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Records of the Office of the Chief Economist Series English
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Records of the Country Policy Department (CPD)

The series includes records maintained by the Country Policy Department (CPD) and its subordinate divisions and units from 1981 to 1986. The records include correspondence and memoranda maintained by the CPD Directors, divisionalstaff, and unit staff. The records also include discussion papers, policy papers, and reports produced by the CPD divisions and units with comments for review.

Reading File of the Front Office Staff, Office of the Vice President, Development Economics and Chief Economist (DECVP)

The series consists of documents sent electronically within the Front Office, to other parts of DEC, and to other Bank organizations by economic and statistical advisors and other staff. A few of the documents were sent by Mark Baird, DECVP [Director, Development Policy]. Included are comments on Country Assistance Strategy (CAS) papers, Initiating Memoranda (IMs) for loans and credits, Initial Executive Project Summaries (IEPS), the Unified Survey, and other papers received for review. Paris Club meetings are the subject of some of the documents.

Briefing Books, Travel Documents, and Travel-Related Correspondence of Nicholas H. Stern

This series contains the briefing books, travel documents, and travel-related correspondence for Senior Vice President and Chief Economist Nicholas H. Stern. The files include information on his trips to Washington, DC from March to June 2000 before he officially took charge as Chief Economist. Some of the files (e.g. those for brief trips to Boston, New York, London, and Ottawa) contain only travel documents (such as itineraries and e-mails regarding travel arrangements), but the more extensive files include briefing books containing: daily schedules and agenda; outlines of the objectives and themes for the visit or the Bank's strategy for a conference; biographical data on officials with whom Stern met; talking points for meetings; background information on and summaries of Bank projects in the countries he was scheduled to visit; copies of Bank documents (e.g. country assistance strategies, Implementation Completion Reports, OED evaluations of Bank projects, loan status reports) relating to the country visited; formal invitations to special events; copies of Stern's presentations and related Power-point slides; press releases; and extensive intra-Bank correspondence regarding trip plans and drafts of Stern's presentations. Many files include copies of Stern's Back-to-Office Reports to President Wolfensohn and Stern's own extensive notes from meetings. If Stern attended a conference, the conference documents (program, list of attendees, background documents) are included. If Stern accompanied President Wolfensohn on a trip (e.g. Brazil, March 28 - 29, 2003), a copy of the President's briefing book is in the files.

Subject Files Relating to Major Issues of Interest to the Vice President and Chief Economist (DECVP)

This series contains files on major issues of interest to the Vice President and Chief Economist and his staff. Most files contain documents compiled by DECVP Michael Bruno and by Mark Baird, Director of Development Policy in DEC, but some are from the administrations of former DECVPs Stanley Fischer and Lawrence Summers. Among the topics covered are: aid effectiveness; plans to relaunch and reform the Economic Development Institute in 1995; planning for the 50th Anniversary of the World Bank; and DEC presentations made to the Board and to President Wolfensohn.

Specific documents include: comments on drafts of a paper on aid effectiveness, prepared by the staff of the World Bank, in collaboration with the staff of the International Monetary Fund, for the 49th meeting of the Development Committee on October 3, 1994; memoranda on research proposals on aid effectiveness; a copy of Mark Baird's presentation to the IDA Deputies at a February 1995 meeting in Paris to discuss the Eleventh Replenishment of IDA; a DEC paper, dated April 1, 1994, on the contribution of research and training (EDI) to the work of the World Bank (filed under 50th Anniversary); summaries of brainstorming sessions, held in 1994 in conjunction with plans for the 50th Anniversary, on future issues facing the Bank; a copy of the DEC information package provided the Executive Directors when DEC made a presentation to the Directors on December 2, 1994 as part of the Executive Directors' Information Program; background notes used to prepare for a strategy meeting with President Wolfensohn on November 22, 1995 (filed under DEC strategy note); DEC memoranda and a February 1995 DEC report regarding the DEC review process of loans and country strategies (filed under lending); an October 1994 DEC Proposal to Restructure Funding of Non-Lending Services (filed under Non-lending Services); comments from Mark Baird and other DEC staff on items discussed at Loan Committee meetings; Michael Bruno's correspondence with the Deputy Director-General and the Director General of the World Trade Organization (WTO); briefing materials prepared for President Wolfensohn's July 6, 1995 meeting with the head of the WTO and the IMF; summaries of meetings the Chief Economist and DEC staff had with WTO staff; and comments on drafts of the guidelines for World Bank staff cooperation with the WTO.

Stanley Fischer's Chronological File of Correspondence with Non-Bank Organizations and Individuals (External Chronological Files)

Most of Fischer's outgoing letters and memoranda are accompanied by incoming communications. The majority of the letters in this series concern Fischer's contacts with fellow economists and professional and international organizations outside the Bank. Included are: Fischer's letters accepting and declining invitations to speak or otherwise participate in conferences, institutes, symposia, and professional meetings; his responses to letters suggesting topics for his future research and writing; and his responses to letters requesting Fischer's comments on papers and to letters commenting on his papers and other writing. Some incoming letters and memoranda contain Fischer's annotations regarding the response to be prepared.

The remainder of the series includes: Fischer's letters of invitation sent to academics and other outside economists to participate in informal workshops, seminars, and conferences sponsored (or co-sponsored) by the Bank; Fischer's thank you letters to participants following these events and to officials with whom he met during overseas trips; and occasional memoranda Fischer sent to individuals inside the Bank.

Publication File of Bela Balassa

The series includes reprints of approximately 200 papers and essays authored by Bella Balassa on a wide spectrum of economic and trade issues including development strategy, adjustment policies, tariff policy and taxation, exchange rates and balance of payments, protectionism, and export policy and performance. Most of the papers and essays were initially presented by Balassa at symposia, conferences, institutes, and seminars held in the United States and abroad while he served as consultant to the Bank and as a faculty member at The Johns Hopkins University. A series of papers published between 1963 and 1966 were written while he was on the faculty of Yale University. Also found in the series is a copy of a Le Monde article of 26 April 1990 announcing the award of an honorary doctorate to Balassa by the l'universite de Paris, a copy of a letter Belassa sent to friends concerning the Sorbonne ceremony and other honors, and a copy of an article on Balassa that appeared in the March 1990 issue of The Bank's World.

Pre-Operations Committee Briefing Memoranda of the Policy Analysis and Review Division (SPRPA), Strategic Planning and Review Department

This series primarily contains briefing memoranda prepared by staff in the Policy Analysis and Review Division (SPRPA) of the Strategic Planning and Review Department. SPRPA was the predecessor to the Review and Analysis Division (PRDRA). The memoranda, which analyze documents to be discussed at an Operations Committee (OC) meeting and propose a position to be taken by the Chief Economist (DECVP), were forwarded to the Chief Economist and, in some cases, also to the Vice President for Sector Policy and Research (PREVP). Most of the items discussed in the briefings are Country Strategy Papers and adjustment loan/credit documents. Included in the series are several agenda for OC meetings and some post-Operations Committee meeting memoranda summarizing the discussion at an OC meeting.

Front Office Business Plans for Fiscal Years 1991-2000

These copies of DEC Business Plans were maintained by Lesley Davis (Leslie Davis Arnold) who was Program Coordinator for Administration in DEC's Front Office. Prior to the 1992 reorganization, DEC Business Plans were submitted to the Senior Vice President, Policy, Planning and Research (PPRSV). After the reorganization of that year, they were submitted to the Director, Planning and budgeting Department (PBD). The plans were submitted for all DEC units. The Business plan was a major component of Bank budget cycles and provided information from DEC that would become part of priorities and framework papers presented to the Board. The Business plan also served as the basis for DEC's next fiscal year work program and budget, described each DEC organization's plans for the following two or more fiscal years, described each organization's underlying strategy and work program, and indicated plans for special emphases and topics that cut across department and other organizational boundaries. Included in files aredraft and final Business plans, submissions for each DEC unit, background correspondence, data relating to the preparation of the plans, and copies of monitoring reports. The FY 1998 - 00 [2000] DEC Business Plan was prepared in April 1997 in anticipation of the Bank reorganization by July 1 of that year which would form as major parts of DEC a new Research, Data and Prospects Group and an Economic Development Institute and Leadership Center (EDI) in alliance with the Bank's new Strategic Compact.

Ronald Duncan's Files on Commodities and Research While Serving with the International Commodity Markets Division (IECCM) and the International Trade Division (IECIT)

This series contains correspondence, reports, and other records that Ronald C. Duncan maintained primarily while he was director of the International Commodity Markets Division (IECCM) and later the International Trade Division (IECIT) in the International Economics Department. Duncan served as Division Chief in IECCM from 1 July 1987 until 1 May 1990 when he became Division Chief in IECIT. Prior to this he was Divisions Chief in the Economic Program Department's Commodity and Export Projects Division (EPDCS) between 1984 and 1987.

One file in this series, Support to the Regions, documents Duncan's units' support to the regions dating from 1984 when he was director of EPDCS to 1993 when he directed IECIT. Other files concern commodity price forecasting; commodity problems in Africa; the drafting of a paper, Bank Policy on the Financing of Commodities, which was discussed at the October 1989 meeting of the Operations Committee; Bank lending for plantation crops (tea, coffee, and cocoa); and possible researchwork on Eastern Europe. Several files contain correspondence and reports on research in units headed by Duncan. One concerns research funded by IECIT, rather than by the Research Support Budget (RSB). Another contains IEC proposals, 1993-1994, for RSB-funded research, and one updates the FY 1995 status of RSB-funded research projects in IECIT.

Records of the Global Prospects Conferences Sponsored by the International Economic Analysis and Prospects Division (IECAP)

This series consists of records relating to the Global Prospects Conferences sponsored by the International Economic Analysis and Prospects Division (IECAP) of the International Economics Department (IEC). Included are verbatim transcripts of the proceedings of the first (April 25 - 26, 1989) and second (April 30 - May 1, 1990) conferences. Also included for the first conference are memoranda of a draft conference outline and a proposed budget. Among the files for the second conference are black-and-white photographic negatives of conference sessions, copies of some of the papers prepared for the conference, a copy of the preliminary conference announcement (December 27, 1989), and marked-up copies of transcripts edited by some of the speakers.

Subject Files of Masood Ahmed, Director, International Economics Department (IEC)

The series consists of seven parts. The first part contains correspondence and other records dated May to December 1995 and relating to plans for the issuance of Global Economic Prospects 1996 (GEP'96). Included are intra-IEC memoranda concerning overall plans for GEP '96; various drafts of the initiating brief for GEP '96; production schedules; copies of draft chapters with comments from IEC staff; and copies of DEC Notes regarding GEP '96.

The second part consists of memoranda and other records dated March 1994 to March 1995 and relating to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the Development Assistance Committee (DAC). Filed under "OECD" are: Ahmed's correspondence with OECD staff and with Bank staff regarding OECD and DAC matters, March 1994 -March 1995; and memoranda, letters, schedules dated October 21, 1994 to November 15, 1994 regarding Ahmed's attendance at meetings of the OECD Economic Policy Committee, November 8 -10, 1994

The third part consists of agenda and minutes of meetings of the Departmental Management Team (DMT) which included the Director of IEC, the IEC Division Chiefs and other key staff. The records cover the period April 1990 to June 1997 and include minutes and agenda for the periods when D.C. Rao was Director from 1990 to 1993 and when Masood Ahmed was Director from 1993 to 1997. The files also include some background papers that were discussed at meetings and memoranda regarding follow-up actions from DMT meetings.

The fourth part includes agendas and minutes of meetings, memoranda, and correspondence related to administrative actions and planning initiatives by the DEC Vice President's Office from 1994 to 1997. This includes records related to: budget; reporting of department activities; and DEC-wide initiatives. Other records relate to the DEC Communication Strategy from 1995 to 1996, which sought to develop a cross-department communication policy and strengthen its partnership with the Bank's Office of External Affairs (EXT). These records consist of: correspondence between the DEC Vice President, DEC senior managers, other department staff, and EXT; approach paper drafts; agendas; minutes of meetings; and memoranda. Additional communications between the DEC VP, DEC department managers and staff, and EXT are included for the years 1994 to 1996 on a variety of topics.

The fifth part includes records related to a Bank-wide initiative to create an Information Services (IS) and Information Technology (IT) Task Force from 1995 to 1997 to help upgrade and centralize the Bank's IT Systems. Records consist of: correspondence sent to DMT, IEC Division staff, and DEC senior officials; reports, surveys, and audits of Bank IT systems and architecture; and agenda, minutes, and printed presentation slides related to Bank-wide IT development and management. The initiative proposed an Information Management Group (IMG), and sought representatives from units and departments across the Bank, including DEC and IEC.

The sixth part consists of records related to ongoing IEC collaboration with other national, multi-lateral, and external agencies through: attendance at seminars and meetings; exchange and sharing of research, data, and analysis through data systems, publications, and presentations; and policy advisement for international finance, debt, and trade issues. The records include agenda, meeting minutes, memoranda, correspondence, and reports from October 1995 to October 1996 related to the ongoing interaction between Ahmed of the IEC and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). Most records relate to Ahmed's participation in UNCTAD meetings, and exchanging of global trade statistics through UNCTAD produced reports and IEC publications such as Global Economic Prospects (GEP). Other records in this part include agenda, memoranda, and correspondence related to the Bank-funded initiative International Comparisons Program (ICP) dated 1993 to 1997, which partnered with other national, bi-lateral, and multi-lateral institutions to conduct a massive survey of purchasing power parities (PPPs) among countries. IEC played a significant role in providing technical resources to conduct surveys and research, and led data processing and analysis activities. Records of meetings and seminars related to multilateral debt on severely and heavily indebted countries attended by Bank senior officials, or representatives from DEC or IEC are also included. These records consist of agenda, memoranda, meeting minutes, correspondence, briefings for senior officials, and external reports and papers for a variety of meetings, including: the OXFAM international meetings and seminars, 1995; the G-7 Summit-Halifax, 1995; and the G-7 Summit-Lyon, 1996. The bulk of correspondence in these records is internal communications between IEC, DEC, and the Office of the President (EXC) regarding: the content of the meeting and seminars; responses to papers, reports, and speeches related to multilateral debt; and the Bank's potential actions for multilateral debt. Lastly, records from the G-24 Group dated 1995 to 1996 contain external joint G-24 and IMF papers and reports related to various topics on international finance, debt, and trade issues.

The seventh part filed under "Miscellaneous" are memoranda and other records dated 1994 to 1995 concerning: 1) the Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics (ABCDE), May 1 -2, 1995, including memoranda regarding the drafting of the keynote speech; 2) Back-to-Office Reports and other records from DEC staff who attended the UN Symposium on Trade Efficiency that met in Columbus, Ohio, October 17 -21, 1994; and 3) a memorandum concerning guidelines for the Working Paper Series, December 5, 1994.

Divisional Reading File of the Policy Research Department (PRD)

The series consists of documents sent electronically within PRD, to other parts of DEC, and to other Bank organizations. They include peer review comments and comments on other papers, sector reports, Country Assistance Strategy (CAS) documents, research design proposals, concept papers, and draft Final Executive Project Summaries (FEPS) sent to PRD divisions for review. These and other documents in the series reflect PRD divisions' involvement in research into aid effectiveness, poverty (including theold age security study and HIV/AIDS and STDs prevention and management), and the environment. Copies of Terms of Reference and Back-to-Office Reports for missions undertaken during this period and documents relating to establishment of a Research Advisory Group are part of the series. Also included are copies of reports from Bank Board meetings and DEC Senior Managers Meetings which were usually circulated to the divisions by the Department head or the Division Chiefs.

The documents dated August 1991 - January 1992 were created in the Policy and Review Department, which also had the acronym PRD and was abolished November 30, 1991. The few post-dated documents concern matters pertaining to the termination of that department. This reading file also includes copies of documents sent (4 January 1993 - 23 February 1993) by CECFP [Financial Policy and Systems], CECTM [Transition and Macro-Adjustment], and CECTP [Trade Policy] Division] staff short periods before and after 1 February 1993 when the Country Economics Department (CEC) was renamed the Policy Research Department (PRD). Three small subject files pertaining to a poverty handbook and budget matters are part of the series.

Subject File of Dennis N. de Tray, Head of the Living Standards Measurement Unit (DRDLS), Development Research Department

These very loosely organized files appear to have been assembled, mostly in black binders, by de Tray for his personal use. Files (binders) were created for a 1985 mission to Jamaica he participated in to evaluate the effects of structural adjustment activities on major sectors of the Jamaican economy and a 1986 mission to Grenada he also participated in to meet with government officials in the national statistical office to discuss government survey needs and the possibility of monitoring a Living Standards Study. These files include copies of Back-to-Office Reports (BTOs) and other correspondence relating to the mission.

De Tray's Ivory Coast Living Standards Survey (ICLSS) materials, which consist mostly of technical data from the survey (1985-1987), include a Terms of Reference (TOR) and BTO for a 1983 project identification/preparation mission to Abidjan, Paris, and London for the ICLSS. A small number of reports, sampling plans, and prototype questions for the ICLSS are included for the 1983 - 1984 period. Correspondence concerning the French version of the ICLSS questionnaire, recommendations for questionnaire changes, and a report of a mission by a DRDLS staff member to Cote d'Ivoire to collect data from the ICLSS are included for the 1986-1987 period. De Tray also created a file for a 1985-1986 Bank study (RPO 673-84) (folder 1315128) of the determinants of children's nutritional status and morbidity in the Cote d'Ivoire for which he was principal supervisor.

De Tray's Ghana Living Standards Survey (GLSS) materials include his BTO from a February - March 1986 Technical Assistance mission to Ghana and Cote d'Ivoire to explore the possibility of undertaking a GLSS and to discuss a proposed seminar covering results from the 1985 ICLSS and an earlier 1979 consumption survey. Also included are other 1986-1987 BTO reports from missions relating to the GLSS including a September 17, 1986 report of a mission to Ghana de Tray participated in to finalize plans for the GLSS. Also included is correspondence with and mission reports from a consultant working on the GLSS.

A smaller amount of material is included for the Peruvian Living Standards Survey. BTO reports (1984) from missions to Peru to prepare for the survey and a proposal for a study of Education and Informal Sector Employment (1983) are among the documents assembled. The series also includes an undated draft proposal for an Egyptian Living Standards Survey, a December 5, 1983 BTO from a mission to that country to discuss the conduct of a Living Standards Survey, and some related material. De Tray also assembled some publications and other materials that appear to have related to his membership on the Task Force on the Annual Report on Bank Research. Found with this material is a copy of a paper he prepared in October 1984 entitled The Living Standards Measurement Survey which describes in detail the origin of LSMS at the Bank, the development of the survey design, planned analyses of data collected, and the survey plan for the Ivory Coast where the first LSMS was to take place.

Files of the Director, Development Policy, Regarding the Development Committee and Related Committees

These records were compiled by the Director of Development Policy in the Office of the Vice President of Development Policy. That position was held by Ernest Stern from April 1974 to September 1975, Attila Karaosmanoglu from October 1975 to June 1979, and E. Bevan Waide from June 1979 to 1982.

The Joint Ministerial Committee of the Boards of Governors of the Bank and the Fund on the Transfer of Real Resources to Developing Countries, better known as the Development Committee, was established in 1974 to advise the Boards on development issues and to coordinate international efforts to finance development. The Interim Committee of the Board of Governors of the International Monetary System, known since 1999 as the International Monetary and Finance Committee, was established by the International Monetary Fund in 1974 to advise the Board on the management of the international monetary system. The Group of Twenty-Four on International Monetary Affairs, now officially the Intergovernmental Group of Twenty-Four on International Monetary Affairs and Development, was established in 1971 to coordinate the positions of developing countries on international monetary and development finance issues to ensure that their interests were adequately represented in negotiations on international monetary matters. The chairman of the Group of Twenty-Four customarily addresses Development Committee meetings, and the Development Committee, the Interim Committee, and the Group of 24 normally meet at the same times during the year.

The series consists of four groups of records:

    1. A general chronological file, 1977 - 1982, contains: a) correspondence between the Director, Development Policy and the Executive Secretary of the Development Committee, the Bank's liaison (Ernest Stern, Vice President of Operations) with the Development Committee, and other Bank managers, including President McNamara; b) copies of draft and final versions of Development Committee documents (agenda, press communiqu?s, reviews of Development Committeeperformance, annual reports, and work programs) forwarded to the Director of Development Policy or to the Executive Directors of IBRD.
    1. Chronological files on meetings of the Development Committee, 1977 - 1980, contain agenda of meetings, copies of Development Committee documents to be discussed at the meetings, copies of President McNamara's statements delivered at Development Committee meetings, and memoranda from the Director, Development Policy or the Bank's liaison with the Development Committeesummarizing meetings. These files include some agenda for and documents considered at meetings of the Working Group on Development Finance and Policy, the Working Group on Access to Capital Markets, the Group of Twenty-four, and the Senior Officials of the Development Committee.
    1. Files on committees and working groups generally contain agendas with copies of the documents to be discussed at the meeting attached, intra-Bank memoranda regarding the committee or working group, and reports and papers prepared by the committee, working group, or task force. Included are records for the Capital Markets Coordinating Committee, 1972 - 1977; the Working Group on Capital Market Access, 1975 - 1978; the Working Group on Development Finance and Policy, 1978; the Senior Officials' Meeting, September 1978; the Task Force on Private Foreign Investment, 1979 - 1981; the Task Force on Non-Concessional Flows, 1980-1981; the Group of Twenty-Four, 1978-1981; and the Interim Committee of the Board of Governors of the International Monetary System , 1978, 1980 - 1981.
    1. Files related to Development Committee studies and reports include: correspondence, papers, and a report regarding cofinancing, 1978 -1980; a Bank study of aid groups sponsored by IBRD, 1978; a report on the implementations of the Special Action Program, 1978; the Joint Fund/Bank staff study on The Stabilization of Export Earnings, done at the invitation of the Development Committee and submitted to the Committee in 1978; and reviews of Development Committee performance, 1976 and1978.

Memoranda and Issuances Relating to the Reorganization of 1972

Contained in this series are memoranda and copies of Bank-wide issuances concerning the Bank's Reorganization of 1972 as it affected the Economics Department and, after the reorganization, the Development Policy Staff. The notebook appears to have been maintained first by P. D. Henderson and, after the reorganization, by Alexander Stevenson, the Director of the Development Economics Department (DED). Among the contents are: November 1971 memoranda to Henderson from Economics Department managers with their thoughts on possible future organizational structures for the Bank; copies of December 1971 memoranda from Mohamed Shoaib (chair of the Organization Study Steering Committee) and Hollis B. Chenery to President McNamara with their reorganization ideas; Henderson's notes from the December 22, 1971 meeting of the President's Council; McNamara's January 7, 1972 announcement of a study of the Bank's organization and procedures; Henderson's correspondence from McKinsey, the consulting firm which helped with the study; a copy of the July 13, 1972 memorandum outlining the views of Mahbub Haq and Ernest Stern regarding the Bank's policy function; a copy of E. Lerdau's July 24, 1972 comments on Haq's and Stern's views; the August 10, 1972 announcement of the first phase of the restructuring; memoranda from various managers of the Central Economic Staff (CES) to Henderson with ideas as to how to reorganize CES; Henderson's September 30, 1972 draft of a memorandum from Hollis B. Chenery to President McNamara concerning responsibility for sector development policy; the October 16, 1972 announcement of the Development Policy Staff's organization; and other memoranda further refining the organization and staffing of the Development Economics Department in the Development Policy Staff.

Records Relating to the Committee of Twenty and to Two of Its Technical Groups

The Committee of Twenty (C-XX), formally known as the Committee of the Board of Governors on Reform of the International Monetary System and Related Issues, was established by the IMF in 1972 to prepare a draft for a reformed international monetary system after the United States had announced in August 1971 that it was suspending the convertibility of the dollar into gold. The records in this series were compiled by Frank Vibert while he was working in the Policy Planning and Program Review Department (PPR) in the Office of the Vice President for Development Policy (VPD). The records primarily concern two of the Committee's Technical Groups: the Technical Group on the Transfer of Real Resources and the Technical Group on the Special Drawing Rights (SDR) Link and Related Proposals. The Bank was asked to participate in the secretariat function for the Technical Group on the Transfer of Real Resources, and Frank Vibert with Azizali Mohammed from the IMF formed the secretariat for the Group. Earnest Stern, Senior Adviser in VPD, was part of the Technical Group on the SDR Link.

The series contains copies of IMF and World Bank studies and other documents that were used as background materials for the Committee or that were drafted in response to specific requests from Committee staff; drafts of and comments from IMF and Bank staff on the Bank paper, Capital Flows to Developing Countries, that was prepared for the Committee; and the issues of the IMF newsletter, IMF Survey, that included articles regarding the Committee of Twenty. The files include: copies of President McNamara's correspondence with Ernest Stern and with C. Jeremy Morse, the chair of the Deputies of the Committee of Twenty; memoranda exchanged between Vibert and Stern; intra-VPD correspondence and other intra-Bank correspondence relating to the Committee of Twenty and the Technical Groups; Vibert's correspondence with IMF staff and with the chair of the Technical Group on the Transfer of Real Resources; copies of memoranda Vibert drafted for the chair's signature; and Vibert's copies of Stern's memoranda to the files regarding the SDR Link.

Records maintained for meetings of the Technical Group on the Transfer of Real Resources include: Vibert's correspondence relating to pre-meeting planning, copies of documents provided as background for the meeting discussions, lists of attendees, copies of the Terms of Reference for the Group, and Vibert's handwritten notes form the meetings. The files also contain multiple drafts and comments on the drafts of the Group's report.

Records relating to the Technical Group on the SDR Link include copies of World Bank and IMF documents provided the Group as background materials; copies of statements regarding the SDR Link made by heads of delegations to the Group; notes regarding SDR discussions with the United Kingdom and Germany; and various drafts of the Bank paper Bank Group Uses of SDR Link Resources.

Director, Development Policy Ernest Stern's Correspondence with President McNamara

This series contains the memoranda that Ernest Stern exchanged with President McNamara while he was Senior Adviser (later Research Adviser) and, beginning in April 1974, Director of Development Policy in the Office of the Vice President, Development Policy. The records consist of copies of Stern's memoranda to McNamara or to his immediate staff; copies of memoranda to McNamara from other Bank staff, especially VPD Hollis Chenery, that were copied to Stern; Stern's memoranda to Bank staff that were copied to McNamara; and memoranda and notes from McNamara or members of his staff to Stern. In many cases, Stern's original memoranda to McNamara were returned to him marked with the President's annotations or with a red stamp indicating President has seen. Stern's correspondence in this file predates his official appointment in VPD on November 1, 1972. Stern's memoranda transmit comments on papers prepared by Bank staff, suggestions for topics to be covered in briefing books prepared for the President, drafts of Presidential speeches, drafts of letters for the President's signature, and comments on correspondence received by McNamara.

The correspondence covers a wide-range of subjects: cooperation with the IMF; the establishment of the Development Committee and the Interim Committee; the Bank's response to the energy crisis; and the establishment of the Intermediate Financing Facility or Third Window. Filed at the end of the series are three items belonging to Stern's successor, Attila Karaosmanoglu: two October memoranda Chenery sent McNamara and copied to Karaosmanoglu and Karaosmanoglu's December 31 draft outlines for McNamara's annual speech.

Subject File of the External Funding Coordinator, Program Management Unit, Policy and Review Department

These files were maintained by Zamarak Shalizi, in the office of the Program Management Unit (PRDPM), Policy and Review Department (PRD) which came under the Office of the Senior Vice President, Policy, Research and External Affairs (PRESV). Found in this series are: copies of completed Trust Fund project description forms (Trust Fund Summary of Characteristics) for agreements concluded in 1991. These forms include the title of the project, the donor and the beneficiary countries, the effective date andduration of the project, and the project's sector; copies of Initiating briefs for Trust Fund projects (1991); copies of documents describing cooperation between ESMAP [Energy Sector Management Assistance Program] and the Regions; and several ESMAP reports including that of a commission to review ESMAP in the 1990s. The series also includes minutes of meetings of the Funding Coordinators' Group (1990 - 1991) of which Shalizi was a member and some administrative correspondence. DECVP reported to PRESV.

Work Program and Budget Records for Fiscal Years, 1988-1992 Maintained in the Policy and Review Department

The earliest work program and budget records in this series are the FY 1988 mid-year review records for the Policy, Planning and Research Staff (PPR). PPR, created after the May 1987 Bank reorganization, brought together existing departments from different parts of the Bank (principally the Economics and Research Staff [ERS] and the Operations Staff [OPS]). budget files maintained by Richard Woodford, Program Coordinator, Office of the Senior Vice President, Policy, Planning and Research (SVPPR) and Ziaddin Choudhury, SVPPR contain copies of PPR organizations' FY 1988 mid-year review reports; the FY 1988 PPR mid-year review report submitted by SVPPR to the Planning and budget Department (PBD) of PPR; and PBD's memo of June 29, 1988 to President Conable giving preliminary findings of PBD's review of the Bank's planning and budgeting system. PBD had responsibility for budget analysis and monitoring of work program and budget performance for the entire Bank. DECVP reported to SVPPR.

Budget files maintained by Gregory Ingram, who joined the SVPPR staff as Principal Adviser, Policy and Research, along with the Woodford and Choudhury files contain: budget and work program guidelines, submissions, reports, and memos (FYs 1989-1992); FY 1989 and FY 1990 capital budget guidelines and requests from PPR organizations for office technology and other equipment; mid-year review submissions from PPR organizations for FYs 1989 and 1990 and retrospective review submissions and drafts for FY 1989; PBD's draft mid-year review report of the FY 1989 budget forwarded to the President's Council for review; documents assembled for the PPR FY 1989 work program review meetings with PBD; and the FY 1990 PPR budget plan (management contract) developed after the Bank's FY 1990 budget was approved by the Board.

After PPR became Policy, Research and External Affairs (PRE) in 1990 and the Policy and Review Department (PRD) was created in PRE, Ingram (PRDRA) and Woodford (PRDPM) had continued responsibilities for budget (management contract) and work program coordination for PRE. Their files and those of Zmarak Shalizi (PRDPM) and Ziaddin Choudhury (PRDPM) contain copies of PRE organizations' submissions for the FY 1991 work program and budget; FY 1991 mid-year review submissions from PRE organizations; and the PRE FY 1991 mid-year review report. There is a small amount of information concerning funding of special grant programs after FY 1991. DECVP reported to PRESV.

Audit Reports Maintained in the Policy and Review Department

The series includes the 29 March 1989 report of an audit of the administrative expense budget of the Policy, Planning and Research Complex (PPR) by the Internal Auditing Department (IAD). The purpose of the review was to assess the adequacy and effectiveness of policies, procedures, and controls over formulation, implementation, and monitoring of the PPR budget and to provide recommendations for changes. Comments of the Senior Vice President, Policy, Planning and Research (SVPPR or PPRSV) comments on the draft report (16 May 1989) is with the IAD final report. DECVP reported to SVPPR.

Also in the series is a 9 September 1991 draft report of the results of an audit of the Geneva Office which reported directly to the Senior Vice President, Policy, Research and External Affairs (PRESV). Found with the draft report is a 3 May 1991 memo issued by PRESV to PRE organizations that transmitted the preliminary IAD work program which included the audit of the Geneva Office. The Geneva Office later reported to DECVP.

Correspondence and Other Records of the Program Management Unit (PRDPM), Policy and Review Department

This series contains correspondence and other records of the Program Management Unit (PRDPM). The correspondence is in two parts. The first part is a chronological file that consists primarily of e-mail printouts received by PRDPM from October 1990 to May 1991. A few printouts of e-mails sent are included. Most of the e-mails were widely distributed to managers throughout the Policy, Research and External Affairs (PRE) complex. The few that are PRDPM specific concern the distribution of computers and the development of the Information Management and Technology Plan for PRE. The second correspondence segment contains memoranda and e-mail printouts both sent and received by PRDPM from April to August 1991. Filed among the correspondence are PRDPM director Zmarak Shalizi's handwritten notes from meetings with PRD and PRE managers. The correspondence primarily concerns the duties of the PRDPM support staff, budget allocations for PRE publications, and planning for the FY 91 retrospective reviews of PRE.

In addition to the correspondence, there are files concerning the development of a records management program and Management Information Systems for units in the PRE complex. These files include records of several task forces Filed under Management Information Services are records of the PRE Information Needs Task Force, February - June 1991, which was established to evaluate the Management Information Requirements for PRE. Included are agenda, notes from meetings, and a draft report. There are also pre-PRDPM records of the Working Group on Measuring PPR's (a predecessor of PRE) Outputs. This group, headed by Nancy Barry, was organized in August 1988 to develop a system of quarterly reports for measuring PPR outputs and activities. The records include the Terms of Reference for the group and the completed questionnaires from each of the PPR divisions. Filed under Information Management Committee Records is some scattered correspondence concerning the Information Management and Technology Policy Committee (IMTPC) which was established to formulate Bank-wide IMT strategies.

Inventories and Status Reports of Major Policy Products and of Annual and Semi-Annual Reports, Policy and Review Department

This series contains Lotus 123 spreadsheet printouts that provide inventories of and status reports on major policy products and on annual and semi-annual reports which had Bank-wide operational/policy relevance. The reports serve as a quick reference to the policy products and reports that made their way to the Board each year; they were generated by the Strategic Planning and Review Department (SPR) through June 1990 and thereafter by the Policy Review Department (PRD). The entries on the reports for policy products cover all policy papers, best-practice papers, and information papers which were destined for the Board. The entries for annual and semi-annual reports cover all regular and non-regular reports that were destined for the Board. For each Bank complex, the products or reports are listed in the order of the Board meeting dates at which the item was discussed. Entries on the spreadsheets show for each item: the name and Bank unit of the staff member with prime responsibility for the item; an abbreviated title of the item; date of the policy brief that initiated the item (if applicable); dates when the item was discussed at various review meetings; and brief comments regarding the status of the item.

Post-Operations Committee Meeting Memoranda of the Review and Analysis Division, Policy and Review Department

This series contains memoranda prepared by staff in the Review and Analysis Division (PRDRA) of the Policy and Review Department and its predecessor, the Policy Analysis and Review Division (SPRPA) of the Strategic Planning and Review Department. The memoranda summarize discussions in meetings of the Operations Committee (OC) that were of interest to the Policy, Research and External Affairs (PRE) staff. The memoranda were written to the files and copies were sent to the Chief Economist and to the headsof other Policy, Research and External Affairs units. Most of the memoranda are post-meeting memos that summarize the OC's discussion on a particular topic, but scattered throughout the series are several pre-meeting briefing memoranda that analyze the document that is to be the topic of discussion at the next OC meeting. One such pre-meeting memorandum, dated April 11, 1990, was sent to Ajay Chhibber in preparation for his briefing for the Chief Economist.

Speech File of D.C. Rao, Director, International Economics Department (IEC)

This series primarily contains copies of the public speeches of D.C. Rao who became IEC's Director on May 1, 1990. The series also includes Rao's copies of two speeches President Conable gave in Mexico City on January 24, 1990 and in Warsaw, Poland on February 23, 1990; Rao's handwritten notes and copies of agenda from various meetings at which he spoke; background data provided Rao to help him prepare a briefing; and rough notes, outlines, talking points,and computer-generated slides for speeches he delivered.

Subject Files of the Director, International Economic Department (IECDR)

This series contains incoming and outgoing correspondence, reports, draft articles and papers, and other records maintained by the Directors of the International Economics Department. Most of the correspondence is with staff in the IEC divisions and with the Vice President and Chief Economist (DECVP). The files concern: external access to the IEC's Bank Economic and Social Database System (BESD); data management issues in IEC; the distribution and marketing plans for IEC products (filed under Dissemination Task Force Electronic Data including CD-Rom Project and External Dissemination of IEC Products); the Socio-Economic Data Division's (IECSE's) participation in the International Comparison Project (ICP); intra-IEC discussions on the rebasing of national accounts and on statistical capability building; the methodology for preparing trade data tables; and the 1990 and 1991 work program and budget of the Debt and International Finance Division (IECDI).

Specific documents include: IEC correspondence on drafting its September 1991 report on The Management of Commodity Price Risk and the Bank's Role; copies of computer-generated slides from the January 27, 1992 IEC Seminar on Information Management Opportunities; copies of background papers and IEC staff comments on papers prepared for Long-Term Prospects Paper, 1990; status reports and correspondence regarding the development of the Revised Minimum Standard Model - Extended (RMSM - X) in IECSE; a February 1993 draft research agenda for IECSE (filed under Unified Survey'); and IEC correspondence and comments on the World Development Indicators (WDI) production process.

Files Relating to the Development Policy Group's (DPG) Review of Proposals Discussed at Loan Committee Meetings

The Development Policy Group compiled these files while assisting the Vice President and Chief Economist (DECVP) in developing DEC's position on proposals discussed at Loan Committee meetings. Most of the files consist primarily of agenda and minutes of Loan Committee (LC) meetings at which adjustment loans and credits were reviewed, but the files for 1993 and 1994 also include agenda and minutes of the President's review meetings to discuss Country Strategy Papers (CSPs) and Country Strategy Notes (CSNs) and memoranda from DEC staff or from the Vice President and Chief Economist (DECVP) commenting on a CSP/CSN. The files for all years include memoranda from the Chief Economist to the chair of the Loan Committee stating DEC's position on a document to be discussed by the Committee; memoranda from Regional staff to the LC chair; intra-DEC memoranda regarding DEC's position on a proposed loan or credit, and minutes of Regional Loan Committee meetings.

Records Relating to Structural Adjustment Lending Maintained by Directors and Senior Advisers of the Development Policy Group (DPG) and to Other Organizations

This series was compiled successively by staff in units responsible for maintaining and reviewing adjustment operations: the Country Policy Department (Assistant Director Sidney Chernick and Vinod Dubey who served as Senior Adviser and later Director of CPD), the Economic Advisory Staff (Directors Vinod Dubey and Enzo Grilli), and the Development Policy Group (Enzo Grilli, Anandarup Ray, Satish Mannon). The records are divided roughly into three parts. The first part relates to the early development of the Structural Adjustment Loan (SAL) program, 1979 - 1984, and includes copies of SAL papers and reports presented to the Board and summaries of discussions from Executive Directors' meetings in which the reports and papers were discussed.

The second part is dated 1982 - 1994 and consists of the working files created in CPD, EAS, and DPG relating to adjustment lending. The files include status reports and progress reports on adjustment lending; correspondence relating to the development of guidelines for the processing of adjustment loans; evaluations of the adjustment lending program from the Operations Evaluation Department (OED); correspondence concerning implementation and assessment of adjustment lending; and comments on the various reports, papers, and evaluations of adjustment lending.

The files in part three contain publications relating to adjustment lending and adjustment lending studies and reports that were forwarded to the Executive Directors, 1980-1992. Included in the files are summaries of discussions from Executive Directors' meetings.

Reading File of The World Development Report (WDR) Team

The series consists of documents sent electronically within the WDR team, to other parts of DEC, and to other Bank organizations. The WDR team reported directly to DECVP and had primary responsibility for the Bank assessment of the state of the global economy found in the annual WDR and for selecting an aspect of development to be analyzed in depth for the annual report. The documents in this series reflect the process of information gathering, analysis, and review involved in the preparation of the annual WDR, including briefing of the Bank President. Also documented is the collaboration that took place with other Bank organizations for information and data needed for the report as well as consultation with outside groups including NGOs. Summaries of meetings at which the WDR was discussed are in the series. Michael Bruno was DECVP for most of the period covered by these records.

Subject Files of the Director, Policy and Review Department (PRDDR)

This series contains both the incoming and outgoing correspondence of the Director, Policy and Review Department (PRDDR) and his immediate staff. Much of the incoming correspondence is heavily hand annotated by Director Paul Isenman with his reply and/or his comments regarding the disposition of the incoming document. The files also contain agenda and minutes of meetings; drafts of reports, papers, and publications; and Isenman's handwritten notes from meetings. The series consists of the following four parts:

  1. The first and largest (8.83 linear feet) segment is the main subject file, January 1990 - November 1991. It consists largely of files on draft policy papers that the PRD staff reviewed. These files contain Isenman's copies of the correspondence, comments, and minutes of meetings relating to the policy paper throughout the drafting process. Policy subjects covered include: forestry, governance, guarantees (i.e. expanding Bank guarantee instruments for private sector development), human development, military expenditure, poverty, the Soviet economy, technical assistance for the Soviet Union, and policy guidelines on tobacco. Also included are files regarding the review of the Report of the Technical Assistance Review Task Force (TARTF); files documenting the development of Business plans for units in PRE [Policy, Research and External Affairs]; and memoranda and other correspondence, dated January - October 1990, on the transition to establish PRD from the Strategic Planning and Review Department (filed under New Department). Filed under President's Council are agenda and minutes of meetings of the President's Council (PC) along with PRD staff comments on documents that were to be discussed at the meetings.
  • The second segment, Isenman's working file, 1989 - 1991, contains many documents that Isenman annotated as working file or file W. Most of the files relate to subjects that were of short-term interest to PRD, but filed under Policy Research and External Affairs (PRE) Committee are schedules for PRE meetings and minutes and agenda for meetings of the PRE Committee on which Isenman served. Some items filed under lunches and people are dated as early as 1989 when Isenman was director of the Africa-South Central and Indian Ocean Department (AF3).

  • The third segment, January 1990 - August 1991, contains PRD's correspondence with and notes from meetings with PRE managers and the staff in PRD's Program Management Unit (PRDPM) concerning the drafting and monitoring of budgets and work programs for all PRE units. Also included are files on the FY 91 retrospective reviews for PRE units and the FY 92 PRE management contract.

  • The final segment appears to be another working file pulled together as PRD was being abolished. It contains a number of files pulled from the first segment, but the bulk of it consists of thick accordion files in which Isenman filed background materials on topics of current interest or in preparation for attendance at a meeting on the topic. Many include Isenman's handwrittennotes from meetings.

Fact Sheet, Press Release, and Other Materials Concerning the Publication of the 1996 World Debt Table Maintained by the Debt and International Finance Division (IECDF)

This series documents media coverage of the March 1996 release of the sixteenth edition of the World Debt Tables. Included are: copies of the Bank's press release and fact sheet; a transcript of remarks Michael Bruno, Chief Economist, Nawal Kamel, Chief of the Debt and International Finance Division (IECDF), and Masood Ahmed, Director of the International Economics Department, delivered at the National Press Club on March 11; copies of news clippings; and a list of questions and answers relating to the report.

Evaluation Report for SMART (Software for Market Access and Restriction to Trade) Maintained by the Chief, International Trade Division (IECIT)

This series contains a draft and the final version of the report of the joint Bank/United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) project to evaluate: the development of the SMART [Software for Market Access and Restrictions to Trade] system, the dissemination activities for SMART, and the use that developing countries had made of SMART. These copies of the report were maintained by the Chief of the International Trade Division (IECIT) of the International Economics Department whose staff worked on the project. SMART was a software system to analyze trade, tariffs, and NTBs (nontariff barriers) in OECD [Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development] markets.

International Economic Analysis and Prospects Division (IECAP) Files Relating to the Long Term Surveys of Country Ecoinomics and to the Short-Term Outlook

The Long Term Surveys of Country Economists and Short-Term Outlook were products of the Global Analysis and Prospects Division (EPDGL) under the Economics and Research Staff and its successor, the International Economic Analysis and Prospects Division (IECAP). The Long Term Survey, which was prepared once a year, contained ten-year GDP projections for developing countries and provided key data for the World Development Report. Short-Term Outlook was prepared twice a year for the Executive Board.

Included for the Long Term Surveys are: the results of the second and fourth (1985 and 1987) Surveys and the Guidelines for the second and third (1985 and 1986) Surveys. The Guidelines were sent to Regional Senior Economists and Country Economists and included the Planning Assumptions Committee's projections for the global macroeconomic and financial indicators used in the survey.

The records relating to the Short Term Outlook (STO) include: a January 24, 1989 Statement by the Staff on the Short-Term Outlook which appears to been presented to the Board of Executive Directors; a copy of Stanley Fischer's March 1, 1990 statement to the Board; a summary by Arman M. J. Van Nimmen (EDINU) of the March 1, 1990 Board meeting which was devoted entirely to a discussion of the STO; and a copy of Stanley Fischer's August 2, 1990 introductory statement to the Board regarding the summer STO.

Back-to-Office Reports from Bank Liaison Officers to the Paris Club

These reports were prepared by Bank officials designated to serve as liaison officers to the Paris Club. The Paris Club refers to meetings held since 1956 that have arranged, when necessary, for the renegotiation of debt owed to official creditors or guaranteed to them. Neither the World Bank nor the IMF is a member of the Paris Club, but the IMF has played an important role in developing debt restructure packages with commercial Banks. Both the Paris Club and the commercial Banks require debt or countries to have agreed on a stabilization program with the IMF as part of the renegotiation process.

The reports for Paris Club meetings held from April 1990 to November 1991 were prepared by Per Ljung, Economic Adviser, Economic Advisory Staff (EAS) in the Office of the Senior Vice President, Operations (OPNSV). Reports were addressed to Moeen Quereshi, OPNSV. In a 6 February 1991 memo addressed to all Country Directors and Country Operations Department Chiefs, Ljung announced a change in distribution of theParis Club Back-to-Office Reports (BTOs). Previously, a BTO was distributed to a Country Director only when a country coming under that Director's purview had its debt rescheduled or was among the countries discussed during Tour d'Horizon sessions at the Paris Club Meeting. Future reports were to be distributed to all Country Departments, and separate copies were to be sent to the Director and to the Country Operations Chief. The report covering the 19 November - 22 November 1991 Paris Club meeting was prepared by Ljung and Ljung's successor, Michael Lav, Economic Adviser, EAS [Economic Advisory Staff, later Development Policy Group -DPG] under the Office of the Vice President, Development Economics and Chief Economist (DECVP).

Lav's (or his alternates') BTOs cover meetings attended from December 1991 to December 1993 and were addressed to DECVP. Most of the reports of Lav's successor, Ronald P. Brigish, who served as Operations Adviser, International Economics Department (IEC) were addressed to the Director, IEC. Brigish's reports cover Paris Club meetings attended from January 1994 to December 1995. The BTOs for the January-April 1996 meetings were prepared by Fred Kilby, Economic Adviser, and International Finance Division (IECIF) and were addressed to the Director; IECIF.

The BTOs identify the countries and subjects discussed at each meeting and decisions reached with regard to rescheduling countries' debts. Summaries (by country) of discussions at Tour d'Horizon sessions, copies of the Agreed Minute, copies of statements made at the meetings by representatives of countries requesting debt rescheduling and by various organizations represented at the meetings including the IMF, World Bank, and UNCTAD [United Nations Conference on Trade and Development], and copies of Club correspondence are parts of many of the reports. Some reports are marked Confidential. The Paris Club met monthly except during the month of August or when cancelled.

Reading File of Bela Balassa

This reading file covers Balassa's work as a consultant for the World Bank from September 1966 to May 1991. Bela Balassa was recruited in 1966 by Irving S. Friedman, The Economic Adviser to the President, as a consultant adviser to the Economics Department of the Bank. Balassa had recently been appointed Professor of Political Economy at The Johns Hopkins University and prior to that was on the faculty of Yale University. Balassa worked closely with Friedman and Andrew Kamarck, the Director of the Economics Department, and later with Hollis B. Chenery after he was appointed Economic Adviser to the Bank President in October 1970.

Through successive Bank reorganizations, Balassa served as a consultant policy adviser and prepared papers at the request of Operations and other Bank units, led Bank missions to developing countries, supervised research performed in Regional offices, and conducted his own research and writing. He served as a consultant in DEC at the time of his death on May 10, 1991.

During theperiod 1966-1970, the series includes Balassa's letters and Back-to-Office Reports for missions to Argentina, Korea, Taiwan, and Israel, letters sent in conjunction with the Development Strategies in Semi-Industrial Countries and Export Promotion in Developing Countries projects, and letters to outside economists invited to attend meetings at the Bank on the Structure of Protection in Developing Countries.

Letters and memoranda for the 1971-1981 period continue to document his duties as Research Adviser to the Economics Department and to the Vice President, Development Policy Hollis Chenery who was appointed the Economic Adviser to the Bank President. Balassa also consulted with Ernest Stern, Senior Adviser, Development Policy and officials of other Bank departments on policy issues and participated in economic or advisory missions. In February 1972 he was transferred to the Development Research Center. Letters and memoranda for the period afterward indicate that Belassa continued to lead or otherwise participate in missions; performed other policy advisory work for Regional Offices, other parts of the Bank, and governments of less developed countries; assisted the Research Committee (later the Research Projects Approval Committee [REPAC]) in panel review of research proposals; provided leadership to the Industrial Development and Trade Steering Group; commented on the quality and distribution of World Bank staff working papers; and conducted his own research and writing

Beginning in 1982, Balassa reported to the Vice President, Development Policy Staff (later Vice President, Economics and Research [ERS]) and to the Director of the Development Research Department. Letters and memoranda indicate his increased involvement in policy advising and operational support both to senior Bank management and Regional Offices and continued participation in missions and in the Research Committee. After the 1987 Reorganization, Balassa reported to the Vice President, Development Economics and Chief Economist (DEC). A copy of an August 4, 1987 report on World Bank Research prepared at the request of the Senior Vice President, Policy, Planning and Research is in the file. A number of letters and reports after that date and continuing through 1991 concern Balassa's review of papers in the Policy, Planning and Research (PPR, later PRE [Policy, Research, and External Affairs]) Working Papers series. Included in the PPR/PRE series were World Development Reports and other papers prepared by organizations within DECVP, IEC [International Economics Department], and CEC [Country Economics Department].

Throughout the series are copies of papers Balassa prepared at the request of the Board and Bank offices, copies of research papers and lectures prepared for Bank-IMF sponsored conferences and for meetings of international organizations, reports prepared after returning to the Bank from outside meetings on economic issues and trade policy, and letters concerning his books and other publications.

Berne Union Files Maintained by Development Finance Services, Economic Program Department

The International Union of Credit and Investment Insurers (Berne Union) was formed in 1934 with members from France, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom. Its purpose was to foster international acceptance of sound principles of export credit insurance; to establish and maintain discipline in terms of credit for international trade; to maintain sound principles of foreign investment insurance; to encourage a favorable investment climate; and to exchange information, assistance, expertise, and advice in relation to the commercial and political risks associated with export credit and investment insurance.

The January 1965 to January 1970 files cover the period when Andr Nespoulous-Neuville served as a World Bank observer to Berne Union Extraordinary General Meetings held in January and Annual General Meetings usually held in May of the same year. Most meeting files for the period include correspondence regarding meeting arrangements, provisional and final programs and lists of participants, lists of countries to be reviewed at the meetings, press releases (press notices), minutes of the meetings provided by the Berne Union Secretary-General, and the observer's Back-to-Office reports. Some of Nespoulous-Neuville's reports and other correspondence regarding Berne Union are addressed to the President of the Bank, the Director and Associate Director of the Development Services Department, and the Director, Development Finance Services where he was on staff.

The file for the 20 - 25 May 1967 Annual General Meeting in Wiesbaden contains a copy of a statement made by Nespoulous-Neuville at the meeting on the World Bank's Staff Study of Supplier' Credits from Industrialized to Developing Countries. The file for the 16 - 20 January 1967 meeting in Meg?ve includes a copy of a January 26, 1967 letter from Nespoulous-Neuville to the Secretary-General of Berne Union informing him that the Berne Union President had agreed at the meeting to send the World Bank all documents of general interest to the Bank. Most of the files dated after this letter usually include statistical data and other Berne Union documents not previously distributed to the Bank. The file for the London meeting, June 4-9, 1968 is the first to include a letter of invitation to the observer to participate in country review discussions at the meetings.

Nespoulous-Neuville left Development Finances Services before the May 1970 Annual General Meeting and was succeeded as a Bank observer at that meeting by Ugo Sachetti, the Director, Development Finance Services, which became the International Finance Division in the January 15, 1971 Bank reorganization. Sachetti served as observer through the May 1971 Annual General Meeting held in Washington, DC. Among topics discussed at that meeting were the responses to a questionnaire regarding the availability of export credit insurance to Ghana. Some responses are part of the file for that meeting.

Correspondence and Files Created for Research Projects in Support of Operations (Operations Policy Files)

The series consists of correspondence of Departments and of other organizational units of the Development Policy Staff (DPS), Central Projects Staff (CPS), and the Regional Offices primarily with the Vice President, Development Policy (VPD), the Director, Development Policy, and the DPS Research Adviser concerning research projects in support of operations. Most of these projects were funded through the Bank's External Research Budget beginning in 1972, but the series also includes correspondence relatingto research funded through Department resources. The remainder of the series consists of: research project files, 1972 - 1974 and sector research files, 1975 - 1977.

The research correspondence for the 1972 - 1974 period includes: research proposals forwarded by DPS, CPS, and Regional Office departments to the Research Committee; reports of reviews of research proposals by Research Committee review panels; memos concerning funding estimates for approved research projects; lists of projects requiring funding submitted by the Departments; research project status reports; correspondence of VPD, Bank Departments, and Regional Offices with outside consultants conducting research for approved projects; Terms of Reference (TOR); Back - to - Office Reports (BTOs) for missions associated with research projects; and research proposals from outside researchers and multi-national organizations and responses to these proposals. Also with the 1972 - 1974 correspondence is a copy of the pamphlet World Bank Research Program - Policies and Procedures.

Found with the 1972 - 1974 correspondence are reports prepared in 1973 at the request of Ernest Stern, (Director, Development Policy), which provided information for the first comprehensive report on the Bank's external research program in 1973. Among these reports is a 28 September 1973 status report prepared by the Director, Policy Planning and Program Review Department, DPS of 58 policy papers underway and planned for FY 1974 - FY 1975 and policy papers added, completed, and dropped. A November 30, 1973 update of this report is also in the files. Also among the 1972 - 1974 correspondence are copies of letters and other correspondence concerning the Task Force on Education and Development (ECIEL) and other research issues coming out of the conference on social research held at Bellagio, Italy in February 1974 and co-sponsored by the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations, the Bank, the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), and the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). Filed at the end of the correspondence for 1972 - 1974 are project files relating to various topics including anthropology, export promotion and preference, growth potential of iron ore from developing countries, and urban transport and the automobile.

The research correspondence for 1975 - 1977, while similar in content to the earlier 1972 - 1974 correspondence, includes for the first time copies of mostly administrative correspondence of the Secretary to the Research Committee, Orville F. Grimes, Jr., including copies of Research Committee review panel announcements and minutes of Research Committee meetings. The 1975 - 1977 correspondence also includes Grimes' memos to supervisors of external research projects requesting input for the Abstracts of Current Studies booklet issued annually; copies of revisions of procedures for preparation and submissions of research proposals and informal guidelines for panel review of proposals issued by the Research Adviser; a copy of a bibliography on foreign aid prepared in VPD and furnished to the Executive Directors (EDS) on 19 March 1976 covering publications dated from 1968 to 1975; drafts of sections of the Annual Report on Research forwarded for comment by VPD; correspondence concerning the formation in 1977 of the Research Advisory Panel on Income Distribution and Employment (RAPIDE), including an informal history of the origins of the Research Committee prepared by Grimes (10 October 1972); and a report prepared at VPD's request by the Chief Economist, Latin America and the Caribbean Regional Office, concerning prospective research in country analysis and identification of areas justifying increased external funding or internal staff time.

Immediately following the research correspondence, 1975 - 1977 are three folders, apparently created by Grimes, which contain copies of grey cover annual reports of the World Bank Research Program for 30 December 1975, 8 January 1975, and 13 January 1977, and an annotated draft of the annual report for 1978. A folder on cotton research precedes the 1975-1977 sector research project files which are similar in content to the earlier (1972 - 1974) research project files. The kinds of documents found in the three 1975-1977 research study files at the end of the series (Kenya Socio-Economic Impact, Private Sector Development Study, Socio-Economic Impact Study) are similar to those found in the earlier research project files.

Copies of Articles, Lectures, and Speeches Authored by Anne O. Kreuger

This series contains copies of 30 articles, lectures, and speeches authored by Anne O. Kreuger, Vice President, Economics and Research (VPERS). In some cases, the title page indicates at which conference or seminar the paper was delivered or in which periodical it was to be published.

Minutes, Agenda, and Other Records of the Research Policy Council (RPC) and the Bank Research Advisory Group (BRAG)

This series contains the minutes, agenda, and other records of the Research Policy Council (RPC) and the Bank Research Advisory Group (BRAG). Based on the recommendations in a report on the management of Bank research which was produced by a study team under the auspices of the Organization Planning Department (OPD), President A. W. Clausen established the RPC on August 2, 1983 to provide overall leadership in the guidance, coordination and evaluation of all Bank research. Anne Krueger, Vice President, Economics and Research Staff (VPERS), served as chairperson. The RPC records in this series consist primarily of agenda and minutes of meetings, August 1983 - February 1987. Filed with some of the agenda are copies of the issues papers to be discussed at the meetings. Included with the records are: a small file of May 1987 intra-Bank memoranda regarding the Internal Audit Department's proposed review of the comparative studies program, and memoranda and issuances, August 1983 - October 1985, outlining the role of the RPC and how it changed the role of the Research Committee. There is also a copy of the minutes of the first meeting (November 19, 1987) of the Research and Publications Policy Council (RPPC) which replaced the RPC.

The Bank Research Advisory Group (BRAG) was established by the RPC to advise it on a wide range of Bank views on research issues of interest to the Council and to assist the RPC in formulating institutionally relevant research priorities. Anne Krueger (VPERS) chaired BRAG and appointed its members after consultation with the RPC. The BRAG had a membership of 20 senior Bank staff chosen so as to ensure a wide representation of perspectives. The Secretary of the RPC was also an ex-officio member of BRAG. The BRAG records in this series consist of: lists of the BRAG members; Anne Krueger's correspondence with members, February-August 1984; copies of key documents establishing BRAG and outlining its duties; and agenda and minutes of the two BRAG meetings, April 12, 1984 and October 4, 1984. Filed with the agenda are copies of documents to be discussed at the meetings, including a copy of the October 1984 report on dissemination of the Bank's research output that was prepared by a BRAG subcommittee, chaired by C. Michalopoulos.

Correspondence Concerning the World Bank's Research Program

This series contains primarily letters and memoranda sent and received by the staff of the Vice President, Development Policy (VPD) and by members of the Development Policy Staff and departments. The series consists of two parts: general correspondence and correspondence concerning research on specific subjects (sectors). Much of the general correspondence is from the secretary of the Research Committee (RC) forwarding to committee members meeting agenda, packets of materials to be reviewed in meetings, and minutes of meetings; establishing informal review panels to evaluate research proposals; requesting or commenting on project narratives, status reports, project abstracts, or completion reports from project managers; responding to requests for research funds from non-Bank economists; and transmitting ideas for the World Development Report (WDR) to the WDR staff.

Other correspondence includes letters from VPD Chenery inviting Bank staff to be members of the Research Committee; memoranda from the chairsof review panels reporting the results of the panels' reviews; memoranda from the RC secretary and from other VPD staff outlining procedures for submission and review of research proposals and explaining why a research proposal was not approved by the RC or what changes were required before approval would be granted; letters from Regional economists or from sector staff transmitting research proposals to the RC; and memoranda from the Director, Development Policy, responding to questions from the Executive Directors regarding the Bank's research program. Beginning in May 1978, much of the correspondence consists of copies of letters sent by President McNamara and by VPD staff to members of the General Research Advisory Panel and the Special Research Advisory Panels. Also included is correspondence regarding implementation of the Panels' recommendations. At the end of the general correspondence, there is a folder containing copies of the FY 1977 annual report: World Bank Research Program, January 23, 1978, and a June 19, 1979 Updating Report on the World Bank Research Program.

The second part of the series, which primarily concerns sector research, includes comments on research proposals, review panels' decisions on proposals, Back-to-Office reports from research-related missions, and correspondence responding to GRAP recommendations for research in a sector.

Records of the General Research Advisory Panel and the Special Research Advisory Panels

This series contains the records of the General Research Advisory Panel (GRAP), reports of most of the Special Research Advisory Panels, and detailed records of two of the Special Panels: the Research Advisory Panel on Industrial Development and Trade (ID and T) and the Research Advisory Panel on Income Distribution and Employment (RAPIDE). The GRAP was a panel of outside experts chaired by Sir Arthur Lewis and established by the Bank in 1978 to review the entire research program of the Bank. GRAP was assisted in its work by eight Special Research Advisory Panels which examined and made recommendations on Bank research in specific sectors: Agriculture and Rural Development; Industrial Development and Trade; Commodities; Energy, Water and Telecommunications; Transport; Income Distribution and Employment; Education; and Population. For administrative purposes, the panels were assigned to the Office of the Vice President, Development Policy (VPD), and Suman Bery in VPD served as secretary.

The GRAP records include: biographical notes on and Terms of Reference for panel members; a letter of appointment for each panel member; extensive background documents on the World Bank, the World Bank research program, and the Research Committee; lists of assignments for individual panel members; schedules for the October 26 - 28, 1978, March 5 - 7, 1979, and June 6 - 8, 1979 meetings and handwritten notes from the October and June meetings; various drafts of the panel's report and comments on the drafts from Bank staff; drafts and the final printed copy of President McNamara's November 6, 1979 memorandum to the Executive Directors regarding the GRAP report; the final printed GRAP report dated August 13, 1979 (R79-221); a Summary of Discussion at the Meeting of Executive Directors of the Bank and IDA, December 4, 1979 at which the GRAP report was discussed; memoranda to VPD Chenery regarding the responses of individual Executive Directors to the GRAP report and to President McNamara's memorandum on the report; and Bank staff memoranda regarding the GRAP recommendation for a Research Subsidiary in the Bank. Also included are 1979 - 1980 Bank memoranda regarding: planned follow-up to the GRAP report; funding and guidelines for research; and the Development Policy Staff (DPS) work program and budget for FY 81.

The records of the Research Advisory Panel on Income Distribution and Employment (RAPIDE) include: biographical notes on and Terms of Reference for panel members; individual panel members' letter of appointment and correspondence with other panel members and with Michael Beenstock in the Policy Planning Division who served as coordinator for RAPIDE; copies of Bank documents Beenstock provided the panel members as background material, including a number of memoranda concerning the Bank's research on Income Distribution and Employment; a list of specific assignments for individual members; the schedule for the panel meeting held October 10 - 12, 1977; correspondence with the chair of GRAP regarding the work of the RAPIDE members; various drafts of portions of the panel's report; a copy of the final draft, dated April 10, 1978; and comments from Bank staff on that draft.

The records of the Research Advisory Panel on Industrial Development and Trade (ID and T) include: biographical notes on and Terms of Reference for panel members; letters of appointment; background materials including memoranda and reports from Bank staff regarding research on industry and trade; schedules for the July 17 - 1, 1978, October 10 - 12, 1978, November 30 - December 2, 1978, and February 8 - 9, 1979 meetings and handwritten notes from the July and October meetings; various drafts of the panel's report and comments on the drafts from Bank staff; and copies of first and second Interim Reports of the Industry and Trade Research Steering Committee.

Included in this series are draft final reports for all the special panels except the ones on Population and on Education which are filed separately in (see folder numbers 30135058 and 30135060). Also included are copies of the Terms of Reference and the background reports for the Panel on Energy, Water and Telecommunications and a July 13, 1978 memorandum outlining plans for future work for the Panel on Transport.

Commodity Files of the Director, Development Policy

These files were compiled by the Senior Adviser whose title became in April 1974 Director, Development Policy. That position was held by Ernest Stern from 1972 to September 1975 and by Attila Karaosmanoglu from October 1975 to June 1979. The files include correspondence, reports, studies, publications and policy papers regarding commodities and Bank policy towards specific commodities. Topics covered include Bank policy for financing the production of a specific commodity, Bank policy on publication of information on commodities, commodity price forecasts and stabilization, and analysis of world production and demand for a commodity.

Policy Review Committee Files of the Director, Development Policy

These Policy Review Committee (PRC) records were maintained by the Senior Adviser whose title became in April 1974 Director, Development Policy, positions held by Ernest Stern from 1971 to September 1975; by Attila Karaosmanoglu from October 1975 to June 1979; and by E. Bevin Waide from July 1979 to 1982. A file typically contains a copy of a policy document or issues paper; minutes of the PRC staff review meeting and/or the PRC meeting at which the paper was discussed; and often background materials documenting the development of a policy paper before it reached the PRC including: comments on the draft paper from Development Policy staff and staff throughout the Bank, copies of memoranda between the Director, Development Policy and President McNamara and VPD Chenery, intra Development Policy Staff correspondence, and copies of Back-to-Office Reports forwarded to Stern or Karaosmanoglu.

Correspondence Files of Masood Ahmed, Director, International Economics Department (IEC)

This series, which contains the incoming and outgoing correspondence of Masood Ahmed, consists of five parts.

The first set of files (7 linear feet) is correspondence for the periods December 1, 1993 - February 28, 1995 and March 16 - December 31, 1995 containing both incoming and outgoing correspondence for the periods December 1, 1993 - October 31, 1994 and August 1995. The files for November 1994 -July 1995; and September - December 1995 primarily contain only copies of outgoing correspondence. In most cases, the enclosures to outgoing mail are included.

The second part of the series (3 linear feet) is the general correspondence for August 8, 1994 and September 19, 1994 - December 30, 1995. A number of the items in these files are duplicated in the first set of correspondence described above. The correspondence is primarily with World Bank staff, and most consists of a copy of the incoming letter with Ahmed's handwritten reply. Almost all are electrostatic copies rather than the originals. The typedoutgoing copy of Ahmed's reply is not always attached but generally can be found in the first set of files.

The general external correspondence forms the third part of the series (1 linear foot) with records dating from September 1994 to December 1995 with two documents dated June 7, 1994 and August 30, 1994. These files contain Ahmed's correspondence with individuals or organizations external to the Bank or his correspondence with IEC staff that concerned issues external to the Bank. A large portion of the files consists only of electrostatic copies of the covers of non-Bank reports or publications that were sent to Ahmed and that he then forwarded to a Bank staff member or circulated to the IEC managers. Other documents in the files are memoranda from IEC staff concerning external-Bank issues; copies of Ahmed's letters sent to or received from non-Bank personnel; intra-IEC memoranda concerning attendance at a non-Bank conference or arranging for visits of non-Bank staff to IEC; Ahmed's memoranda to IEC staff regarding his meetings with non-Bank individuals; and requests for copies of IEC reports or publications. Many of the letters and memoranda are electrostatic copies rather than the originals.

The fourth group (5.42 linear feet) consists of printouts of incoming e-mail, September 11, 1994 - December 31, 1995, primarily from World Bank staff, but some e-mails are from staff of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the International Monetary Fund, and the Development Assistance Committee (DAC).

The final set (1.66 linear feet) includes printouts of outgoing e-mail, September 12, 1994 - December 27, 1995. Some printouts of incoming e-mail are filed with the related outgoing message and are duplicated in the set of incoming e-mail.

Subject Files of Masood Ahmed, Director, International Economics Department (IEC) Concerning the Development of the Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network (PREM)

In early 1996, Masood Ahmed began a transition from the position of the Director of International Economics Department (IEC) to Vice President of the Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network (PREM). The IEC was terminated within the DEC Vice-Presidency in July 1997, and PREM was launched in July 1997. The DEC VP oversaw much of Ahmed's transition into PREM, primarily because a large portion of IEC, its subordinate department, was absorbed by the new network, and DEC was re-organized as a result. This series consists of records from this transition period, and Ahmed's involvement in planning and implementing PREM.

The series consists of chronological files, including communications between Ahmed and the DEC Vice-President Joseph Stiglitz. The records primarily relate to: the re-organization of DEC with the closure of IEC; PREM's possible collaboration with or inclusion in DEC; updates on the planning of PREM; and what functions and actions will be mapped into potential sector departments in PREM. These records date from December 1996 to June 1997. Additional chronological files consist of correspondence and memoranda related to various discussions, topics, and meetings concerning PREM's launch, and administrative structure. Ahmed's handwritten notes are also interfiled among the chronological files. These records date from November 1996 to December 1997.

The second part of the series contains records related to PREM planning meetings and retreats. These records concern the Operations Vice Presidents (OVPs) -meetings and retreats attended by Network Heads from other newly launched networks. The OVP meetings records contain: agenda and meeting minutes; correspondence; memoranda; budgeting reports; business plan reports for each network; and network update reports for various meetings and retreats from December 1996 to August 1997. Separate subject files for the other two networks involved in the OVP meetings (Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development Network [ESSD] and the Human DevelopmentNetwork [HDN]) are also included. Other planning materials relate to: development of sector departments and boards; development of PREM functions; short-term outputs for the PREM launch; development of PREM technical standards; budgeting for PREM; development of PREM knowledge and information infrastructure; and development of PREM evaluation and monitoring. These meeting records include agenda and meeting minutes, memoranda, correspondences, and handwritten notes. PREM produced reports, business strategy plans, and printed presentation slides are also included. These records date from January 1997 to December 1997.

The last part of this series includes records related to selection of management for PREM and mapping of staff for potential sector departments. These records consist of Ahmed's handwritten notes; potential candidate lists; background information, including CVs and biographical information; memoranda; agenda and meeting minutes from selection management meetings; and correspondence discussing candidates. Some of the records relate to the Poverty and Social Policy Department (PSP). This department briefly fell under the IEC's supervision following the closure of the Human Capital Development Vice Presidency (HCD) in December 1996. The PSP became the Poverty, Gender, and Management Units (PGP) during this short period in the first half of 1997. PGP staff was eventually mapped into the new sector departments of PREM. The PSP records discuss this staff mapping from PGP into PREM and also the absorption of past PSP functions and activities into PREM. Similarly, mapping and management selection records discuss disbursement of staff from Ahmed's own IEC, which was closed in mid-1997. PREM additionally mapped and selected candidates from other sources. Records related to the Bank Human Resources and management selection meetings discuss potential candidates and selection procedures. The mapping and management selection records are dated January 1997 to December 1997.

Files Documenting the Review Process for Country Program Papers, Country Strategy Papers, and Country Assistance Strategies in the Development Policy Group (DPG)

This series contains files documenting the drafting and review of Country Program Papers (CPPs), Country Strategy Papers (CSPs), Country Assistance Strategies (CASs) and several Country Strategy Notes (CSNs) and Country Economic Memoranda (CEMs). These files were maintained by the Development Policy Group (DPG) and by its predecessor, the Economic Advisory Staff (EAS). Both units were responsible for shepherding CSPs etc. through the review process.

The small number of items dated prior to the 1987 Reorganization and the establishment of EAS are primarily only copies of Country Program Papers, Special Country Program Papers (SCPPs), or Country Program Notes (CPN) and copies of Postscripts of Operations Policy Subcommittee reviews of CPPs; there are very few memoranda discussing drafts or commenting on the CPP/CPN content. The document copies were forwarded to the Vice President for Development Policy (VPD) and to units within VPD: the Policy Planning and Program Review Department (DPP) and the Program Review Division (PPPR); to the Economics and Research Staff (ERS); and to the Country Policy Department (CPD) in the Operations Policy Complex (OPS).

The more complete files in this series cover the period from 1987 to 1994 and contain records documenting the entire CSP/CAS drafting and review process and the input of EAS/DEC staff into that review process: a draft Initiating Memorandum (IM) or brief prepared by Regional staff and comments on the draft IM from units throughout the Bank; a summary of the meeting in which the draft IM was discussed; a working level draft CSP developed by Regional staff and comments on the draft and minutes of the review meeting at which the draft was discussed; the agenda and minutes of the Regional VP (Loan Committee) review meeting; a revised draft CSP incorporating changes agreed upon in the Regional VP review; the Operations Committee review draft of the CSP with comments on the draft from Regional staff and staff in EAS/DPG/DECVP; an agenda with background information prepared by EAS for the Operations Committee (OC) meeting to discuss the draft CSP; comments forwarded to EAS/DPG on the draft Operation Committee minutes and on the draft CSP; an Operations Committee Postscript written by EAS to incorporate decisions made in the OC meeting and comments received from all units following the OC meeting; the President's Review draft of the CSP or CAS and related comments from Bank units; minutes of President's Review meeting; the President's comments on the CSP following the President's Review meeting; handwritten notes taken by EAS/DPG staff and by the Chief Economist (DECVP) at the various review meetings; news notices and magazine articles (primarily from The Economist, Financial Times, and Far Eastern Economic Review) regarding the country that was the subject of the CSP; internal EAS, DPG, and DECVP memoranda discussing the various drafts and/or commenting on the various review meetings; comments on the CSP/CAS from staff within DEC units, especially the Policy Research Department (PRD), the Research Advisory Staff (RAD), and the International Economics Department (IEC); and correspondence between EAS/DPG staff and Regional staff during the entire drafting and review process. In some cases, the DPG representative who attended the Regional Loan Committee meeting wrote his own post-meeting review to the files. The file on South Africa is an aberration; it contain nothing but news updates on the political situation in South Africa from 1992 to 1994 and one summary of discussionsof the situation in South Africa at a December 9, 1993, meeting of the Executive Directors.

Research Project Files Maintained in the Office of the Vice President, Development Policy (VPD) and the Office of the Vice President, Economics and Research (VPERS)

Most of the research projects for which there are files in this series were started in the 1970s to early and mid-1980s The remainder of the series consists of files for other research projects started in the later 1980s, as well as a smaller number of files for projects started after that time that were maintained by the Research Administrator. The series is arranged in four parts. The first three parts cover overlapping time periods from 1969 to 1995. The fourth part of the series is a research project file for the City Project or City Study (1975 - 1985).

The majority of the projects in this series fall into the categories of development policy and planning, international finance and trade, agriculture and rural development, industry, transportation, water, telecommunications, energy, urbanization and regional development, and population and human resources. Some of the projects were conducted in collaboration with bilateral aid agencies, outside research institutions, and government agencies.

The earlier projects were funded wholly or in part from the External Research budget (ERB) and the later projects by the Research Support Budget (RSB). The Development Economics Department (ECD), Development Research Center (DRC) and the Economic Analysis and Projection Department (EPD) were responsible organizations for most of the earlier projects with Sector and Regional organizations bearing responsibility for the remainder. Research project proposals for the later period were forwarded by the Development Research Department (later the Country Economics Department) or another department, a Sector, or Regional unit, or, in the case of jointly sponsored projects, by a department or Sector and a Regional unit.

A typical research file contains: the formal research proposal submitted on a standardized form and sometimes accompanied by a narrative description of the proposed research and methodology; a memorandum establishing the membership of the review panel; comments on the proposal from Regional or sector units; the report of the review panel; replies from the reviewers or from the review panel; minutes of the Research Committee meeting at which the project proposal was reviewed;a memorandum containing the Research Committee's decision for funding and the identification code (RPO number) assigned to the project; quarterly status reports submitted on forms or narrative progress reports; and an abstract of the project that was published in the World Bank Group Research Program that was first issued in August 1972.The abstract described specific objectives of the study and the research method, the organization of the project, the date when final output was expected, and the Bank staff involved in the project. Also part of the project file were Terms of Reference and Back-to-Office reports for missions connected with the project; correspondence between the project supervisors and the Research Administrator that may include requests for additional funding (which were sometimes accompanied by an additional project proposal) or for an extension of the completion date; budget tracking reports; a project completion report on a standard form; and project evaluation reports from internal and external reviewers that accompanied the final project evaluation, or a project evaluation report from an internal panel. Files for some of the earlier projects also include correspondence with evaluators of the project, comments from the evaluators, and the project manager's response to the evaluations. Occasionally, completion reports and evaluation reports for more than one project were combined and some files are without completion reports. Internal and external evaluation reports as well as REPAC evaluation panel reports are in some files. After 31 July, 1984, only projects receiving over $100,000 in RSB funds were required to be evaluated.

Some project files for the mid to late 1980s contain proposals in the form of memoranda or papers for funding from RSB small grants (usually under $20,000) for development of formal project proposals; preparation of papers for colloquia; organization of workshops, seminars or expert meetings to assist in the formulation of a formal research proposal; or for dissemination of papers or other output from previously conducted research projects. The proposals for funding from the small grants program were usually reviewed and approved by the Research Adviser (later Research Administrator). The other research files for this period for projects requiring larger amounts of funding from the RSB vary in content. All of these files contain a completed Request for Research Support Budget (RSB) funding which is often accompanied by a memorandum describing in some detail the proposed research and/or methodology. Sometimes revisions were made to the original proposal and additional request forms were completed. All of the files contain an identification or RPO number.

Among the more widely known of the early files in this series is a project file for what was in 1987 the longest running (18 years) research project in the Bank's history-Road Construction, Maintenance and Vehicle Operating Cost (also known as the Highway Design Study') (670-27). The International Comparison Project (670-68) was begun by the United Nations in 1968, was later funded as an external research project by the Bank, and was closed in December 1984. The Strategic Planning to Accommodate Rapid Growth in LDC Cities (The City Project or City Study) (671-47) project file covers the 10-year period from 1975 to 1985. In addition to the project completion report and evaluation, the file includes a November 1982 narrative report entitled The City Study: A Summary of Results and Policy Implications prepared by Gregory Ingram, Alvaro Pachon, and Jose Fernando Pineda. Another project file for the same project (RPO 671-47) contains manuscripts of some of the project papers and intermediate papers produced. According to the Project Completion Report filed by project manager Gregory Ingram, the intermediate papers were a means of compiling intermediate, mainly descriptive, results and usually resulted from the city study workshops. The project papers were usually more analytical and intended as finished results. These were intended for wide distribution and have mostly been published as World Bank Staff Working Papers or papers elsewhere in journals and books. Paper abstracts are in this series along with the manuscript of the monograph Understanding the Developing Metropolis: Lessons from the City Study of Bogota and Cali, Colombia by Rakesh Mohan, which was published in 1994 and summarized the main findings of the City Study.

Also found with the earlier files in this series is correspondence of Ernest Stern, Senior Adviser, Development Policy with the Ford Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation, the International Development Research Center (IDRC), the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID), and other government offices following the social science research on development conference in Bellagio, Italy, 13-15 February 1974 (RPO 670-92). The correspondence primarily concerns the continuation of international collaboration for development research and planning by holding meetings (referred to as Bellagio Plus meetings) during 1974 and 1975 in the areas of employment, income distribution, rural development, population, and education. Correspondence concerning planning and outcomes of these meetings is in the files along with correspondence of Benjamin King, Research Administrator, and Orville Grimes, Secretary to the Research Committee, with IDRC concerning Bank participation in the Social Science Research (SSR) information system and with Bank officials concerning the issue of Bank participation in DEVSIS, an international information system in the field of economics and social development sponsored by IDRC, ILO, OECD, UNDP, and UNESCO.

The earlier files also include documents brought together for the World Bank's Comparative Study of Poverty (673-73), an overall study and evaluation of poverty, equity and growth in 21 developing countries during the period 1950-1985. Included are unpublished papers concerning Ghana's agricultural commodity prices, political economy, and production costs for food crops; studies of poverty, equity, and growth issues; various development plans and reports, including World Bank reports; study outlines; notes and correspondence concerning project work; and newspaper articles pertaining to Ghana. With these documents is a heavily annotated typewritten timeline of economic and political events in Ghana from 1874 to 1983 that was used in the study, a sample questionnaire, computer printouts, and related correspondence. Research papers on the Political Economy of Poverty, Equity and Growth in Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, Malawi, Hong Kong, Thailand, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia developed for the study and several comparative research papers; printouts of computer data; and a draft introduction prepared for a multi-volume publication of the research papers developed for the study are part of the files.

For the later period the series includes project files for several multi-country Comparative Studies. The Timing and Sequencing of A Trade Liberalization Policy was the first of these studies that was initiated under a Research Policy Council program in 1985. An evaluation of the Comparative Studies was summarized in the FY 93 Report on the World Bank Research Program. A small number of project files for the later period were created for administrative purposes and assigned RPO numbers.

Files are included in the series for projects that extended beyond their authorized duration and never went beyond initial planning stages and projects that were cancelled because no contract was signed or funds expended to carry out the project. The titles of some projects were changed after approval of the research proposal and a few projects were shut down and never completed because of lack of department or division sponsorship or because no work was undertaken after the project proposal was approved.

Business Plans for Fiscal Years 1991-1995 Maintained in the Policy and Review Department

These Business plans for all of the organizations comprising the Policy Research and External Affairs Complex (PRE) and the predecessor Policy, Planning and Research Complex (PPR) were maintained by Gregory Ingram, Principal Adviser, Review and Analysis Division (PRDRA), Policy and Review Department (PRD) and Ziaddin Choudhury and Zmarak Shalizi in the Program Management Unit (PRDPM) in PRD. The Business plan was a major component of Bank budget cycles and provided information from PRE that would become part of priorities and framework papers presented to the Board. The Business plan also served as the basis for PRE's next fiscal year work program and budget, described each PRE organization's plans for the following two or more fiscal years, described each organization's underlying strategy and work program, and indicated plans for special emphases and topics that cut across department and other organizational boundaries. Included in the files are draft and final Business plans, submissions from each PRE (or PPR) organization, including DEC, and background correspondence and data relating to the preparation of the plans.

Studies Generated by the Strategic Planning Division (SPRSP), Strategic Planning and Review Department

Filed in this series are copies of studies generated by consultants and staff in the Strategic Planning Division (SPRSP) of the Strategic Planning and Review Department. Filed with some of the studies are memoranda between the author and SPRSP staff or between SPRSP staff and the SPR Director. Although some of the papers were issued as PRE Working Papers and/or SPR Discussion Papers, most were not published. Of special note is the paper, Strategic Planning in the World Bank, 1987-1990, by SPR staff member Norman Hicks, which provides a history of strategic planning in the Bank and the role of SPRSP in that process and analyzes the successes and failures of SPRSP. The annex to the paper contains a list of the major products of the Strategic Planning Division, most of which are filed in this series.

Correspondence Files of D.C. Rao, Director, International Economics Department

These files contain primarily copies of Director Rao's outgoing correspondence for the period March 1990 to April 1993. The files for the period May to November 1993 contain both Rao's incoming and outgoing correspondence. Enclosures to outgoing correspondence are generally not included. This series includes copies of Rao's correspondence while he was Acting Vice President, DEC, and the correspondence of Masood Ahmed and others who served as Acting Directors of IEC in Rao's absence. Rao did not become Director of IEC until May 1, 1990, but his March - April 1990 correspondence in this series relates entirely to IEC Business.

Memoranda and Reports Maintained by the Development Policy Group (DPG) Concerning Procedures and Schedules for Country Strategy Papers (CPSs)

The records in this series were maintained by the Development Policy Group (DPG) and its predecessor, the Economic Advisory Staff (EAS), and consist of the following seven small groupings of memoranda and reports concerning schedules and procedures for the drafting and review of Country Strategy Papers (CSPs):

    1. EAS status reports and memoranda concerning schedules for producing CPSs and slippages in those schedules, November 25, 1987 - February, 19, 1991.
    1. EAS correspondence with Regional staff regarding schedules for CSP Initiating Memoranda, May 24, 1989 - March 16, 1990.
    1. EAS and DPG memoranda regarding revisions of CSP guidelines for inclusion in the Operational Manual (OM) and copies of the relevant sections from the OM, January 5, 1987 - February 4, 1993.
    1. EAS copies of CSP reviews prepared in FY 88 and FY 90 and comments on those reviews, October 10, 1988 - April 27, 1990.
    1. EAS correspondence regarding guidelines for country strategy reviews for IDA countries, March 13, 1990 - June 4. 1993.
    1. EAS memoranda concerning plans for scheduling CSP in FY 1992, February 19 -July 5, 1991.
    1. EAS and DPG correspondence concerning CSP schedules and procedures regarding the content and the review process for CSPs, April 20, 1988 - April 6, 1994.
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