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Records of the Office of the President
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Records of the Executive Counselor to the President, J. William Stanton

When Conable became President, he appointed J. William Stanton to serve as Counselor to the President. Stanton held that post throughout Conable's term.

The records of Stanton's office focus on two of the major administrative issues of Conable's Presidency: the 1987 reorganization of the Bank, and the acquisition and retrofitting of the Bank's Washington buildings. They must be read in conjunction with the President's Administrative files and the files of Special Assistant Marianne Haug; for example, the Haug and Stanton records both have series on the 1987 reorganization, which does not appear in the President's files, but the President's Administrative files have the records of the 1989 fine-tuning of the reorganization. Taken together, the entire picture emerges.

Office of the President -- Barber B. Conable -- J. William Stanton (Executive Counselor to the President)

Records of the Office of the President

  • WB IBRD/IDA EXC
  • Archief
  • 1947 - 1995
  • 1947 - 1995

The records of cover the entire span of administrative and substantive activities of the Bank. Particularly useful is the documentation of public relations activities by the presidents and coordination efforts with outside partners. Briefing books for country visits and for meetings at the Bank's annual meeting often provide good overviews of issues as well as reports on the economic and political situation in a country. Unique materials on major Bank studies and commissions, such as the Pearson and Brandt Commissions and the Task Force on Portfolio Management (Wapenhans Report), are also found in the records of the president's office.

The McNamara, Conable and Preston records include both the records of the president and the records of his immediate staff. Some staff members had specific mandates and their files are key sources for those activities, while other presidential assistants played a more general role in handling topics for the president.

Office of the President

Records of President John J. McCloy

The records of President McCloy consist of incoming and outgoing correspondence between President McCloy, the U.S. Executive Director of the Bank, U.S. political leaders, U.S. public officials, and prominent business leaders. The correspondence address topics of Bank operations and lending.

Records of President George D. Woods

The records of the Presidency of George D. Woods (January 1963 until April 1968) primarily concern international relations, including both briefings and travel. The correspondence file, while small, has several unusually revealing items, as do the retained copies of outgoing letters and memoranda. The background papers on each country that are found in the annual meeting briefing files provide useful snapshots of the situation of that country at that time.

Chronological [outgoing] files

This series consists of copies of the outgoing letters and memoranda of George D. Woods and correspondence handled for President Woods by his personal assistants George C. Wishart and Rainer B. Steckhan. It includes correspondence sent on substantive issues of development assistance, memoranda to files, internal memoranda of the Bank and social and public relations messages.

Letters to foreign heads of state, government officials, banks, development institutions and academics regarding particular loans and projects, missions, technical assistance, bond issues and other sources of financing, and development policy issues are found in the series. Memoranda to files, usually written by Wishart, make a record of Woods' meetings with high-level government and business executives, focusing on important remarks and outcomes. Occasional Bank-internal memoranda, usually addressed to Vice Presidents and other high-level managers, concern such issues as staffing of the Economic Development Institute (EDI), defining the competencies of the technical operations and regional departments of the Bank with regard to project preparation, and procedures for establishing consultative groups.

The social and public relations letters express appreciation for invitations, hospitality, and for letters, publications and gifts received; express regret regarding invitations; offer congratulations; discuss arrangements for meetings and itineraries for travel; and provide letters of introduction.

Development Committee files

This series contains President Clausen's records related to the Development Committee meetings from 1983 through 1986. Formally the Joint Ministerial Committee of the Boards of Governors of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund on the Transfer of Real Resources to Developing Countries, the Development Committee was established in 1974 with its own secretariat that maintained the official records of the Committee.

The records in this series, therefore, are Clausen's office files on the Development Committee meetings during his tenure (meetings 21-28). The records, organized by meeting, include correspondence, memoranda regarding the meetings, drafts of the President's opening remarks and the President's Report to the Development Committee, summaries of Committee discussions, and statements to the press. The files also contain papers and reports prepared for the Development Committee, including the Development Committee Annual Report, task force and working group reports, and papers on topics such as development in Sub-Saharan Africa, the world economic outlook, and external debt problems of developing countries.

Annual Meeting files

This series contains President Clausen's records related to the Annual Meetings of the Board of Governors. The records are a mix of substantive and administrative materials, from lists of delegations and special guests to briefing materials on countries and issues. The files contain the President's opening and closing remarks, speeches and addresses; records relating to the annual Ministers' luncheon, Co-Financing breakfast, and the Latin-American Governors' luncheon; records of press conferences; correspondence and memoranda regarding appointments with country delegations; schedules, letters of invitation and thank you notes.

Finance Committee file

The President's Finance Committee was established by President McNamara on 9 August 1979 together with the Personnel Management Committee. Both committees operated as sub-committees of the President's Council. The purpose of the Finance Committee was to deal with such matters as liquidity objectives, profit objectives, the lending rate, financial structure, and IDA transfers. The membership consisted of the President as chair, the Senior Vice President, the Vice President for Finance who served as vice chair, the Vice President for Operations, the Vice President and General Counsel, the Vice President and Secretary, the Vice President and Treasurer, and the Director, Programming and Budgeting.

The series contains the agenda and minutes of the Committee meetings between August 1979 and June 1981. It includes papers regarding the currency pooling system, debt problems of developing countries, co-financing, the cost of IBRD borrowings, criteria for selective capital increase and other papers distributed to the members of the Committee for discussion.

Chronological file (outgoing)

This series consists of copies of letters and memoranda drafted by McNamara or drafted for him, in his Office or another department of the Bank, except those drafted by the Bank's Department of Information and Public Affairs (IPA). Originally this series contained the Personal Assistant to the President's copies of McNamara's outgoing correspondence, with the President's office maintaining a separate series of McNamara's personal outgoing letters. Beginning in 1973 these two were merged in this series.

The addressees are heads of States, international organizations and regional banks, government officials, Bank Governors and Executive Directors, U.S. Senators and Congressmen, bankers, lawyers, journalists, publishers, and scholars. Subjects range from congratulations, invitations to the annual meeting of the Bank and thank-you notes following official trips, to World Bank bond issues, the replenishments of IDA, the approval, status or questioning of a loan, development activities of other agencies, and development policy. The series also includes short memoranda addressed by McNamara to his senior staff that reflect the President's close monitoring of the operations of the Bank and his particular concern for the areas of agriculture, education, nutrition and population.

Travel briefings

This series contains the briefings prepared for President McNamara's official trips. It includes notes by McNamara, some handwritten; correspondence with senior staff and government officials; and staff reports on visits.

The briefings consist of schedules, airport statements, government lists and biographies, lists of topics for discussion, basic data and maps, background information on the political and economic situation and the Bank's operations in the country visited and, for Part II countries, aid programs and IDA contributions. Schedules, statements, biographies, and topics for discussion are often annotated by McNamara, some heavily. If the trip included more than one country, the first file may include general information on the region. While most files contain a full briefing, a few files include only the list of persons visited or a schedule.

The 1980 files on an African trip include a file of Mrs. McNamara's activities. The series includes one photo from McNamara's trip to Peru in 1976.

These files are valuable for any researcher looking at the Bank's relationship with a country. The rich analytical material in the briefing file pulls together the Bank's information on a country at a particular date which, when supplemented with McNamara's notes, give a snapshot of the country's stage of development and its political climate.

Records of President Robert S. McNamara

Robert S. McNamara became World Bank President on April 1, 1968 and served 2 full five year terms and a partial term, leaving on June 30, 1981. The records are a very full account of his long and active presidency. Every part of the world is reflected in these records, as well as virtually every economic issue of the 1970s. Any student of the Bank during the McNamara years will find reading these records an essential first step for research.

When McNamara came to the World Bank, it was lending about $1 billion per year. When he left in 1981, Bank lending stood at about $12 billion a year. In addition to the dramatic increase in volume of loans, he refocused Bank lending beyond infrastructure and projects to basic human needs and poverty reduction. Using the term absolute poverty, his annual meeting speech in Nairobi in 1973 marked a turning point by identifying promoting rural development and alleviating the conditions of life to the poor as crucial development goals. He identified population growth as a major issue for the Bank to address and the Bank began proving support for family planning programs. The Bank also began providing loans for pollution control.

McNamara proposed the formation of the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), which makes major contributions to increasing global food production and reducing hunger. He mobilized Bank resources to launch an international onchocercieasis (river blindness) control program. He initiated two international commissions to examine world development: the Pearson Commission in 1968 and the Brandt Commission in 1977. The Joint Ministerial Committee of the Board of Governors of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund on the Transfer of Real Resources to Developing Countries, usually known as the Development Committee, was established in 1974 to support international cooperation in development activities and coordination of international efforts in finance development, and to provide advice to the Board of Governors of the Bank and the Fund on all aspects of the transfer of real resources to developing countries. And in 1978 the World Development Report was launched, the Bank's flagship publication on development issues.

Records of all these activities can be found in the records of the McNamara presidency. An unusually large number of records are annotated by McNamara, providing unparalleled insight into the thinking and decision-making processes of the president.

The records also include files form assistants to the President, notably two series from economic adviser Irving S. Friedman that include his correspondence with both President George Woods and President McNamara.

President's Council minutes

The President's Council was established by President Woods in March 1965. Originally composed of the Vice-Presidents, the Economic Adviser to the President, the General Counsel and the Directors of the Information, Administration, and Development Services Departments, the size of the President's Council increased to more than twenty members after the McNamara reorganization of 1972, including the Senior Vice-Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Department Directors. For discussion of special topics, additional persons attended on an as needed basis.

This series consists of the minutes of the President's Council meetings prepared by the Personal Assistant to the President. It contains occasional notes, drafts and annotations by President McNamara. Minutes of the Council record President McNamara's reports on official trips, meetings or interviews, recommendations, and special assignments, and members' reports on the activities of their sector or department. Issues discussed at the weekly meeting included relations with the Board of Directors, the Annual Meeting, lending and borrowing programs, the IBRD and IFC capital increases, the IDA replenishments, the Third Window, and the work of the Pearson and Brandt Commissions. The organization of the Bank, personnel issues, the status of particular projects, and studies on population control, rural development, urban poverty, health, women or energy were also major topics on the Council's agenda.

World Bank Documents on management and operations

This series consists of sample reports compiled by the President's office to provide President McNamara with examples of the various types of documents and reports commonly produced throughout the Bank. Each sample is an actual Bank report, accompanied by a short description of the report type explaining the report structure and function within the operations and management of the Bank. Standard report types included in the series are: Monthly Operational Summary; IBRD Financial Policies Report; Administrative Budget; President's Report; Appraisal Report; Supervision Report; Audit Report; Evaluation Report; and Country Economic Report. The reports used for this sample are dated between 1971 and 1973.

President's Council files

Shortly after assuming the Presidency, Barber Conable discontinued the Managing Committee that, during the Clausen years, had provided overall administrative control of the Bank. In its place Conable created an advisory body made up of the Bank Vice Presidents who reported directly to the President (some vice presidents reported to other vice presidents; they were excluded). This body was originally known as the Policy Committee, then renamed the President's Council in May 1988. It advised on policy decisions for consideration by the Executive Directors, on strategic objectives, resource mobilization and allocation, manpower strategies, and other managerial issues. A staff member in the President's office served as the secretary for the Committee/Council.

This series contains the official records of the Council, from May 1987 to July 1991, grouped in two subseries. The files in the first subseries, amounting to 10 linear feet, are the records of the weekly meetings of the Council, including agendas, minutes, reports, and documents discussed. The second subseries, 2 linear feet, is the set of papers distributed to the Council members for background information; the first seven files (of a total of nine) include a list at the beginning of the file providing the title of each document in the file, the originator, and the date. The files include a few pieces of correspondence and a few annotations and comments from Council members.

These records are an essential source for a researcher who wishes to understand the internal discussions in the Bank during the Conable years.

Travel briefings

This series contains records related to President Conable's trips and attendance at meetings and conferences abroad and appearances and presentations inside the United States. The first file contains a table of travel undertaken by the President from September 1986 through September 1990, with columns for the dates, region visited, the country/state/city/town/field location visited, the purpose of the trip, meeting dates, and whether Mrs. Conable accompanied the President.

The files consist of travel itineraries background information on countries, briefing notes for meetings, arrival and departure statements and sometimes speeches, press conference briefings, remarks, schedules of meetings and appointments, agendas, correspondence with government leaders (including thank you notes), lists of government officials and biographical data, general background information on countries and governments, notes on projects and field visits, and maps of the country. A videotape is included on Conable's trip to India in November 1987.

Liaison files - U.S. Government

This series contains the records of President Conable's interaction with both Congressional and Executive branches of the U.S Government. The files include information on legislation affecting the Bank or its staff, briefing notes and minutes of the meetings with the Members of Congress and senior officials in the Executive Branch, and correspondence with the White House. A few documents are included from the end of the Clausen Presidency.

A general file covers Congressional matters, in addition to files on the House of Representatives and the Senate. One subject file is included, on an initiative by the U.S. Treasury Secretary James Baker III and Senator Bill Bradley to develop a new strategy to manage international debt. In addition, one file is included on the Bank's relationship with the government of the District of Columbia.

Space Files

The series concerns the expansion, retrofit and reconstruction options for buildings occupied by the Bank in Washington, DC (known as Buildings A, B, C, D, E, F and I). It is the most complete set of records in the President's office on space issues facing the Bank.

More than half of the files are reports submitted to the Bank by architects, real estate appraisers, and real estate developers. The internal memoranda and external correspondence cover such topics as the space needs of the Bank, real estate values, and the acquisition and sale of properties, in particular the agreement between the Bank and the IFC regarding the transfer of the responsibility for the IFC building. The International Monetary Fund's expansion is the subject of one file.

Liaison files - U.S. Government

This series contains the records of President Preston's interaction with both Congressional and Executive branches of the U.S. Government. The files include information on legislation affecting the Bank or its staff, briefing notes and minutes of the meetings with the Members of Congress and senior officials in the Executive Branch, and correspondence with the White House. The file on the White House contains mostly records from the Conable Presidency.

Chronological files

This series contains President Preston's outgoing correspondence, principally letters, between December 1990 and May 1995, as well as some incoming correspondence addressed to Preston, and other correspondence originating in the Office of the President. The first file predates Preston's tenure at the Bank. As the series covers the entirety of Preston's term, records created during his leave of absence by acting President Stern and other Office staff are included.

Because the Preston records are scant, this series of formal outgoing letters provides an important overview of the external liaison activities in which the President engaged.

Records of the Counselor to the President, Matthew F. McHugh

Matthew F. McHugh joined the President's office staff in May 1993. His files reflect a strong interest in and responsibility for external affairs, in particular the Bank's relationship with the U.S. Government and the 50th anniversary celebration of the World Bank. These records are useful for insight into the liaison activities of the President's office because similar records do not exist in the President's own files.

McHugh also served as Counselor to the President during James Wolfensohn's first term as President. McHugh continued to use and add items to some of his files from the Preston period, particularly the country files. Those McHugh files are among the records of the Wolfensohn Presidency, and they should be consulted for further information on the Preston years.

Office of the President -- Lewis T. Preston -- Matthew F. McHugh (Counselor to the President)

Records of the Portfolio Management Task Force (Wapenhans Report) and follow-up

In February 1992, Lewis Preston ordered a study of the Bank's basic portfolio management and evaluation process for loans and credits. Headed by Willi Wapenhans, who was assigned to the President's office for the study, the Portfolio Management Task Force produced a report in September 1992 that is one of the most famous in the Bank's history. It argued that the Bank did not pay enough attention to the implementation and supervision of loans and that sustainable development impact is the true measure of success. The Wapenhans Report, as it came to be known, was presented to the Board of Executive Directors in November 1992. In January 1993 Preston assigned Visvanathan Rajagopalan, who as a vice president who had been a member of the advisory council to the Task Force, to coordinate discussions regarding the implementation of the recommendations in the Task Force report.

The files are in 2 parts. The first part is the files of Wapenhans as the chair of the Task Force. These files were inherited by Rajagopalan as he worked on the implementation of the report during 1993. The second are the files of Rajagopalan, both a file regarding the work of the Task Force that he had maintained while he was the Vice President, Sector and Operations Policy, and files that he created during the follow-up period.

This series is the central source for information on the work of the Task Force. It includes the record of the discussion of the Executive Directors at the time the Task Force was formed and the background documents for the meeting of the Executive Directors after the report was issued, the minutes of the meetings of the Task Force from March through June and the audio tapes and the transcripts of a 2 day meeting with partner organizations (cofinancers), and feeder studies on topics ranging from the Bank's internal culture to the use of information technology.

Records regarding the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR)

This series contains records compiled by Visvanathan Rajagopalan in his capacity as Chairman of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). The records include his correspondence, agendas and travel plans for meetings, copies of papers presented at meetings or circulated prior to meetings, copies of his introductory remarks delivered at meetings, his briefing books for International Centers Week (the annual meeting of the international agricultural research centers that form the CGIAR network), and scattered reports of the CGIAR Oversight Committee and its Technical Advisory Committee. Correspondence covers meeting arrangements; appointments, salaries, and other personnel matters affecting staff; and resource allocations. The series includes a small amount of the correspondence of Wilfried Thalwitz, Rajagopalan's predecessor as chair of CGIAR.

Chronological files (outgoing)

This series contains letters and memoranda signed and sent by the President. Topics range from substantive issues of development assistance to social and public relations messages. Letters are addressed to foreign heads of state, government officials, banks, private citizens, US Senators and Congressmen, scholars, development institutions and academics, heads of organizations, diplomats, and journalists. Some internal messages and memorandam, including memoranda to the files, are included.

This is a verycomplete record of Conable's views on all matters that came before him and of the people with whom he corresponded. Although these are duplicate copies of records that should appear elsewhere in the files of the President's office or the Bank, this is a particularly useful series when other files have gaps.

Subject files

The files in this fragmentary series contain primarily memoranda and reports on a few administrative topics. Some of the items in the files had been accumulated by Khann's predecessor as Special Assistant, Josue Tanaka. Some files are useful because they continue a subject found elsewhere; for example, the environment file in this series complements and extends the environment file found in the Haug subject files. The private sector development file postdates the Conable Presidency.

Records of the Executive Assistant to the President, Marianne Haug

Marianne Haug served as Executive Assistant to the President and Secretary of the President's Council from May 1987 until May 1990. She was employed by various units in the Bank prior to joining the President's office; some of the records in this sub-fonds predate her service in the Executive Office.

Haug's files cover a mix of administrative and program topics. The series of subject files contains a very broad overview of topics that she handled for the President, as well as topics in which she was especially interested, such as the files of the Bank's Outside Interests Committee, 1981-1987, on which she served. The files on environment, forestry, and MIGA are very full; the series also contains copies of speeches by senior members of the Bank, showing that the President's staff was tracking the public statements. Several files, such as Centrally planned economies and Eastern Europe show the Bank's response to the changing situation in Eastern Europe.

The series on budget policy is useful to understand the internal development of budget packages from the point of view of the President's office. Haug's series on the Bank's 1987 reorganization is the fullest in the President's office, covering both the original reorganization and the fine tuning in 1989. Her extensive chronological file dates from July 1985 through May 1991.

Office of the President -- Barber B. Conable -- Marianne Haug (Executive Assistant to the President)

Budget files

The series consists of FY88 budget appeals and the effect of reorganization on the budget, budget policy and discussions, planning and budget guidelines; a budget framework paper; records of midyear budget reviews, the FY89 work program, and budgets for regional offices. The records also include the initial budget guidelines provided to the senior management group by President Conable.

Subject files

This series provides an unusually good overview of the scope of issues handled by staff assistants in the Office of the President. Unlike the Stanton files in WB IBRD/IDA 03 EXC-11-02 which are focused on reorganization and space needs, the Haug files cover a very wide range of administrative matters and program topics. The Bank's increasing emphasis on environmental and social issues is reflected here, in such files as environment, forestry, population, and women in development. The monitoring of program operations can be traced in such files as annual sector reviews and strategy papers from Bank entities. Haug also had special interests in staff issues, reflected in files on outside interests and activities, the staff association, the staff retirement plan and staff compensation.

Haug brought some files with her to the President's office, including those on the Joint Committee on Staff Compensation and the Outside Interests Committee, from which she resigned when she joined the President's staff. In addition, a few documents from 1991 in the U.S. estate tax file post-date her tenure and presumably were filed by the President's office staff into Haug's subject file after she departed.

Statements, speeches and interviews

This series contains the official statements issued by Robert S. McNamara as President of the World Bank. The material consists of drafts by the President (some handwritten) and drafts prepared by staff (some heavily annotated)' press releases' and occasional background documents. Statements include remarks at the signing of Bank loans' statements at press conferences' airport statements' statements at Annual Meetings and Board meetings' toasts at official dinners including some toasts to McNamara given by Presidents' messages to be delivered at conferences' remarks to the U.S. Congress and messages to staff.

The set also contains transcripts of interviews and newspaper articles. The former include interviews for the NBC Today Show and Meet the Press (1974)' Segment Three (1978)' Bill Moyer's Journal on WNET (1975)' a CBS interview with Peter Jay (1977)' the ABC presentation of A Day in Shrishnagar (1980)' and appearances on the BBC (1978-1980) and on Norwegian' Japanese' German' and French television. There are also interviews for the London Times and Europa (1975)' the New York Times (1978)' Newsweek (1979)' and the Sunday Times (1980).

Board [of Executive Directors] Actions files

President McNamara's memoranda to the Board of Executive Directors constitute this series. They are divided into the following subjects:

  • I. Lending rate

  • II. Profit transfer

  • III. Budget proposals

  • IV. Compensation

  • V. Structural adjustment lending

  • VI. Miscellaneous

  • VII. International Development Association

  • VIII. International Finance Corporation

  • IX. Financial policy

  • BC. Brandt Commission Pearson Commission Role of the Bank.

The first file of the series consists of 2 finding aids prepared in the President's office. The first finding aid is an annotated list of the President's memoranda to the Executive Directors from 1 April 1968 - July 10, 1980, listing the subjects discussed, the background papers distributed on the subject, the date of the discussion, and remarks. The annotations indicate the file (I through X and BC) containing the documents on the subject. The second finding aid is titled Board Actions Books I-X. It lists all documents filed within the ten numbered subject files plus the Brandt Commission file. Copies of these lists are filed in the subject files, and the lists in the subject files are annotated to show which documents have been removed from that file or have been filed in other files.

The memoranda dealing with lending rate contain the President's recommendations to the Board with regard to the Bank's interest rate policy and its annual and quarterly review. They include background material dating from 1947 and some handwritten notes by McNamara of the Executive Directors' discussions on lending rate policy (1968, 1969 and 1979).

The memoranda on profit transfer deal with the Bank's annual transfer to IDA of part of the year's income. They include some handwritten notes by McNamara of the Executive Directors' discussion on the allocation of net income for FY69. The budget proposals and related memoranda presented to the Executive Directors for review and approval are occasionally annotated by McNamara. The 1973 Review of IBRD/IDA program, FY74-78, is accompanied by the President's handwritten notes of his meetings with H. Kaufman, E. Patberg and L. Parker of Salomon Brothers, the First Boston Corporation and Morgan Stanley respectively.

The memoranda on compensation are concerned with salary policies and procedures, salary reviews, staff retirement and tax liabilities. They include McNamara's proposals of a general salary increase with his notes of the discussions of the Board, drafts and comparative figures (1968-1970), and recommendations with regard to the conclusions of the McKinsey study on staff compensation (1972) and the Report of the Joint Bank-Fund Committee on Staff Compensation Issues (Kafka Committee 1979). There are also notes taken by the President of discussions on tax liabilities (1979).

The miscellaneous memoranda deal with Board procedures, IBRD borrowing, lending policies, procurement practices, operations evaluation, work arrangements with other agencies, the Bank research program, international agricultural research, and office space. They contain McNamara's handwritten notes on the Executive Directors' discussions of his recommendations regarding subscriptions to the capital stock of the Bank (1969, 1970), Board procedures (1971), and the financing of tea (1973). The memoranda relating to IBRD borrowing and bonds issues are heavily annotated by the President (1978-1980), as is a memorandum on development policy for countries dependent on exports of primary products (1973).

The memoranda regarding IDA concern IDA policies, financing and international agricultural research. They bear no annotations by the President.

The memoranda regarding IFC contain some notes by McNamara of the discussion by the Executive Directors of papers on operating policies (1973), as well as personal comments by R. L. Knight regarding IFC policies (1973).

The memoranda on financial policy contain McNamara's papers to the Board on the Bank's borrowing program, financial policies and capital increase, and the establishment of the Third Window. They include the President's drafts of statements and closing remarks for the Executive Directors' discussions of memoranda on the scale of financial operations FY74-78 (1972) and IBRD financial policies (1973) and notes accompanying his 1976 memorandum on IBRD capital increase.

The memoranda on the recommendations of the Pearson and Brandt Commissions relating to the Bank bear some annotations by McNamara.

A set of documents concerning the discussions of memoranda to the Board on the future role of the Bank and its associated capital requirements was put together by President McNamara. It contains summaries of informal meetings with the Directors, technical notes, memoranda and handwritten notes of the discussions, and correspondence. An index to the documents in the file Role of the Bank, both in McNamara's handwriting and in typescript, is included in the file.

Records of President Barber B. Conable

Barber B. Conable's term as President was noted for the major reorganization of the Bank he directed in 1987 and the emphasis on poverty reduction as a central mission of the Bank. He identified environmental protection as an important goal, culminating in the Bank joining with the UN Development Program and the UN Environment Program to establish the Global Environment Facility in 1991. Conable supported an increased role for women in development and he appointed a woman, Marianne Haug, to his senior staff. Broad political changes occurred in Eastern Europe during his tenure, and he maintained extensive liaisons with international organizations including the increasingly influential NGO community. Conable also authorized the project to write a history of the Bank; Brookings Institution was given the contract for the study which resulted in the two volume The World Bank: Its First Half Century. Conable gave the authors access to his Presidential files, and the use of some of the files by the Brookings team is noted in the series descriptions.

The records of President and his staff are extensive. The minutes of his President's Council reveal the mechanisms of Bank management. The usual Annual Meeting files are supplemented by his country files and the records of his travels around the globe. The two series of liaison files show his political skills with varied constituencies.

The records of the Office of the President also include separate series of records of the Executive Counselor to the President, J. William Stanton; the Executive Assistant, Marianne Haug; and the Special Assistant, Anapum Khanna. The file of Conable's Executive Assistant, Jennifer A. Volk, on the lunches between Conable and Michel Camdessus, the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund, is a separate series, while within the President's files on travel and Annual Meetings are other files that Volk maintained.

Working files - Conable/Camdessus lunches

This series contains records of President Conable's meetings with Michel Camdessus, Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund, between June 1989 and July 1991. The records consist of meeting agendas, briefing notes, talking points, and minutes of the meetings. The topics include Bank and Fund collaboration and operations involving debt reduction, country matters, environmental issues, and preparations for Annual Meetings issues, among others.

The file was maintained by Jennifer Volk, an Executive Assistant to the President. The official file on the lunches is missing from the Liaison files - Non-governmental and international agencies; consequently the working file provides the existing information on the meetings of these two executives.

Records of President Lewis T. Preston

Lewis T. Preston became President of the World Bank on 1 September 1991 and resigned on 4 May 1995. Relatively few records from his term exist. One of Preston's first decisions was to suspend the President's Council, and as a result there are no formal records of the interaction of the highest levels of management. Furthermore, Preston was in ill health and retired before finishing his term. He continued to make speeches and undertook some business travel, but the files on those activities are noticeably fuller in the early years of his tenure. No subject files exist, nor do files on his liaison activities with United Nations organizations, non-government institutions, and international banks. The few files on liaison with the U.S. Government are thin, but there is additional information on this relationship in the records of the Counselor to the President, Matthew F. McHugh.

The most complete files are those on Member countries. These include information on Bank projects in the countries, reports of discussions with country representatives, agendas for meetings, and other representational matters. The files on the Annual Meetings have some unusually interesting briefings for Preston's meetings with financial and other institutions.

The important records of the Portfolio Management Task Force (Wapenhans Report) and the follow-up to it are part of the records of the Special Adviser to the President, Visvanathan Rajagopalan.

Note that a small portion of the Chronological File series contains correspondence and executive memoranda records from the period when Ernest Stern served as acting President. These date from February 1 to May 31 of 1995.

Annual Meetings

This series consists of President Preston's files for the Annual Meetings and the records of the logistical arrangements made by his office staff. The general organization of the Annual Meeting is the responsibility of the Corporate Secretary, so the records in this series are those of the President himself and the arrangements made by and for his immediate office.

The records consist of agendas, background material, briefings, speeches, correspondence, and related records regarding the Annual Meetings. The 1993 and 1994 files include briefings on commercial banks and financial institutions and the 1993 files include a Reference book. Market that has briefings on the Bank's FY94 funding plan, official borrowings, and country briefs. The briefings provided to the President for these meetings give a useful snapshot of the state of the particular country or institution as of the date of the meeting.

World Bank 50th Anniversary

This is the only series in the President's office records that covers the commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of the Bank. The files document the anniversary activities, and one file relates to the Commission on the Future of the Bretton Woods Institutions, a commission established by the private Bretton Woods Committee. To mark the fiftieth anniversary of the Bretton Woods Conference, the commission issued a report with recommendations on state of the international monetary system, development finance, and the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, and this file provides the Bank's view of the work of the commission.

Country files

This series contains records of President Conable's meetings with representatives, delegates, and heads of the member countries; briefing notes for meetings with country leaders; general background information on countries and governments; press releases; correspondence with government leaders; memoranda of advice from staff members; and congratulatory and thank you letters. Topics covered in the records include external debt; Bank lending operations and criteria, and environmental concerns. Three files cover regions in Africa - Eastern, Southern, and Sub-Saharan - rather than an individual country, in addition to individual files on most countries in those regions. No files on the United States are included.

The files on the USSR are significant, as the period of the Conable presidency covers the late twentieth century political changes in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Of particular interest are the files on a joint study that the 1990 economic summit in Houston, Texas, asked the Bank and the IMF toundertake. The study, completed between July 1990 and May 1991, surveyed the Soviet economy, made recommendations for its reform, and established criteria for Western economic assistance to support reform.

Many of the files contain records dating from the Clausen presidency, some as early as 1984; apparently Conable used the Clausen country records as building blocks for his information on the countries. Similarly, the files on the USSR contain some records that post-date the Conable administration by several months (until December 1991), as the incoming Preston administration continued to use them.

President's Council files

This series consists of the records of meetings of the President's Council that were maintained by Anapum Khanna, Special Assistant to the President. The files contain agendas and minutes of the meetings, Khanna's handwritten notes taken during meetings, talking points for the President, and papers for discussion by the Council. The series is not a complete record of all President's Council meetings for the period covered, and not all records of meetings contain an agenda or minutes.

This series is a useful supplement to the official records of the Council in WB IBRD/IDA EXC-11-32S. Not all of the official records include minutes, and Khanna's handwritten notes may fill in gaps in the official files. Furthermore, this series includes talking points for the President, all of which may not be included in the official files.

IPA chronological file (outgoing)

This series is composed of letters and memoranda drafted for McNamara by the Department of Information and Public Affairs (IPA) between January 1969 and July 1981. Letters consist of thank-you notes, mostly regrets, for invitations to participate or speak at meetings or luncheons, deliver interviews and appear on television, thanks for gifts, books, articles, comments, views, support, staff work, and responses to requests for material, statements and articles.

The addressees are private citizens, scholars, journalists, heads of organizations and congregations, diplomats, and government officials. Thank-you letters range from a note to President Leopold Sedar Senghor thanking him for a volume of poetry, to letters to the U.S. President, senators and congressmen thanking them for assuring the passage of foreign assistance legislation. Responses to inquiries include a letter informing President Sekou Toure of the progress of the Konkoure project, a letter attempting to answer William Safire's etymological inquiry about the phrase bargaining chip, and notes declining requests for comments on defense policy and the Vietnam War.

Travel briefings of staff assistants to the President

The series consists of the travel briefing files of three staff assistants for three trips during the McNamara Presidency. The first are the files of Sven Burmester, Special Assistant to the President, for the Middle East trip (Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates) of March 5-16, 1975. The second are the files of Caio Koch-Weser, Personal Assistant to the President, for the West Africa trip (Nigeria, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Guinea, The Gambia, and Senegal) of November 1-15, 1977. The last are the files of Oliver Lafourcade, Personal Assistant to the President, for the trip to India and Pakistan, March 28-April 1, 1981. All of these trips also have briefing files in the President's travel briefs series.

Personnel Management Committee files

The President's Personnel Committee was established by President McNamara on 9 August 1979 together with the Finance Committee. Both Committees operated as sub-committees of the President's Council. The purpose of the Personnel Committee was to deal with such issues as staff compensation and benefits, staff development, recruitment, management and manpower planning, Staff Association relationships and senior level appointments and transfers. The membership consisted of the President as chair, the SeniorVice President, the Vice President for Administration who served as vice chair, the Vice President for Operations, the Vice President for Finance, and one rotating member.

The series contains the minutes of the Committee as well as discussion papers distributed to the members of the Committee.

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