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Records of Economic Advisor Irving Friedman

Irving Friedman maintained these files on the Bank's cooperation with the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development in developing a supplementary financing scheme. The scheme was conceived as a response to the instability of commodity prices that frequently led to unexpected shortfalls of export earnings in developing countries. The aim was to have supplementary financing cover these shortfalls through soft loans to shield the development programs of the developing countries. IBRD/IIDA supplementary financing would offer longer-term assistance, as opposed to the International Monetary Fund's short-term compensatory financing facility.

The records include correspondence with UNCTAD, memoranda, drafts, handwritten notes by Friedman and others, meeting briefs, agendas, speeches, and official documents from UNCTAD, IMF, and IBRD on supplementary financing. The general correspondence is principally between Friedman, other Bank managers, and UNCTAD officials, especially Raul Prebish and Manuel Perez-Guerrero, Secretary Generals of UNCTAD, and Sidney Dell, Director of UNCTAD. The meetings files relate to meetings of UNCTAD, the UNCTAD Committee on Invisibles and Financing related to Trade, the Intergovernmental Group on Supplementary Finance, the Development Advisory Committee, and meetings within the World Bank. Friedman filed into the file on a meeting both documents that pre-dated the meeting and documents from activities subsequent to the meeting, so researchers will need to read through the sub-series on meetings in order to find all the items about one meeting.

In addition, three files on stabilization of prices for primary commodity products, transferred to the World Bank Group Archives separately from those on supplementary financing, are found at the end of the series.

Correspondence of the Directors-General with the International Finance Corporation (IFC)

The series consists of correspondence primarily between DGO Yves Rovani and IFC Chief Evaluation Officer Walter I. Cohn, and relates to the DGO's responsibility for oversight of IFC's operations evaluation activities. An Operations Evalution Unit (OEU) was established within the Development Department of IFC in 1984. Included are drafts of IFC operations evaluation work programs for fiscal years 1986-1993 forwarded by Cohn to Rovani and to his successor Robert Picciotto for review and comment. Accompanying many of the work programs are proposals for special studies. Draft approach papers for those studies, also forwarded to DGO for review, include those prepared for the following studies: IFC's experience in the tourism sector (1989); performance of IFC's oil and gas exploration program (1991); successful IFC investments in Sub-Saharan Africa (1991); lending for industrial technology development (1992); IFC's market assessments (1992); and IFC's experience in the privatization of State-owned enterprises (1992). Comments prepared by the Country Policy, Industry and Finance Division (OEDD2) on some of the approach papers are included.

Also among the correspondence are comments from the DGOs to Cohn on OEU work programs and use of resources along with notes from the first meeting (July 16, 1986) at which the role of DGO in operations evaluation in IFC was discussed. Also included are: minutes of special meetings of the Portfolio Committee at which IFC evaluation studies were discussed; a list of IFC project completion reports for fiscal year 1982 to fiscal year 1986; a copy of a May 20, 1987, memo distributed to all IFC high level staff on new procedures for project completion reports; and Cohn's February 21, 1991, memorandum copied to Rovani in which he responds extensively to issues raised at an earlier Joint Audit Committee (JAC) Sub-Committee on Operations Evaluation meeting regarding IFC's evaluation capacity, IFC evaluation work, and the relationship between IFC and DGO and OED. In this memo he also responds to issues surrounding a report prepared by OEU on IFC's experience in the agricultural production sector.

A small amount of miscellaneous correspondence arranged by subject (1983 - 1995) includes: formal and informal memoranda and other correspondence between the Director, OEU, Walter I. Cohn and DGO's Mervyn Weiner, Yves Rovani, and Robert Picciotto; approach papers for studies forwarded for approval to DGO before being sent to the JAC, copies of IFC policy papers, and draft IFC evaluation reports, workprograms, and budgets. Also included are an Annual Portfolio Evaluation Report for FY 1983 and an updated mandate statement for evaluation in the Bank and IFC that reflects findings of the March 1995 report of the review of evaluation in IFC.

Subject files (1980 - 1995) found with the correspondence include the report of IFC's first evaluation of a segment of its portfolio of investments, IFC Hotel Portfolio Review, forwarded by DGO Mervyn Wiener to the Joint Audit Committee (JAC) for review on May 11, 1981. Also included are reports of IFC evaluations in the agricultural, mining, and petrochemical sectors completed between 1983 and 1994 and in the cement and textile industries sectors between 1983 and 1989. There are also files containing correspondence and reports relating to: evaluations of successful investments in Sub-Saharan Africa (1994); support for small and medium scale enterprises (1995); investment assessments performed by OED (1992 - 1994); IFC's Five Year Program for fiscal years 1985 - 1989; and the review of evaluation in IFC (1994 - 1995).

A small amount of miscellaneous IFC and OEU reports (1979 - 1989), some of which are annotated, forwarded to DGOs Mervyn Weiner, Yves Rovani, and Robert Picciotto are in the series. A number of these reports were distributed to the Board of Directors including three confidential Project Completion Reports (PCRs) on three IFC investments in Guatemala (1979), Brazil (1979), and Indonesia (1979). These three reports were distributed in January 1980 to the Board based on a decision made at an October 30, 1979, Board meeting. Each director was to receive a copy to indicate the type of PCR IFC had been preparing and to illustrate why caution was necessary when disseminating information contained in the reports. Other IFC reports included are: Annual Portfolio Evaluation Reports for fiscal years 1984 and 1986 - 1988; a report entitled Deterioration in IFC's Portfolio: An Analysis (March 1985); and a report prepared by a consultant entitled IFC in Sub-Saharan Africa, Proposals for a New Approach (February 1987).

Correspondence of the Directors-General, Operations Evaluation with Bilateral and International Organizations

The series consists of letters, memoranda, and messages between the DGO and the heads of evaluation units of bilateral and international organizations. The series documents primarily the formulation, implementation, and impact of evaluations within these bilateral and international organizations. Some of the correspondence is with the Special Advisor and Assistant to the DGO and the Director, Operations Evaluation Department (OEDDR). The series also contains copies of studies, publications, and reports of audits and evaluations sent to DGO. A copy of a February 15, 1980 memorandum from President Robert S. McNamara to DGO Mervyn L. Weiner addresses Bank support for upgrading national audit institutions. With this memorandum is correspondence describing implementation actions taken by the Bank and cooperation with the International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions (INTOSA).

Alphabetical [subject] files

This series contains President A. W. Clausen's subject files. The records consist of correspondence, memoranda, reports and background materials relating to a broad spectrum of organizations, interests and concerns. They contain general correspondence, internal Bank communications, and external correspondence with the European Economic Community; the U.S. Congress and the Departments of Treasury and State, among others; the United Nations and its many specialized agencies; and various international banksand organizations. The UNICEF file includes photographs of Mr. Clausen with the Bay Area Corporate Committee for UNICEF in 1985.

Congratulations file

This series contains congratulatory letters from heads of state, government officials, and international and domestic private entities to A.W. Clausen on the occasion of his appointment as the President of the World Bank and the outgoing responses from President Clausen. A list of the contact addresses filed at the beginning of the series.

Third System Review

The series consists of records related to CGIAR's Third System Review conducted in 1996-1998. The Review's purpose was to assess the role, relevance and future directions of the CGIAR System and make recommendations for improving its overall effectiveness. Its focus included, but was not limited to:

  • Mission and strategy: mission, scientific orientation, goals, principal activities, priorities, and strategies of the System

  • Governance and finance: roles and responsibilities of System-wide units, System-level management processes (priority setting, resource allocation, evaluation); funding modalities

  • Operational effectiveness: quality, relevance, and efficiency of the science practiced by the centers; partnerships; structural considerations.

The Review was conducted by an external panel which was supported by separate Working Groups and facilitated by a secretariat. The series contains Review Panel meeting minutes along with extensive background readings and other supporting materials. Indexes for meeting-related materials are included. Series also contains correspondence related to the System Review. Correspondence relates to the selection of Panel and Working Group members as well as meeting and conference planning and requests for comments on Review-generated reports. The series also contains a file of reports commissioned by the Review Panel as well reports created or collected by the Panel. Finally, the series contains a copy of the Review's final report, The International Research Partnership forFood Security and Sustainable Agriculture, dated October 8, 1998. A draft of the final paper by the Specialist Panel on Governance and Finance (August 24, 1998) is also included.

United States Agency for International Development (USAID) CGIAR files

The series consists of records created and collected by the Associate Director (Research), Office of Agriculture, Technical Advisory Bureau, of the US Agency for International Development (USAID). The majority of the records relate to the first five years of the CGIAR. The series contains two types of files: chronological correspondence files and files relating to specific meetings and conferences.

The correspondence files are exclusively related to communication between USAID and the CGIAR Secretariat. Subjects of the correspondence include: International Agricultural Research Centers (IARC) appraisal, IARC financial practices and policy, and deliberations on and accounting of USAID funding. Records include: CGIAR meeting summary of proceedings; reports authored by the CGIAR's Technical Advisory Committee (TAC); CGIAR reports and records distributed to member countries for informational purposes; and materials related to International Centers Week (ICW). A small amount of correspondence sent within USAID departments on the topic of the CGIAR is also included in these files.

The majority of records relating to meeting or conference attendance relate to CGIAR's annual ICW meetings. A number of other USAID-CGIAR meetings are represented as are meetings of the CGIAR North American donors. Further, meetings relating to agricultural research that do not directly involve CGIAR but which are attended by USAID representatives are also present in small number. Records relating to meetings or conferences attended by USAID representatives include meeting agendas, minutes, summary of proceedings, and supporting documents. Also included are meeting and conference summaries authored by USAID attendees as part of their reporting responsibilities. A small number of Action Memoranda composed in response to issues raised and the subsequent need for deliberation are also included.

Impact Evaluation Reports

The series primarily consists of Impact Evaluation Reports (IERs) and the working files produced during the creation of those reports. The series also consists of a number of special studies produced by the OED. IERs assess the performance of operations at full development, some five to ten years after the close of disbursements on the Bank's loan. The evaluations are selective; only a small percentage of projects undergo an impact evaluation. These evaluations provide a second look at a project by analyzing the long-term effects - intended or unintended - on people, institutions, and the physical environment. The evaluations assess projects against the goals that were stated at appraisal and also against a broad set of criteria that relate to social dynamics, income distributions, effects on women and families, institutional development, sustainability, and the environment. This series consists of IERs from the very beginning of their production in 1979 and through into the 1990s.

The content of the files for impact evaluations varies somewhat but the more complete files contain: copies of the Completion Reports, Audit Reports, and other OED-generated records relating to the project; non-Bank background reports and publications relating to the project; Terms of Reference for the OED staff members and/or consultants assigned to evaluation; drafts of the Approach Paper and Study Design Paper; memoranda and correspondence regarding the team's travel plans if a mission was required; a Back-to-Office Report regarding the mission; intra-OED correspondence regarding the format for the evaluation; various drafts of the evaluation; comments on the drafts from OED and Regional staff, officials in the client country, and representatives from other aid/lending organizations; drafts of comments by the Director-General, Operations, (DGO) to the Committee on Development Effectiveness (CODE) or its predecessor, the Joint Audit Committee (JAC) regarding evaluations; minutes of CODE or JAC meetings at which the evaluation was discussed; drafts of the DGO's transmittal memorandum to the Executive Directors and the President; and summaries of the Executive Directors' discussion of the evaluation and copies of the Board chairman's published comments. Many of the impact evaluations relied on field surveys to gather opinions of stakeholders. The raw survey data is not included in an evaluation file, but sample survey questionnaires and data derived from the surveys may be in the file.

The series contains the first IER produced by theOED, referred to as a Project Impact Evaluation Report (PIER). The report was for the Mexico Third Irrigation Project (1978 - 1979) which focused on irrigation rehabilitation programs in irrigation districts Nos. 17 (Region Lagunera) and 23 (San Juan del Ro). The evaluation was undertaken by Chief Evaluation Officer John Malone about five years after the performance audit was conducted for the project. Other early impact evaluation reports in this series are for: Kenya's First Smallholder Agricultural Credit Program (1980); the Kenya First Livestock Development Project (1981); the Roseires Irrigation Project in the Sudan (1980); the Burundi-First Arabica Coffee Improvement Project (1980); the Malaysian Muda and Kemubu Irrigation Projects (1981); the Atlantico Irrigation Project in Colombia (1982); and the San Lorenzo Irrigation and Land Settlement Projects in Peru (1982). In addition, records related to an IER conducted jointly with the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) and the Central Bank of the Philippines on the Philippines Second Rural Credit Project are included. The report was issued in 1983 after an extensive evaluation that involved a survey of beneficiaries in different regions. Also issued in 1983 was an IER for the Indonesia Irrigation Rehabilitation Project.

The series contains many other IERs and IER working files produced through the mid to late 1980s and 1990s. Agriculture, urban, education, transport, industry and transmigration projects are represented. Of note, one IER covers three income generating projects for refugees in Pakistan for which the Bank acted as executive agency on behalf of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Also contained are background materials on Indonesia that OED's Agriculture and Human Development Division (OEDD1) gathered from a wide variety of sources in preparation for a 1993 impact evaluation covering loans for three transmigration projects in Indonesia. The files include the Project Completion Reports for two of the loans (Transmigration II [L1707] and III [L 2248]) and Terms of Reference for the impact evaluation but no other documents regarding the impact evaluation.

The series also includes a number of special process and thematic studies. Reports and related working papers include: a 1987 and 1988 OED special study entitled Management of Renewable Resources in Agricultural Operations; two transport sector evaluation studies entitled The Transport Sector in Mexico: An Evaluation (1998) and Transport in China: An Evaluation of Bank Assistance (1999); a copy of a 1998 paper (The Industrial Organization of Corruption: Why Corruption Hurts More in Africa than in Asia) prepared by Sector and Thematic Evaluation Division (OEDST) staff members Antti Talvitie and Binyam Reja, based on their participation in an OED evaluation of five transport projects in Indonesia; background records for a 1996 Infrastructure and Energy Division (OEDD3) process study, Effectiveness of Environmental Assessments and National Environmental Action Plans (EA/NEAP Study), which evaluated the Bank's use of project-level environmental assessments (EAs) and highlighted the differences between countries that had an approved National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP) and those that did not; working files for the 1995 Country Policy, Industry and Finance Division (OEDD2) study The Social Impact of Adjustment Operations: An Overview; and special impact evaluation studies covering a range of agriculture topics, including Harvesting the Waters (1980s), The World Bank and Structural Adjustment in Agriculture; Reforming Agriculture: The World Bank Goes to Market, Irrigation O & M [Operation and Maintenance] and System Performance in Southeast Asia (1996), Natural Resource Management in Bolivia: 30 Years of Experience (1993), and Dynamics of Rural Development in Northeast Brazil: New Lessons from Old Project (1991), as well as one file for a special process study entitled Monitoring and Evaluation Plans in Staff Appraisal Reports Issued in Fiscal Year 1995.

Also in this series are correspondence, reports, and publications that evaluator Christian Polti gathered while OEDD1 was working on two impact evaluation studies. The first study deals with the World Bank's experience with irrigation development and examined irrigation projects in Morocco, Mexico, the Philippines, and Thailand. The second study deals with cotton development programs in Cote d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, and Togo.

CGIAR's International Agricultural Research Centers (IARC) general files

The series consists of records created and received by the CGIAR Secretariat as a result of its ongoing relationship with the International Agricultural Research Centers (IARC). The series contains records relating to three of the IARCs: the International Livestock Centre for Africa (ILCA), the International Laboratory for Research on Animal Diseases (ILRAD), and the International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain (INIBAP). These IARCs no longer exist; in 1994, INIBAP was absorbed into theInternational Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI, renamed Bioversity International in 2006) and, in the same year, the ILAC and ILRAD merged and formed the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI).

Records related to the ILRAD include: correspondence between the CGIAR Chairman and ILRAD; schedule of the Chairman's visit to ILRAD and other IARCs; position search and announcements; ILRAD Board of Directors annual meeting agenda (1989); correspondence and announcements concerning funding disbursements; external reviews; survey of ILRAD board members; Director General's report to the ILRAD Board of Directors (1990); and other materials.

Records related to ILCA include: correspondence between the CGIAR Chairman and ILCA; schedule of the Chairman's visit to ILCA and other IARCs; ILCA newsletters; ILCA Board of Trustees meeting minutes; ILCA Board orientation program materials; correspondence and announcements concerning funding disbursements; external reviews; ILCA board member surveys; an ILCA-authored paper entitled Management Information Requirements at ILCA: A Discussion Paper (1987); annual meeting and other committee meeting minutes; and other materials.

Records related to INIBAP include: correspondence between the CGIAR Chairman and INIBAP; INIBAP strategy document (1991); International Musa Testing Program materials; collaborative research agreements; INIBAP workshop materials; program committee reports; position search and announcements; INIBAP program surveys; Board of Trustees meeting minutes; Donor Support Group meeting minutes and supporting materials; budget proposal (1992); an initial offer of support by the CGIAR Chairman to INIBAP (21 November, 1990) and related materials; external reviews; and other materials. Records related to INIBAP's absorption into INGRI are also contained in this series. These include: records from the 1993 meeting in which the incorporation of INIBAP and INGRI was discussed and the Memorandum of Understanding between INIBAP and INGRI.

Center Directors Committee (CDC) meeting and informational files

The series consists of records that evidence the relationship between the CGIAR Secretariat and the International Agricultural Research Centers' (IARC) Directors and the Center Directors Committee (CDC). The majority of the records in the series are informational reports and other materials forwarded, most commonly, by the CGIAR Executive Secretary to CDC members. These records include topical reports, CGIAR-authored reports, CGIAR-related external publications, and CGIAR project and initiative updates. Some records also relate to the recruitment of new CGIAR members/donors. Series also consist of reports authored by the CDC or CDC members as well as a small amount of CDC meeting agendas and minutes.

Completion Reports and Audit Reports

The series consists of records related to the project monitoring and evaluation function of the Operations Evaluation Department (OED). The majority of the records in the series are final audit reports for individual, Bank-sponsored projects and records related to the creation of those reports. Reports date from the beginning of OED and its project evaluation activities in 1973. OED-authored reports include Project Performance Audit Reports (PPARs) and Performance Audit Reports (PARs). Reports completed byoperating departments and submitted to the OED include Project Completion Reports (PCRs), Project Completion Notes (PCNs), Implementation Completion Reports (ICRs), and Implementation Completion Notes (ICNs). The PCRs can be characterized as either reports that required and received an audit by the OED or as pass through PCRs which OED division chiefs determined did not require an audit. In the case of the latter, Notes of Record are sometimes included to explain why an audit was not required. The series also consists of background materials and working files created or collected during the preparation of audit reports. These records include: correspondence; memoranda; staff appraisal reports; reports and recommendations sent to the Executive Directors for approval of the loans or credits; loan or credit agreements that were executed; annotated audit drafts; project progress reports; and field notes. In some cases, working files related to audits and report preparation are those accumulated by specific evaluation officers in OED.

The types of records that accompany the final evaluation reports vary, as procedural requirements changed over the years. OED evaluating officers created files for all completion reports and audit reports for which they were assigned responsibility. Most of the pre-1982 working files containing PCRs and PPARs reflect procedures put in place by the Bank between 1973 and 1979. The time frame for completion of PCRs after final disbursements of loans / credits varied as did the extent ofthe involvement of operating departments and clients in their preparation. In the mid-1970s, the PCR was to be prepared within six months of final disbursement by the Bank's Regional Vice-Presidency of the country in which the project took place. Information for the PCR was gathered from project files, supervision reports, and discussions in the field between Bank and Government officials associated with the project. However, before 1976 the majority of the PPARs prepared by OED evaluating officers were for projects for which no PCR had been prepared.

In 1976, procedural changes required all PCRs to be sent through the Director-General, Operations Evaluation (DGO), without OED comment to the Executive Board along with the PPAR. In addition to the PCR, the PPAR working files from 1976 onward include: the Terms of Reference for the OED audit mission; the Back-to-Office Report from the mission; PPAR drafts; comments on the drafts from Bank officials in the Region, Government officials and representatives of businesses or institutions involved in the project; and copies of transmittal letters accompanying the PPAR. Loan or Credit Agreements, Staff Appraisal Reports, and Reports and Recommendations by the Bank President for loans and credits, most of which are of earlier date than the other records in the file, are included in some PCR and PPAR files. By the end of 1979, OED conducted abbreviated audit reviews for about half of the PCRs it received. The working files for these passed-through PCRs usually contain: a memorandum addressed to the Regional Vice President indicating that based on the OED review of the PCR an audit would not be performed; comments on the PCR; a final draft of the PCR sent for printing by OED; a copy of the printed PCR forwarded to the Executive Board; and copies of the transmittal letters used in the OED distribution of the printed PCR.

At the beginning of fiscal year 1983, a new system of selective project performance auditing was introduced which required that 40 to 50 percent of projects be audited. PCRs were selected for audit according to whether they were for: large, complex, or innovative projects; projects an Executive Director proposed for performance audit; projects with high lending priority; projects which were first in a given sector / sub-sector for a country or last in a series; or a series of projects subject to a combined audit. OED division chiefs were given responsibility for determining the projects to be audited and for making decisions on pass-through PCRs. Some files for projects which OED did not audit contain: a Summary Note explaining the reasons for the pass-through decision and evaluating the quality of the PCR; a copy of the draft PCR; comments regarding the draft PCR from the client country; a Pass-Through PCR Unit Cost Sheet tracking OED staff time allocated to the project; memoranda and letters transmitting a final copy of the PCR to the Executive Directors, the Bank President, and officials of the client country; and a final copy of the PCR. Found in other working files for post-fiscal year 1983 is the Note of Record, which was prepared by the OED evaluating officer after review of the PCR with the division chief. It contained the reasons for the pass-through decision. The Note of Record assessed the project as described in the PCR in terms of its objectives, scope, implementation, costs, and sustainability. It was distributed only to the Director of OED (OEDDR), the OED Library, the working file, and the OED annual review coordinator. Also found in some workingfiles with the Note of Record is the Project Information Form (PIF) used to input data about the project into OED's database for use in annual reviews and studies. Results for all PCRs were reported to the Executive Board.

New guidelines for completing PCRs were put into place effective July 1, 1989. Most of the PCRs in the OED working files after this date have a different format from earlier prepared PCRs. Parts I and II of the report were prepared by the Regional Office and Part III was completed by the client. Some working files include Project Completion Notes (PCNs) which were prepared in lieu of PCRs for projects for which: the loan was never signed by the client; the Bank withdrew the loan; disbursement was very fast or ahead of schedule; no PCR was ever completed; or for which there were no implementation issues. The decision to create the PCN was based on a review of the Staff Appraisal Report prepared before the loan or credit was granted, internal Bank memoranda, minutes of Board discussions, supervision reports, and interviews with staff. The PPAR was carried out on the basis of the recommendation for audit made by OED at the time of review of the PCR. The contents of the PPAR working file remained largely unchanged from earlier periods but some PPARS for cluster audits (i.e. audits of multiple projects) were included.

By 1994, operations staff (also called Regional staff) evaluated all completed operations for which they were responsible and OED audited a representative sample of completed operations. For last supervision missions departing after July 1, 1994, Regional staff was required to prepare an Implementation Completion Report (ICR) or Implementation Completion Note (ICN) similar to the earlier PCN. Issues encountered during implementation, achievements, and the economic rate of return, were among the factors covered in the ICR. Contributions from client agencies (whole reports or comments) were attached to the ICR. Co-financiers were invited to participate in evaluations in which they provided funding. All ICRs were to be completed within six months of the final loan / credit disbursement. By 1997, about 25 percent of completed projects were audited by OED. Like the earlier PPARs, Project Audit Reports (PARs) were field-based and incorporated the views of client countries and major stakeholders. Projects were subject to audit if they were: large and complex; innovative or had unusual features; controversial, with issues unresolved during the ICR evaluation; first in a series or expected to offer especially strong lessons; suitable to be analyzed together with similar projects; useful for providing building blocks for sector or country evaluation study; or requested by Executive Directors.

The ICR, PCR, PCN, and ICN working files for the mid-1990s and later generally contain the printed report, a PIF and control sheet, drafts of the DGO's evaluative memorandum regarding the report or note, a copy of a memorandum from OEDDR transmitting the draft evaluative memorandum to the relevant Country Director, and comments from the Bank's Regional staff on the draft. Some files contain the OED-ICR-Review-Evaluation Summary which recommended for or against an audit of the project. Projects were evaluated for outcome, sustainability, institution development, Bank performance, and client country performance based on information in the ICR and PIF. Correspondence with Regional and other Bank staff and with officials in client countries regarding their comments on the draft report can also be found in the files. Some files contain copies of intra-OED electronic messages commenting on the draft evaluative summary and on the review process. A few of the files contain background documents records such as Staff Appraisal Reports (as was the case for PCR files for earlier periods).

In addition to draft and final copies of the reports, the PAR files for this period typically include: Initiating Memoranda; Terms of Reference (TOR) addressed to OED evaluators designated to travel to the field to conduct the audit; letters to Government officials and others related to the project announcing the mission to develop the report; Back-to-Office Reports from the audit mission; and comments on the draft audit report. Comments from the OED audit panel and an Audit Panel Review form can be found in some files along with drafts of the DGO's evaluative memorandum, a PIF and cover sheet, and copies of letters transmitting the final printed copy of the PAR to officials in the client country. Some of the PAR files contain copies of related background materials such as the Staff Appraisal Report and the Loan Agreement.

The review and audit activities of regional operations and the OED were conducted for the projects of all sectors. These include:

*Education- Primary; secondary; tertiary; vocational; technical

  • Health and nutrition Specific disease and HIV/AIDS prevention and management; population projects

  • Water Sewarage and drainage; sanitation; water supply; water pollution control; flood control

  • Agriculture Commodity production; livestock development; fisheries development; research; support services; marketing

  • Human resources Extension and training; social sector management; science and technology

  • Rural development Rural roads; rural electrification

  • Urban development Urban engineering; air pollution; urban management

  • Telecommunications General sector

  • Energy and power Power generation; refinery engineering; energy efficiency; oil field development; gas transport and distribution; oil, thermal, and gas exploration and development; pipeline rehabilitation

  • Transport Navigation; railways; highways; rural roads; aviation; ports

  • Finance and trade Private sector finance projects; financial rehabilitation projects; economic management and public enterprise; technology development projects; small and medium enterprise projects; development banks; export development; shipping; imports program; debt and debt service

  • Industry Foundry modernization; small-scale industry; fertilizer production; mining and other extractive sector projects; pulp and paper engineering; public enterprise assistance; natural resource management; forestry; off-shore development

  • Infrastructure Housing; construction projects

  • Reconstruction and emergency Earthquake and flood recovery; drought relief

  • Tourism General sector

  • Structural adjustment Public sector reform loans; adjustment loans and credits; trade policy adjustment

  • Client capacity building Technical assistance loans; central government administration projects; planning support

Evaluations of non-sector and multi-sector projects are also included.

The series also consists of evaluative reports and related materials created by OED staff that are not PARs or PPARs and are not related specifically to individual projects. These include: staff appraisal reports initially developed for the projects; reports and recommendations sent to the Executive Directors for approval of the loans or credits; materials related to a study by Carl Jayarajah entitled Overview Study: World Bank Support for Small and Medium Industry; a draft of correspondence related to a proposed Review of Lessons Learned in Railway Projects (RLLRP) for the OED Lessons & Practices publication; an approach paper, drafts, and background materials for Review of the World Bank Experience with Electric Power Generating Facilities (1985); a draft study outline, Terms of Reference, and supporting materials for the 1987 - 1989 study Columbia: An Evaluation of Bank Lending to the Colombia Power Sector between 1970 and 1986 along with the March 1991 final study report; the approach paper and draft of the 1988 - 1989 country case study World Bank Support for Rural Roads Maintenance - Philippine Case Study; a draft of Senior Evaluator Jan de Weille's March 1992 report Annual Review, Project Performance Results for 1991 - Transport; the approach paper and drafts of the June 30, 1994, grey cover sector review (Report 13291) Rural Electrification in Asia: A Review of Bank Experience; records related to a study of the Bank's involvement in Mexico's power sector over four decades; background materials for Study of Adjustment Lending in Sub-Saharan Africa (Oct. 1996 - July 1997) including an approach paper, preliminary draft, draft speech prepared for the Director-General, Operations Evaluation, and copies of related reports; the report Case Study of World Bank Activities in the Health Sector in Mali accompanied by a memorandum from OEDST inviting the DGO and other OED personnel to a meeting review regarding the study; working files of evaluator Basil Coukis which include annotated copies of PCRs and PPARs as well as background materials such as loan guarantee agreements, staff appraisal reports developed for loan or credit applications, progress reports, background correspondence, and field notes used in the preparation of evaluations; and two reports concerning trade policy reform for Mexico, Mexico: Trade Policy Reform, World Bank's Support for Trade Liberalization Program by Yalcin M. Baran (Sept. 15, 1989) and Overview Study: World Support for Small and Medium Industry issued by the Projects Department of Latin America and the Caribbean Regional Office (June 24, 1986). Finally, the series consists of records related to the OED's problematic review of the Thirteenth Indian Railway Project (Credit 582-IN). The files contain the April 1979 PCR, various versions (dating from 1981 to 1986) of the PPAR, and correspondence regarding the project. The first and the subsequent draft PPARs for this project were controversial and found to be inadequate for various reasons. The controversy led President Clausen to appoint a special audit team for the Railway Project and to request a reevaluation of OED internal procedures. Materials related to the subsequent review as well as to the OED evaluation are included; the latter includes: intra-OED correspondence; correspondence with Transportation Department staff, the South Asia Regional Office, and Indian government officials; and minutes of a Joint Audit Committee meeting and Executive Directors' meeting.

Publications

This series contains documentation regarding the drafting and publication of booklets aimed at explaining the evaluation function in the World Bank to non-Bank audiences. The early editions of this booklet were titled Operation Evaluation: World Bank Standards and Procedures. By 1993, the title had changed to Assessing Development Effectiveness: Evaluation in the World Bank and the International Finance Corporation.

The sub-series contains records documenting the drafting and publication of the booklets. Included are: intra-OED correspondence; multiple drafts of the booklets; comments on the drafts; and agenda, minutes, and summaries of meetings of the Joint Audit Committee and of the Board of Executive Directors at which drafts were discussed. The sub-series also contains draft and/or published copies (in English and French) of various booklet editions (1976, 1979, 1984 [draft only], 1993).

Urban development reference subject files

Series consists of reference materials created or received by the Water Supply and Urban Development Department (WUD) and, more specifically, the Water Supply and Urban Development Department Operations Support and Research Unit (WUDOR).

The majority of the records within this series are published and unpublished research and discussion papers created by the WUDOR, World Bank regional offices, other World Bank departments, and external authors. External authors include consultants, academics, NGOs, and other multilaterals, such as United Nations Center for Human Settlements (HABITAT), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Topics of these papers relate to urban-rural relations, urban development strategy implementation, housing and shelter, municipal finances, spatial policy, urbanization, urban infrastructure, rent controls, electricity and energy pricing, participant/observer project evaluation, structural adjustment, urban transport, project budget management, and urban population. Records include background and theoretical papers as well as papers specific to individual countries and regions; all regions are represented, although African countries are most common. A small percentage of records relate to topics that are not directly related to the urban development sector, such as agriculture, healthcare, education, rural development, and water.

Series also includes a small amount of records created and used during the research and writing of World Bank-authored papers, including memoranda, back-to-office reports and consultant terms of reference.

Other types of papers included in the series include small numbers of regional strategy papers, project proposals and summaries, loan committee reviews, country and project appraisal reports, mission notes, policy papers, research and discussion paper drafts, project case studies, research proposals, program statistical data, Country Economic Memoranda, sector reports, conference papers, regional status reports, project monitoring reports and guidelines, and WUD annual reports for 1984 and 1986.

Urban Poverty Program files

Series consists of records created and received by the Urban Operations Review and Support Unit (URBOR) and related to the Urban Poverty Program. Records relate to the various objectives and activities of the Program, including: defining, identifying, and quantifying developing countries' urban poor; identifying urban poverty target groups; estimating poverty incomes levels; creating lending policy; developing guidelines on project implementation and review; setting targets; and measuring impacts. Series is comprised of chronological files consisting of correspondence, memoranda, and reports dating from the beginning of the Task Group's existence in July of 1975. Included is a memorandum entitled Bank Action Program to Attack Urban Poverty submitted to President McNamara by Warren C. Baum, Vice President, Central Projects Staff, on July 11, 1975, as well as two early Action Program and Interim Reports submitted by E.V.K. Jaycox to Warren C. Baum; these are dated Oct. 23, 1975, and March 29, 1976. Other interim reports and project reviews submitted between 1976 and 1981 are also included, as is feedback on the reports from Department staff. Reports and memoranda submitted to the project Chairman from internal and external offices are contained. Memoranda from the Bank's regional offices' Chief Economists reporting on their efforts to combat urban poverty and offering feedback on the Group's reports and memoranda are included. A small amount of meeting minutes and notes are included, as are photocopies of newspaper and journal articles.

Chronological correspondence

The files primarily consist of correspondence to and from Nurick, and drafts of correspondence, reports and other records. The chronological files kept by Nurick capture a variety of topics, related both to Bank work and to personal activities. As the correspondence was captured chronologically, each folder contains records relating to a large variety of (and sometimes unrelated) topics, activities or events. Researchers looking for records related to specific topics, activities or events may need to review all records within the Series using dates as a guideline. The correspondence relates, but is not limited, to: member contributions; membership (including origin of Part 1 and Part 2 countries); Bank subscription increases; bond issues; borrowing and loans to various countries; co-financing; IDA replenishments; Bank financial statements; valuation of capital; arrears and settlement of foreign claims; International Finance Corporation matters; Loan Committee; Development Committee; Joint Ministerial Committee; Bank IDA Statutory Committees; Disbursement Committee; selection of Robert McNamara; the Arab boycott; administrative and other personnel matters, including litigation, Administrative Tribunal and appeals; procurement guidelines; relations with other organizations and the US government; Second Committee of the UN; EEC Special Action Programme; and many others.

Subject files

The files consist of correspondence, reports, legal memoranda, briefs, and printed items. The topics to which the records relate reflect issues of personal interest to Nurick or issues that he handled on behalf of his clients. Records relate to the World Bank as an institution, such as the Bank's Articles of Agreement, the Bretton Woods Agreement, sovereign immunity, the International Finance Corporation, immunities and powers of the Bank, and Bank membership issues involving China, the Palestine Liberation Organization, and Iran. Also included are records relating to bond issues and finance, taxation, co-financing, and securities and investment. Some records relate to litigation, such as a Federal Communications Commission case and a case involving university tuition payments. Files on specific World Bank lending projects include records related to the Volta River power projects in Ghana (including photographs), the Shashe projects in Botswana (Shashe Engineering Project and Shashe Construction and Supplementary Loan Project), the Falconbridge ferronickel project in the Dominican Republic, and the Boke UNDP Technical Assistance project in Guinea. Records also relate to personnel issues, such as staff rights and obligations, garnishment, and staff compensation.

Personal papers of Benjamin B. King - Materials related to Zambia

The papers consist of a body of materials related to Zambia. King undertook a mission to Zambia for the Bank and wrote a report on it, and he collected information about and remained interested in Zambia thereafter. The materials related to Zambia include four documents prepared and distributed for the December 1986 meeting of the Consultative Group on Zambia, which had had its first meeting in June 1978. Most of the other documents related to Zambia are internal World Bank documents, with a few Bank publications and some publications from other sources. The materials are arranged in four sections: Consultative Group documents; unpublished Bank materials; Bank publications; and other publications. This is a useful body of materials for an overview of Zambian economic issues in the 1980s.

Benjamin B. King

Front Office Work Program and Budget Records for Fiscal Years 1993-1998

These copies of DEC annual work programs and budgets, usually accompanied by Department and EDI [Economic Development Institute] feeder work programs and budgets, were maintained by Lesley Davis (Lesley Davis Arnold) who was Program Coordinator for Administration in DEC's Front Office. Copies of DEC's FY 93 Mid-Year and Retrospective Review Reports were maintained with the FY 93 work program and budget. Background materials for the FY 93 work program and budget include correspondence concerning positionsand funds associated with a proposed downsizing of the Geneva Office and concerning the impact on staffing of the acceptance into Bank and Fund membership in 1992 of most of the Republics of the former Soviet Union. Found with the FY 94 work plan and budget is correspondence concerning the merger of the budget of the Development Policy Group (former Economic Advisory Staff [EAS]) with that for the rest of DEC and copies of monitoring and Mid-Year Review Reports. The FY 94 - FY 96 Business Plan for DEC accompanies these records. A new format was adopted for the FY 95 work plan and DEC units' submissions were entered into the Resource Planning System (RPS). Accompanying documents relating to the FY 95 work program are FY 95 - FY 97 and FY 96 - FY 98 Business Plans for DEC (including EDI). Found with documents pertaining to the FY 96 work program is correspondence concerning development of a new Country Assistance Strategy or Country compact and a copy of the Third Quarter FY 97 Monitoring Report of the DEC work program and budget which was prepared for the first time in a new format in line with implementation of the Bank's new Strategic Compact - the plan for fundamental reform to make the Bank more effective in delivering its Regional program and achieving its basic mission of reducing poverty. Correspondence concerning DEC's proposed involvement in the Bank's program of technical cooperation, expanded volunteer efforts, and modest funding of activities related to education, employment, poverty alleviation, and municipal services for Washington, DC is found with guidance documents for preparation of the FY 98 work programs and budgets.

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