and seminar programs. CECFP and FSD organized workshop and seminar records include correspondence regarding planning and post reporting of events, training materials, presentation slides, and speech transcripts. Topics of conferences, seminars, and workshops cover financial sector related issues, such as banking, payment systems, regulation, restructuring, and supervision of financial conglomerates.

Chronological correspondence files maintained for FSD within the FPDVP from 1993 to 1997 are also included in the fonds. These files consists of incoming and outgoing correspondence that cover numerous topics including: support of country missions; ESW operational work; financial development policy reports; lending instruments proposals; and FSD management and organization.

The fonds also consist of background records related to operational policy "OP 8.30 - Financial Sector Operations", which was adopted by the World Bank in 1992 as an operational directive "OD 8.30 -Financial Sector Operations", and revised and adopted as an operational policy in 1998. The records include extensive correspondence and memoranda with attachments, including draft "OD/OP 8.30" policy revisions from April 1991 to November 1997. The correspondence and memoranda are primarily between FSD staff, Development Economics Vice Presidency (DEC) staff, the Office of the President (EXC), and members of the Operations Policy Committee. Background reports on financial sector work within the Bank are also included. The records also include meeting minutes and agenda for the Operational Policy Committee and the Board of Executive Directors.

The fonds additionally includes records of Diana McNaughton from when she served as the Senior Manager for FSD within the FPDVP from 1993 to 1997. The records consist of her presentation materials, including: printed slides, transparencies, speech transcripts, background research, and correspondence regarding presentation preparation. The presentation records focus on numerous topics, such as bank restructuring, capital market development, and financial sector reform. The records also include theplanning records, training module materials, and correspondence for seminars and workshops organized by FSD or attended by McNaughton as part of FSD liaison with external organizations. The records also consist of management and organization records related to FSD. This includes correspondence, meeting minutes, and agenda for FSD planning retreats; business and strategic framework plans related to the FSD activities of bank and enterprise restructuring, finance intermediation, capital markets development, and financial sector infrastructure; and reporting presentations planned for the Executive Board of Directors of the World Bank Group.

The fonds also includes the records of Rodney Lester from when he served as Lead Specialist for FSD within the Financial Sector Vice Presidency (FSEVP) from 1999 to 2001. Most records are related to the Economic Sector Work (ESW) and Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) country projects. This includes reference material, including: annual reports; financial statistical data reports; and financial statements produced by numerous country central banks, country offices, or other financial institutions within that country for both ESW and FSAP projects. FSAP records additionally include IMF produced FSAP country reports and terms-of-reference reports. Lester's records also include background correspondence focused on the Bank Crisis Management Program of FSD from 1993 to 1998, and records related to the East Asia Financial Crisis of 1997. Lastly, the Lester records also consist of Strategic Compact planning records for the financial sector development operations of the World Bank from 1994 to 1999. This includes Executive Board of Directors meeting minutes and agenda, business plans, work programs, progress reports, and implementation plans related to organization and planning of financial sector functions and activities within the Bank.

Lastly, similar to the Rodney Lester records, more extensive records related to the FSAP country projects are also included in the fonds for the years 2000 to 2007. These records include: annual reports, financial and statistical data reports, and financial regulation and laws reports produced by numerous country central banks, country offices, or other financial institutions within that country. The records also consist of technical notes, and FSAP reports produced jointly by the IMF Monetary and Financial Systems Department and the World Bank Financial Sector Vice Presidency (FSEVP). Project mission terms-of-reference, back-to-office reports, and aide memoire reporting records are also included for FSAP records.

Financial Sector Development Sector

Operations research and policy

Series contains records created and maintained by the Industry Development Division (IENIN) and predecessor units responsible for producing and disseminating sectoral research in industry and trade. Research was conducted to support operational projects as well as regional, country, or specific sector programs and initiatives, to improve the level of sector knowledge in certain areas and support emerging priority areas of the Bank. Records also document collaboration between industry sector units and the Development Economics Vice Presidency (DECVP) units, particularly in preparing research project output papers. Most often, reports such as department working papers or policy papers, were published following the units' research. However, some records described below were not disseminated or incorporated into reports.

Record types within this series include: internal memoranda with industry sector units and regional and publication units; back-to-office reports (BTORs); study proposals; lists of participants; workshop reports; conference background papers or notes by external presenters from university and research institutions; draft and final papers authored by IENIN, other Bank staff, and consultants including working papers, discussion and research project papers (RPOs); questionnaires; Terms of Reference (TORs); invitations; letters between Bank staff and national academic or research institutions; handwritten notes on research and discussions at conferences; minutes of meetings with government officials or other external meetings shared with the Bank; press clippings; government and other external institution reports, publications, and brochures; and copies of national legislation. Within the industrial development research files, there is a substantial amount of data tables, computer printouts and handwritten computations, most of which relate to a 1976 Korean export study that analyzed relative importance of domestic and imported inputs for export production (traditional and modern industries), debt (equity ratio, capital intensity), estimates of imputed rate of return on real value of equity under alternative policy regimes, estimates of trend growth of exporting companies and their profitability during 1970 - 1975. There is also data related to Russian enterprises; both studies are further described below.

Industrial development research and studies

The largest quantity of records comprising the series relate to research and analysis of Republic of Korea industrial development (1970 - 1989). The records were maintained by Economist Yung W. Rhee beginning from his tenure in the Development Research Center, Special Topics Division (DRCST ) followed by Economics of Industry Division (DEDND), both under the Office of the Vice President, Development Policy (VPD). Rhee moved to the Industry Department, Strategy and Policy Division (INDSP) starting mid-1982, then IENIN as a senior economist. Numerous files represent Rhee's work on a survey of over 100 Korean exporting firms conducted with DRCST and INDSP colleague Economist Garry Pursell in 1976. Rhee had a special interest in export incentives and collaborated with the Incentives and Comparative Advantage (INCA) unit, notably his co-author, Pursell (see the related units of description note for more information about INCA unit research records). Rhee and Pursell's survey and research were part of a larger Bank research project under the overall direction of Bank Consultant and Special Advisor Bela Balassa, entitled "Export incentive policies in developing countries" (RPO 671-35). A portion of records reflect Rhee's research and analysis of data and drafting of this RPO paper. The Korea survey was also the basis for Rhee's co-authored research study "Korea's competitive edge: managing the entry into world markets" published in 1984. Some records are in Korean, including the qualitative questionnaires and data. Typed and handwritten draft questionnaires are also in English.

The series also contains research records such as final draft publications and other papers (1975 - 1986) related to the topic of the acquisition of technological capabilities in various industries of newly-industrializing countries that were mostly maintained by Carl J. Dahlman, INDSP. Some material represents analytical comparisons of the economies of Korea, Brazil, India, and Mexico that were likely utilized for the research project, Acquisition of Technological Capability directed by Dahlman and Larry Westphal (DRC) that began in 1982 and continued over three years. There is also reference material maintained by Dahlman related to science and technology in Singapore and Taiwan, and industrial technology development in Malaysia and Brazil (1984 - 1990).

A smaller volume of records relate to science and technology, defense conversion, and industrial restructuring in the recently formed Russian Federation (1991 - 1992) and potential Bank support. Records were mostly maintained by Industrial Economist Dr. Masayuki (Masa) Kondo, IENIN. Records reflect Kondo's research and attendance at conferences and workshops including the International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIAA). Additional files relate to Kondo's research of technology strategy for Mauritius (1992) and a China machine tool sector study (1991). Some of the correspondence and notes are in Russian and Japanese.

Industry adjustment lending research material and database

Series also contains records (1981 - 1992) related to IENIN departmental working papers (also referred to as "pink papers"), sector review, and the adjustment lending conditionality and implementation database (ALCID) that the unit developed to provide data on policy conditionality and implementation in adjustment and other policy-based Bank loans. The majority of records reflect research material and preparation of data primarily kept by Hemamala (Mala) Hettige in preparing departmental working papers and Industry Trade and Finance (ITF) sector review Fiscal Year 1989. Final working papers included Industry and Energy Department (IEN) Industry Series Paper 45 "The Impact of Adjustment Lending in African Countries" published in 1991. Other record types consist of: ALCID user guide prepared by IENIN and ALCID coding sheets;database reports of adjustment loan data, particularly on Sub Saharan Africa countries; memoranda with draft proposal, data tables and graphs representing calculations of Bank project loans and policy areas; lessons learned issue survey and guide (used to prepare the industry sector inputs into the report on adjustment lending and annual sector review); handwritten notes; preliminary draft report excerpts; reference material such as World Bank annual reports; lists of approved projects; FY89 ITF sector review final annexes; final copy of the sector review published November 1990.

SINTIA, SINTIA-T and related software and database material

There are also records related to the development of computer software by INDSP, later IENIN, including Software for Industrial Trade and Incentives Analysis (SINTIA and SINTIA-T) and related packages (1982 - 1988, 1990), for Bank member countries and users, as well as the units' use of an industry database. Specific records include: SINTA user guide, tariff and nominal protection manual on the use of SINTA-T; Introduction to Software for Industrial, Trade and Inventive Analysis (SINTIA) manual (1984); technical notes and software procedure notes, including for calculations and extracting data; SINTIA computer disks and source code; industry database hard copy reports prepared in 1987, including trade value of exports and imports of numerous developing countries, 1966 to 1986; handwritten notes on using the industry database and related country data that was compiled ;and material used as reference or that reflect use of the software, such as technical notes and manual prepared by the INDSP Incentives and Comparative Analysis (INCA) Unit, pre-appraisal mission report, a draft chapter regarding Pakistan trade policy review; and INDSP paper on growth and structural change in world industry data base. There are three individual files containing memoranda from IENIN to regional unit or copies of memos between regional units sharing data on tariff analysis (nominal rate of protection) and attached data tables for Rwanda, Madagascar, and Venezuela (1987 - 1990).

Policy and best practice

The series also contains a small volume of records related to IENIM participation in an energy and environment strategy paper (1996 - 1998). Includes memoranda regarding preparation of the paper and consultation with NGOs, draft note on coal strategy and Bank lending, press release, and draft of "Fuel for Thought: An environmental strategy for the energy sector".

Non-Regional Information Center (NRIC) correspondence and related records

Also included in the series are four files originally maintained in the NRIC (1981 - 1985) that are mostly comprised of internal memoranda to and from IND divisions and outgoing letters and cables between the division and external consultants or corporations. Topics include status of sector studies, review of studies and reports, proposals, evaluation of proposals, and Bank reviews on external research reports.

Subject files

Series contains subject files created and maintained during Qureshi's career in the World Bank Group (WBG). Although the files are most voluminous for the period during which Qureshi was the Bank's Senior Vice President for Operations, 1987 to 1991, the series also includes records accumulated while Qureshi served in his various capacities at the international Finance Corporation (IFC), through his tenure as Senior Vice President of Finance, 1981 to 1987. Subject files were created beginning in 1972 apartfrom a few reproductions of earlier publications and documents within the files.

Records include outgoing memoranda, letters, draft loan issuances, minutes, copies of Qureshi's speeches and articles, press releases and clippings, Qureshi's handwritten notes and comments, and occasionally externally-authored papers and reports. Several of the files contain Board papers presented to Executive Directors regarding a given topic.

Subject file topics include: debt; debt reduction; lending programs; Bank capital increases; co-financing; International Development Association (IDA) replenishments; overdue service payments; economic and social sectors; development of operations policy; Operations Evaluation Department (OED) project performance results; technical assistance; relations with China; relations with the Palestinian Liberation Front; currency pooling; special drawing rights; the Persian Gulf crisis; private sector development; women in development; and cooperation with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the United Nations (UN). Administrative topics include: budget issues, processes, and guidelines; Operations staffing, budget, and business planning; IT support; and managers' retreats.

Incentives and Comparative Analysis (INCA) research and knowledge products

Series consists of records related to the Incentives and Comparative Advantage (INCA) unit's applied research work including developing methodologies and tools to support INCA studies and analysis of studies. Most records were maintained by Economist Garry Pursell beginning from his tenure with the Development Research Center (DRC) and its previous units under the Development Policy Vice Presidency (VPD) in the 1970s before he was transferred to the International Development Finance Department (IDF) to lead the Bank's new INCA unit in 1981. Other records were created by consultants with the INCA unit when it was under the Strategy and Policy Division, Industry Department (INDSP). In some cases, material was added to the files by Pursell or colleagues after 1985 when the INCA unit was discontinued; these six additional files date from 1986 to 1991.

Research and reference materials

Most of the records in this series comprise research material created and collected for a study of Cote d'Ivoire carried out by the INDSP INCA unit and possibly predecessors. The effective protection study analyzed various types of incentive indicators (effective protection and effective subsidy) and comparative advantage indicators (effective rates of protection [ERC] and domestic resource cost [DRC]) using data from 84 industrial firms in Cote d'Ivoire. Records include the export questionnaires in French, 1984 printouts of calculations made from the computer program on which the data had been entered, and the resulting material based on the survey data including handwritten notes, export statistics, and price calculation outlines. These records are also filed with reference documentation including journal articles, external guidelines, and working papers (1970 - 1983). Predominant industries covered in the export survey include textiles, beverages, and edible oils.

Cote d'Ivoire research records also include four volumes of country papers and reports on various aspects about the economy of Cote d'Ivoire created by various units of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) units (1972 - 1978) and a larger body of reference files in English and French, some containing Bank internal reports, pertaining to the country's various industries and economy (1968 - 1984) that were used in the study. Additional reports, studies, pamphlets, project descriptions, and other records compiled by the INCA unit in support of the study were authored by various departments of the Government of Cote d'Ivoire and by external agencies and organizations (1963 - 1984). These pertain to existing and proposed industries, customs tariff schedules, financial reports, and trade statistics.

Other research materials include INCA country files representing nearly 40 countries that were maintained by Pursell and used as background information and data for INCA research projects and studies by DRC and successor INCA unit. Files contain draft and final reports authored by DRC staff and other Bank department staff (IFD), Board papers, Bank and external working papers including sector strategy paper, copies of externally authored publications and journal articles, research proposals, back-to-office reports (BTORs), and memoranda related to effective protection and associated topics or project data (1968, 1971 - 1991). Memoranda and letters beginning from the 1970s are between DRC staff including Pursell, Larry Westphal, and Consultant Bela Balassa and occasionally the Bank's regional units.

Methodology and applied research

The series contains records related to the INCA staff and consultants' methodology work as a primary task under its applied research responsibility (1978, 1980 - 1991 [predominant 1982 - 1985]). These records, including discussion papers, unpublished technical and procedure notes (first draft and final versions), export questionnaire (French), document the methods used for analysis on effective protection, domestic resource cost (DRC) estimates, export incentives and related concepts.

Applied research outputs to support INCA country studies develop Bank operational tools, also referred to as "infrastructure" according to the various INCA unit reports, are also represented in the series and include a draft interview guide on incentive issues, INCA program description and model for computing, bibliographies and summaries of studies, and one of the unit's final products, a 1985 final draft manual for INCA for country officials and researchers.

Knowledge and information products

The series also contains records related to the pooling of international price data for numerous industrial products (1972 - 1974, 1980 - 1984). The INCA unit collected global price data for numerous industrial products to make accessible for international data pooling and exchange. Specific records include: internal memoranda and correspondence with external institutes or government offices concerning the collection or sharing of price information; copy of the multipage form that the unit designed for requesting prices; directory of information sources on international prices (1984) prepared by the unit; and related reference material used to compile the directory including copies of Industry Department (IND) papers, published Bank working papers, external publications, and news clippings. Early material includes copies of internal memoranda distributed to Central Projects Staff (CPS) management about a border prices paper (1973), and external reference material.

Lastly, another group of records (1971 - 1985) entitled "liaison" consist of unpublished and published reports and other items authored or co-authored by Pursell, other INDSP staff and consultants including Yoon Joo Lee, or authored by international academics that were collected by Pursell and INCA personnel. Records mostly contain draft and final reports, working papers, case study, lectures, and copies of published articles and external reports. A few files created before 1981 relate to Pursell's work in the DRC unit; one of these contains reports on a Bank workshop on trade policy in relation to industry in developing countries (1980).

Incentives and Comparative Advantage (INCA) support

Series consists of records related to the Incentives and Comparative Advantage (INCA) unit and its predecessor's support to operating departments carrying out INCA projects or studies. Most of the unit's resources were devoted to support activities including contributing to long term INCA studies sponsored by, and under the responsibility of, operating departments and short-term studies by Bank or International Finance Corporation (IFC) industry missions. Records are organized by country or study topic anddocument the unit's contribution to developing Terms of Reference (TOR) and methodology for the studies as well as reviewing a developing country's protection system as a condition of Bank lending. Records also reflect general support and advice provided to the Bank's regional units and notes on INCA work shared with IND senior management. Approximately 28 countries are represented within this series. Most files are thin in volume; some files have only one or a few documents.

Internal memoranda are between Economist Garry Pursell or INDSP consultants, IND assistant director, and regional units, particularly the Industrial Development Finance (IDF) divisions. The memoranda contains INDSP comments on TORs for an INCA country study, comments on project protection issues, notes for a regional unit on use of domestic resource cost ratios to help in allocating working capital loans, and more. Memoranda are also in the form of: back-to-office reports (BTORs) including for Structural Adjustment Loan (SAL) appraisal, reform missions or INCA studies; visit or meeting summaries; and TORs for missions, studies or personnel. Draft and final TORs are included. There are also letters to consultants and external academics who collaborated on Bank projects or commented on draft reports.

Other record types included are: draft technical notes (on countries, prices, etc.); notes on effective protection studies; copy of questionnaires, including the 1975 export survey of importing firms in Korea; and handwritten notes. Other topics covered in the records include incentives reform, tariff reform (Cote d'Ivoire), SAL, and trade and industrial policy in individual countries such as Bangladesh, Mauritius, Malaysia.

Incentives and Comparative Advantage (INCA) management

Series contains records related to the organization and management of the Incentives and Comparative Analysis (INCA) Unit, situated in the Industrial Development Finance Department (IDF) in 1981 and later the Industry Department, Strategy and Policy Division (INDSP) from 1982 to 1985. Records were primarily maintained by Economist Garry Pursell who led the unit beginning in 1981. The records consist of internal memoranda and reports documenting the establishment and history of the INCA Unit including the RPO-672-44 "Establishment of an Experimental Unit for Work on Industrial Incentives and Comparative Advantages" preparation of work programs, reporting on unit activities, dissemination of INCA products, and other activities including management of staff and consultants. Record types include: forms and profile sheets regarding consultants and requests; administrative lists of INDSP requests and information products; reports and papers including Pursell's "The INCA Unit at the World Bank", INCA situation and status reports, and INCA Project Completion Report (1985); summary note of activities; work program review report; draft and final work program plans; and data tables including a summary of research activities. Internal memoranda are mainly between Pursell and IND senior management including assistant directors and division chiefs and discusses work program, strategy, budgeting, research and studies, as well as recruitment and organization of consultants.

Photograph library

This series consists of photographs created by or for departments responsible for the external affairs function in the World Bank. The majority of the photographs included here were managed by Information and Public Affairs Department (IPA) staff responsible for the Photograph Library. Photographs were taken by Bank staff or were received from other sources, including contracted photographers, country representatives, among others. The Photo Library loaned or provided copies of photographs to external organizations, including publishing companies, newspapers, magazines, governments, and academic institutions. Photographs were also used in Bank publications and other promotional displays and projects in the World Bank Group headquarters and field offices.

This series contains an extensive collection of country photographs documenting project sites, and loan and credit signing events. The majority of these photos document International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and International Development Association (IDA) projects from 1946 to 2001, but projects financed by the International Finance Corporation (IFC) between 1962 and 1981 (predominant 1978-1980) are also represented. Country photos may also include images of cities, villages, dwellings, people, streets and markets, transportation, and water supply. Photographs documenting membership signings of the IDA and the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) are also included. The majority of these photographs are 8x10black and white prints mounted on cardboard, often with captions on the reverse. More recent images are 35mm color slides often contained in binders. Some of the IFC project images are black and white negatives.

Photographs of World Bank staff, including Bank Presidents, as well as Executive Directors are included in this series. Photographs are generally portraits but, in the case of senior staff and, especially, Bank presidents, images documenting activities, meetings, trips, and other important events are also included. Photographs are 8x10 black and white prints and are, in most cases, mounted on cardboard, occasionally with captions on the reverse.

Photographs of Bank-owned buildings, including those in Washington DC and, in lesser number, Paris, France, are included. Images are of building exteriors and also include building interiors and the office of President Robert McNamara. Photographs date from 1946 to 1982 and are black and white prints of various size, some of which are mounted on cardboard.

Photographs from the Bretton Woods Conference held at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire in July 1944 are also included. Photographs include images of various national delegations as well as notable attendees. A small number of group photos and photos of country representatives signing International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) Articles of Agreement are also included. Note that these photographs were originally taken by press sources and by the Office of War Information of the United States Government. Photographs are black and white prints of various size, some of which are mounted on cardboard with captions on the reverse.

Photographs documenting the Bank's Annual Meetings are also included in this series. These photographs show prominent guests, Bank staff, speakers, and events and are included for every year between 1946 and 1986 with the exception of 1976. Annual Meetings from 1994 to1996 and 1998 are also included. The majority of photographs are black and white prints of various size, some of which are mounted on cardboard with captions on the reverse. Some of the photographs from the 1990s are color prints or slides.

A small amount of textual records relating to the management of the photograph library and procurement of photographs are also included. These records, dating from 1959 to 1968, primarily relate to hiring photographers to travel to Bank member countries and photograph ongoing Bank-funded projects. Many of these contracts are with photographers represented by Black Star Publishing Co., Inc., in New York, New York. Much of the series contains correspondence with Black Star as well as with the photographers themselves discussing contracts, logistics, and related matters.

Textual records in this series also include correspondence between staff in the Bank's Information Department responsible for photograph lending and external correspondents representing publishing companies, academic institutions, international organizations, etc. Correspondence generally concerns requests and logistics related to the loan of photographs from the World Bank photo library. These records date from 1966 to 1968.

The series also contains single copies of the Bank publication "Loans at Work". Included are copies from 1950 through 1967 with the exception of 1951, 1956, and 1966. These publications, which provide country and regional lending information but primarily consist of photographs, were maintained by the Photo Library staff. Some of the publications contain annotations next to photographs indicating where in their library the photograph was stored.

Slides and black and white prints of images used in the 1984 to 1986 World Bank Group Annual Reports are also included in this series. A folder containing prints of diagrams and charts as well as a folder containing notes related to the creation and publication of the reports are are also included.

A small number of Photo Library brochures dating from 1983 and 1984 are also included in this series.

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