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Incentives and Comparative Advantage (INCA) research and knowledge products

Series consists of records related to the Incentives and Comparative Advantage (INCA) unit's applied research work including developing methodologies and tools to support INCA studies and analysis of studies. Most records were maintained by Economist Garry Pursell beginning from his tenure with the Development Research Center (DRC) and its previous units under the Development Policy Vice Presidency (VPD) in the 1970s before he was transferred to the International Development Finance Department (IDF) to lead the Bank's new INCA unit in 1981. Other records were created by consultants with the INCA unit when it was under the Strategy and Policy Division, Industry Department (INDSP). In some cases, material was added to the files by Pursell or colleagues after 1985 when the INCA unit was discontinued; these six additional files date from 1986 to 1991.

Research and reference materials

Most of the records in this series comprise research material created and collected for a study of Cote d'Ivoire carried out by the INDSP INCA unit and possibly predecessors. The effective protection study analyzed various types of incentive indicators (effective protection and effective subsidy) and comparative advantage indicators (effective rates of protection [ERC] and domestic resource cost [DRC]) using data from 84 industrial firms in Cote d'Ivoire. Records include the export questionnaires in French, 1984 printouts of calculations made from the computer program on which the data had been entered, and the resulting material based on the survey data including handwritten notes, export statistics, and price calculation outlines. These records are also filed with reference documentation including journal articles, external guidelines, and working papers (1970 - 1983). Predominant industries covered in the export survey include textiles, beverages, and edible oils.

Cote d'Ivoire research records also include four volumes of country papers and reports on various aspects about the economy of Cote d'Ivoire created by various units of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) units (1972 - 1978) and a larger body of reference files in English and French, some containing Bank internal reports, pertaining to the country's various industries and economy (1968 - 1984) that were used in the study. Additional reports, studies, pamphlets, project descriptions, and other records compiled by the INCA unit in support of the study were authored by various departments of the Government of Cote d'Ivoire and by external agencies and organizations (1963 - 1984). These pertain to existing and proposed industries, customs tariff schedules, financial reports, and trade statistics.

Other research materials include INCA country files representing nearly 40 countries that were maintained by Pursell and used as background information and data for INCA research projects and studies by DRC and successor INCA unit. Files contain draft and final reports authored by DRC staff and other Bank department staff (IFD), Board papers, Bank and external working papers including sector strategy paper, copies of externally authored publications and journal articles, research proposals, back-to-office reports (BTORs), and memoranda related to effective protection and associated topics or project data (1968, 1971 - 1991). Memoranda and letters beginning from the 1970s are between DRC staff including Pursell, Larry Westphal, and Consultant Bela Balassa and occasionally the Bank's regional units.

Methodology and applied research

The series contains records related to the INCA staff and consultants' methodology work as a primary task under its applied research responsibility (1978, 1980 - 1991 [predominant 1982 - 1985]). These records, including discussion papers, unpublished technical and procedure notes (first draft and final versions), export questionnaire (French), document the methods used for analysis on effective protection, domestic resource cost (DRC) estimates, export incentives and related concepts.

Applied research outputs to support INCA country studies develop Bank operational tools, also referred to as "infrastructure" according to the various INCA unit reports, are also represented in the series and include a draft interview guide on incentive issues, INCA program description and model for computing, bibliographies and summaries of studies, and one of the unit's final products, a 1985 final draft manual for INCA for country officials and researchers.

Knowledge and information products

The series also contains records related to the pooling of international price data for numerous industrial products (1972 - 1974, 1980 - 1984). The INCA unit collected global price data for numerous industrial products to make accessible for international data pooling and exchange. Specific records include: internal memoranda and correspondence with external institutes or government offices concerning the collection or sharing of price information; copy of the multipage form that the unit designed for requesting prices; directory of information sources on international prices (1984) prepared by the unit; and related reference material used to compile the directory including copies of Industry Department (IND) papers, published Bank working papers, external publications, and news clippings. Early material includes copies of internal memoranda distributed to Central Projects Staff (CPS) management about a border prices paper (1973), and external reference material.

Lastly, another group of records (1971 - 1985) entitled "liaison" consist of unpublished and published reports and other items authored or co-authored by Pursell, other INDSP staff and consultants including Yoon Joo Lee, or authored by international academics that were collected by Pursell and INCA personnel. Records mostly contain draft and final reports, working papers, case study, lectures, and copies of published articles and external reports. A few files created before 1981 relate to Pursell's work in the DRC unit; one of these contains reports on a Bank workshop on trade policy in relation to industry in developing countries (1980).

Project officer, Industrial Projects Department (NDP/IPD/IND) chronological correspondence files

Series contains the chronological files created by Rischard during his time as a project officer in the Industrial Projects Department (NDP/IPD/IND) from 1976 to 1982. The records in this series relate to the various activities of sectoral project officers. Regarding involvement with lending operations, records evidence Rischard's role in multiple projects and countries. Common project types include funding of chemical industries, fertilizer production, and industrial energy conservation and diversification. Specific projects include: P008691 - Tecuci Fertilizer Project (Romania) P006289 - Copesul Petrochemical Project (Brazil) P008710 - Craiova Chemical Project (Romania) P009665 - Gorakhpur Fertilizer Expansion Project (India) P009369 - Ashuganj Fertilizer Project (Bangladesh) and P008639 - Industrial Energy Conservation and Diversification Project (Portugal) Records related to travel logistics and expenses and the exchange of information within the World Bank and with external organizations are also included.

Records primarily consist of correspondence between Rischard and other World Bank staff (in the form of office memoranda and telexes) and official correspondence between Rischard and external individuals, including country representatives. In addition to correspondence, back-to-office reports, Terms of Reference, and reports and studies on industrial sector topics are included.

Governance, management and oversight

This series mainly contains records that were created and/or maintained by John M. Kalbermatten between the 1970s and 1980 while working as an adviser and then a consultant in both urban and rural water supply initiatives in various iterations of the water sector departments (i.e., Public Utilities Department-PBP; Energy, Water, and Telecommunications Department Office of the Director-EWTDR; Transportation, Water, and Telecommunications Water and Wastes Advisory Staff-TWTWW).

Kalbermatten contributed to World Bank policies and training on water supply and rural development, as well as research on appropriate water supply and sanitation technology. This series also contains records authored by other individuals, primarily by Yves Rovani (1972 - 1980: director, Public Utilities Projects Department-PBP; director, Energy, Water & Telecommunications Department-EWT) and Richard Middleton (1972 - 1978: sanitary engineer, Public Utilities Division-WAPPB; sanitary engineer, Public Utilities Division Office of theDirector-PBPDR; senior sanitary engineer, Energy, Water, and Telecommunications Office of the Director-EWTDR).

Records contain information relating to a panel on Measuring the Health Benefits of Investments in Water Supply; PBP project monitoring; 1970s work programs; annual staff training course on water supply; research on appropriate technology for water supply and waste disposal in low-income countries; case study reports on residential demand for water and sewerage service in countries in Africa; cooperation with external organizations (e.g., WHO and UNDP); and many more.

Record types include but are not limited to office memoranda, correspondence, articles and discussion papers, journals, training course documents, programs, questionnaires, and case study reports.

Governance, management and oversight

Series contains records of the Industry and Energy Office of the Director (IENDR), its predecessors, and divisions that relate to planning, organizing, and directing subordinate units as well as developing business plans, work programs, and budgets. Most records were maintained by Director Richard Stern, Senior Adviser Dennis Anderson, and Division Chief Afsaneh Mashayekhi. The series also contains the chronological and subject files of Assistant Director Efrain Friedmann that represent the department's energy sector work in the early 1970s as well as subject files of the mining units under IEN and later, the joint Bank/International Finance Corporation (IFC) Oil, Gas, Mining and Chemicals Department (COC).

Strategic planning, business development, and management

Records in the series document changes in divisional structure, reporting lines, resources, and activities of the responsible units. Individual subject files relate to IEN reorganization (1993 - 1997), energy practice management (1993 - 1996), and others.

Specific types of records include internal memoranda, All-in-1 message hard copies, organizational charts, vision and mission statements, budget sheets, reports regarding IEN departmental structure, IEN background and staff profiles, job descriptions, functional descriptions (outlining organization, functional areas, reporting, division management) and reports on activities of the Oil and Gas Division (IENOG).

Another set of records (1990 - 1997) relate to the department's midyear review,retrospective review, portfolio management, business plan and budget, and preparation of the Annual Report on Portfolio Performance (ARPP). Record types include: copies of ARPP by the Operations Evaluation Department (OED); minutes of review meetings; drafts and final text of IEN divisions; and portfolio improvement program review reports by the Quality Assurance Group (EXCQA) unit.

Two correspondence files containing incoming and outgoing memoranda with FPDVP (1992 - 1997) cover the period when Richard D. Stern was ESMAP Manager (ESMMR), then IEN director. Some memos are in the form of briefing notes and background for meetings and discuss department activities, papers produced, reorganizations, ESMAP products, and private sector investment in infrastructure projects. Also in the files are sector papers on topics including industrial restructuring, and a comparative survey of public and private ownership of gas companies.

There are also files maintained by IEN divisions and predecessors regarding the organization and activities of divisions carrying out United Nations Development Programme / World Bank Group Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP). Included are: files related to ESMAP operations (1989 - 1993); Office of the ESMAP Manager (ESMMR, in existence from 1991 - 1992); ESMAP reorganization (1990 - 1992); ESMAP activities and schedules (1990 - 1991); and ESMAP procedures and guidelines for operations coordination (1991, 1993). General files (1986 - 1995) contain mostly internal memoranda and accompanying reports that cover a variety of topics such as meeting summaries, ESMAP operations, knowledge and learning events, sector work program, division status reports, recruitment, reporting to vice presidencies, and general administrative information such as for cross support activities.

Other files relate to industry and mining budgeting, work programs, and business planning (1994 - 2005), the latter maintained by unit staff of the Mining Department (CMN) and successor Oil, Gas, Mining and Chemical Department (COC) senior staff including Division Chief, later Manager Peter van der Veen. Also included is a briefing book prepared for IFC Vice President Peter L. Woicke related to a 2003 visit to Bolivia.

Operational support oversight

A smaller volume of files titled "cross support" created by IENDR (1992 - 1996) contain mostly internal memoranda between Director Stern, IEN divisions, Finance and Private Sector Development Vice Presidency (FPDVP), and regional units concerning projects and support to the regions in terms of delivery plans, allocation of tasks, and enhancing collaboration. Some memoranda also provide information about regional unit reorganizations, trust fund management issues, and network performance measures. Filed with the correspondence are back-to-office reports (BTORs), meeting minutes, data tables, and other records.

Another set of records document communications between Director Stern, IEN units, and Bank senior management regarding certain Bank projects (1980 - 1997), such as the Arun Hydroelectric Power Project in Nepal. Files include correspondence, draft discussion papers, external press articles, President's Memorandum, project documents (staff appraisal report, project agreement etc.), and other material.

Several files related to general energy and environmental sector work contain correspondence and other records (1994 - 1996) maintained by Senior Adviser Anderson (IENDR). Included are invitations and follow ups to meetings, events, publications and reviews written by Anderson, communication about the Bank's energy work, current and potential studies, comments on internal or external papers and reports, and other matters.

Efrain Friedmann chronological and subject files

The series contains records created and received by Efrain Friedmann during the period 1972 to 1980 when he held the following positions: energy specialist, then energy adviser in Public Utilities Department Director's Office (PBPDR, 1972 - 1977, later Energy, Water, Telecommunications Department [EWT]); assistant director, Energy and Fuels (EWTDR, 1977 - 1979); and senior adviser in the Energy Policy Advisory Staff (EGYEP, 1979 - 1980).

Chronological files span the periods from November 1972 to August 1974 and April 1977 to March 1980 and includes internal memoranda, cables, and incoming and outgoing correspondence with representatives of the United States government and other country or international organization officials, oil companies, engineers, and academics regarding the world energy situation and the Bank's mineral and energy programs. Correspondence covers topics such as oil surveys, energy projects and studies, research and policy development activities, department work program and budget, staff development seminars on energy planning, hiring of consultants, international conferences, meetings with oil companies, participation in missions, comments on draft correspondence to be sent by vice president, Operations Policy, and administrative matters. Also included among the correspondence is a paper prepared by Friedmann for Bank Group President Robert McNamara's meeting with U.N. General Secretary Waldheim in December 1979 which presents the Bank's views on energy conservation and the search for new energy supplies, and a memorandum on a White House meeting with President Carter, which indicates Carter's growing interest in developing oil reserves in developing countries.

Friedmann subject files represent his various activities such as: liaison with consultant O.B. Falls regarding Impact of Primary Energy Cost on Electric Power study (1974); liaison and meetings with banks and development banks (1977 - 1979); meeting on assistance to the energy sector in developing countries, Paris (1979), attendance at various conferences (1978 - 1979), and sector work (1979). There are also several files concerning nuclear power (1972 - 1976) and a nuclear study (1975 - 1976) which mostly contain memoranda and correspondence with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or national atomic energy agencies.

Record types in the Friedmann files include memoranda, cables, incoming and outgoing letters, summaries of meetings and consultations, Terms of Reference (TORs), BTORS including copies from regional staff, approach papers, briefing notes, sector reports, externally authored conference papers and reports, draft study outlines (some annotated), and press clippings. The Paris World Energy meeting files contain agenda and list of delegates, copy of "Program to Accelerate Petroleum Production in Developing Countries" Bank report, list of oil and gas production projects, summary of development partners' energy assistance and activities, and other items.

NRIC and EISIC correspondence and related records

Also included in the series are several correspondence files (1978 - 1986) sent and received by division chiefs, senior advisers or occasionally directors that were originally sent to the Non-Regional Information Center (NRIC) and arranged under the Bank-wide classification system. Files are titled "general" and include mostly internal memoranda (some in the form of BTORs), letters, and cables that cover management of the various sector activities and division objectives such as: workshop or roundtable preparation and participation; selection of consultants for projects; direction of energy policy and lending including comments on policy papers and draft guidelines for lending; ESMAP program; and collaboration with external organizations. Reports, discussion papers and other records are sometimesfiled with the related correspondence. Two files that are thin in volume relate to a proposed World Bank energy affiliate (1981 - 1982) and contains memoranda from Senior Vice President of Operations Ernest Stern to Bank Group President Clausen.

Series also contains a set of thematic, or subject files (1974 - 1987) that were originally maintained in the Energy and Industry Information Center (EISIC). Files contain internal memoranda and cables, many are copies sent by the Energy and Industry Vice Presidency (EISVP), the Office of the Senior Vice Presidency, Operations (SVPOP), by regional directors, and unit or sector staff. There are also some original incoming letters to industry and energy directors or division chiefs. Correspondence is occasionally attached to draft and final internal reports, discussion or issues papers, BTORs, Board reports, briefing notes, summary of discussions, and other items.

The more voluminous files relate to activities regarding petroleum, natural gas, environment, ecology, cofinancing, budget and work program, project implementation review, and project performance audit. Because of the EISIC filing system that interfiled sector records, these files also represent the industry sector including industrial development finance (IDF) operations. Files titled "general energy correspondence" cover a broad range of topics ranging from routine to substantive matters. The latter includes: confirmations on appointments and divisional assignments or responsibilities from regional chiefs copied to sector; Bank programs and activities in related sectors; procedural changes (i.e. project pre-briefs); training requirements, and Industry Department implementation review. Routine administrative matters cover staffing, Bank employment, word processing, travel schedules, and Board schedules.

A set of "energy and industry staff" files relate to the EIS departments that reported to EISVP under SVPOP between 1982 and 1987. These department files discuss recruitment, management and divisional retreat summaries, sector work, ESMAP tasks and country work, and assignment of responsibilities. Memoranda between Vice President Jean-Loup Dherse (EISVP), SVPOP, and Director Rovani and others discuss operational initiatives such as an issues paper regarding project financing on limited recourse basis in Bank projects, proposal of EIS support, and other business activities.

Governance, management and oversight

Series consists of records created and received by the Industry Department (IND) units, previous units and successors, related to managing the industry and mining portfolio and strategy and directing the research, policy, and project work of the department.

EISIC Subject files

A substantial portion of records are thematic, or subject files (1972 - 1987) primarily organized by specific industry subsector that contain correspondence, reports, and other material created by division chiefs and seniorstaff and often copied to the Office of the Director that were maintained in the EISIC. The more predominant subjects include the following industries or subsectors: alcohol; coal; fertilizer (phosphate and nitrogen); mining and minerals; pulp and paper; lead and zinc; steel (including iron ore); textiles; oil shale; refinery; science and technology; capital goods; as well as individual files on several other industries.

Files contain mainly copies of internal memoranda or cables between the Office of the Director (INDDR) to division chiefs and other IND staff and Bank departments including in the Regions, or to INDDR reporting office, Senior Vice President, Operations Policy (SVPOP). A broad range of subjects are covered, such as: summaries of visits to external organizations and meetings; representation at conferences or other events; arrangement of consultants for studies or reviews; review and comments on department papers or data (including commodity price projections); compilation and sharing of project data; discussion of project practice and impact of sector review (pricing, subsidization); sector issues and trends (new technologies, commodity pricing systems). Memoranda are occasionally in the form of Terms of Reference (TORs) for studies or missions, and back-to-office reports (BTORs) including copies of regional staff BTORs. There are also originals and copies of incoming letters and outgoing letters between IND senior management or staff and representatives of external organizations or government offices regarding: invitations or confirmations to participate in external meetings or conferences; proposed projects for the sector; and sharing of information on projects and common issues.

Other record types occasionally filed with the correspondence include: consultant reports; draft and final background papers or reports; agenda; list of participants; commodity and industry data such as price projections, company revenues, and production; external journal articles or press clippings; and other items.

Several files are titled "Industry Department general correspondence" (1977 - 1987) and industry sector reports (1973 - 1986). The general correspondence records cover a broad range of topics ranging from routine to substantive matters originating from IND successor, the Industrial Projects Department (NDP, later IPD). Topics of the latter include: division work program and budget, Bank lending program, confirmations on appointments and divisional assignments; Bank programs and activities in related sectors; procedural changes; and training requirements. Routine matters cover staffing and consultants, recruitment, bidding process, and other administrative matters. Files also contain copies of memoranda from Operations Vice President Ernest Stern to operational vice presidencies and Regional Vice Presidencies.

A set of "industrial strategy and policy" files (1982 - 1987) mainly reflect the various activities of the Industrial Strategy and Policy Division (INDSP). Memoranda covers arrangement of seminars, draft guidelines, summaries of meetings with external organizations representatives and government officials, budget and work plan, dissemination of draft papers including policy papers for comments, delegation of authority, and other matters.

NRIC correspondence and related records

The series also contains some correspondence files (1978 - 1986) authored by IND senior management and advisers and chiefs that were originally sent to the Bank's centralized records in the Non-Regional Information Center (NRIC). Files are titled "industry", "mining", and "general" and include mostly memoranda and letters that cover the various sector activities such as policy work, sector studies and projects, division work programs and organizational structure, and liaison with external organizations. "General" correspondence files cover various routine and substantive matters; among the latter includes notes about sector projects, policy and analysis, comments on regional lending program, IPD lending/work program, training components in Bank projects, sector activities in Regions, and external meetings. Attached documents include sector-authored yellow cover papers, published technical reports, draft policy papers or publication chapters, work program summaries, data tables (including lending operations); and external reports. A "General PIN" file contains drafts and final report, titled "World Bank Role in Non-Fuel Mineral Development", that outlines the potential for developing non-fuel indigenous resources in developing countries. "Mining" files are thin in volume. There is some overlap in certain records between these NRIC files and those above maintained in the EISIC as the department "working files"; however, this set of NRIC files is considerably smaller in volume and scope of sector activities.

Liaison, partnerships and program collaboration

Series consists of records related to collaborative activities and partnerships between the Industry and Energy (IEN) Department units and mostly external organizations, but liaison with Bank Group institutions and internal committees as well. Records cover the period from 1975 to 2013 and provide information about common initiatives with partners, director and senior staff participation on high-level committees or events, and development of collaborative global programs. Most records relate to the energy sector, but content within certain files frequently includes the industry and mining sectors as well. See the arrangement note below for more information.

Liaison with external organizations

The series contains records organized by external organization or Bank Group body, including the International Energy Agency (IEA, 1993 - 1996), Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC, 1975, 1986 - 1988), non-governmental organizations including Bretton Woods Committee (1992 - 1997), Solar Development Corporation (1996 - 1997), the International Finance Corporation (IFC, 1991 - 1992), Economic Development Institute (EDI), now World Bank Institute (WBI, 1994 - 1996), Enron (1993 - 1996), Organizacion Latinoamericana de Energia (OLADE, or Latin American Energy Organization, 1988 - 1990), European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD, 1991), and other research institutions, private foundations, and United States government agencies. A file on the G7 Nuclear Safety Working Group discusses the Chernobyl, Ukraine nuclear plant closure and energy strategies.

These records were primarily maintained by the Power Development, Efficiency & Household Fuels Division (IENPD) and the Office of the Director (IENDR). Files contain internal memoranda, All-in-1 messages, and letters between IEN units and representatives of organizations regarding arrangement of and discussion at meetings, discussion of partnerships and current or potential collaborative activities preparation of implementing agreements, information about ESMAP activities, and knowledge sharing. Other memoranda are between IENDR and Finance and Private Sector Development Vice Presidency (FPD) and other Bank departments including the Office of External Relations. Memoranda are also occasionally in the form of Terms of Reference (TORs) and back-to-office reports, describing events attended. Some files only contain United Nations agency reports and other external annual reports, press clippings, or booklets as reference. A single file consists of a 1975 preliminary briefing note on OPEC regarding optimal pricing policies for OPEC among the records.

Also included in the series are a set of records originally maintained in the Energy and Industry Information Center (EISIC, 1975 - 1987). Most of the files concern the Bank's relationship with United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and contain general correspondence with UNDP (1975 - 1987). Some liaison files reflect joint initiatives between the EGY and Industry Department (IND) departments when they were two separate departments under Energy and Industry Staff Vice Presidency (EISVP).

Other record types consist of copies of Board documents, draft Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs), meeting and seminar agenda, meeting minutes and summaries, presentation slide hard copies, concept papers, TORs, curriculum vitae (CVs), external brochures and reports, and copies of Congressional committee papers.

Global Gas Flaring Reduction Partnership (GGFR)

A large volume of records in the series (2001 - 2013) relate to the Global Gas Flaring Reduction Public-Private Partnership (GGFR) that originated in 2002. Records document the origins of the Bank Group-led Gas Flaring Reduction Initiative in collaboration with the Government of Norway and the role played by the joint Bank and International Finance Company (IFC) department, the Oil, Gas, Mining and Chemicals Department (COC), and its Policy Division (COCPO), later the Sustainable Energy, Gas, Oil, Mining unit [SEGOM]). COCPO was central to planning and organizing the Oslo 2002 conference and discussion of the GGFR Terms of Reference (TORs), arranging subsequent conferences and stakeholder consultations, and preparing and disseminating GGFR studies and reports. Most records were maintained by GGFR Program Manager Bent Svensson who led the task team responsible for implementing GGFR activities and liaising with stakeholders in coordination with the GGFR secretariat.

Correspondence records consist of draft and final outgoing letters, facsimiles, and email hard copies, including invitations to GGFR members and facsimiles sent by IFC Executive Vice President Peter L. Woicke and jointly authored letters with partner European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) inviting attendees to workshops, forums, and similar events. Other correspondence is with consultants recruited to conduct gas flaring studies and internal hard copy emails regarding meeting planning, launching events, and press arrangements. Other records filed with correspondence include: draft and final TORs including for the GGFR partnership; summary action plans and activity descriptions; draft country profile information including summary of Bank work activities; progress and final reports; consultation briefing notes; agenda and meeting summaries with stakeholders and partners; data tables; budget sheets; GGFR promotional materials such as brochures; draft workshop session notes; speeches and talking points; presenter biographies; presentation slides; handwritten notes; and reference material suchas newsletters and webpage hard copies.

A small volume of records relate to financing GGFR activities through a multi-donor trust fund and include: agreements and amendments signed by COC director; initiating brief for trust funds (IBTFs); notice of contributions; letters and hard copy emails with donors or between COC units and GGFR secretariat regarding financing agreements and the transfer and use of funds; quarterly and annual financial reports, and other reports prepared and submitted by Svensson; GGFR steering committee minutes; briefing papers; and confidentiality agreements.

GGFR is governed by a Steering Committee that was chaired by COC Director Rashad-Rudolf Kaldany at its establishment. Steering Committee records (2002 - 2013) were maintained by COCPO and SEGOM in addition to International Gas Flaring Reduction conferences, GGFR regional conferences, and workshops on carbon credits and best practice, standards, and guidelines for flaring reduction. Records include invitation letters, quarterly updates to committee members, agenda, minutes, list of participants, briefing papers, and reports for review. Also included are two files related to the World Summit on Sustainable Development (2002).

Extractive Industries Review (EIR)

Series also contains records related to the Extractive Industries Review (EIR) to examine the role, and future of, the Bank Group in the oil, gas, and mining sectors that was established in July 2001 and led by Dr. Emil Salim. Salim, a former minister of the Government of Indonesia, was appointed by Bank Group President Wolfensohn. Records cover the period 2000 to 2004 and appear to be maintained by both the EIR secretariat and the joint Bank-IFC Oil, Gas, and Chemicals Department (COC), Policy Division, Oil and Gas (COCPO), and the Mining Department director (CMNDR) in support of planning and developing EIR activities. Files relate to EIR activities and events including the planning workshop in Brussels (2001), multistakeholder consultation workshops in Africa, Asia Pacific, Europe and Central Asia, and Middle East and North Africa (2003), advisory group feedback meetings and final workshop (2003), and other meetings. These files, as well as a set of chronological correspondence files, contain mostly email hard copies between the EIR secretariat, consultation participants, and consultants and between COC and IFC senior management and staff. Topics covered in the correspondence include comments on EIR drafts and submissions to the review, nominations for advisory group membership (with participant lists and CVs), representation of regions, comments on consultation workshop reports, budget and trust funds, communications strategy, planning and discussion around Bank Group oil and gas activities, and event administration and logistics. Correspondence between Salim and EIR secretariat discuss managing and planning EIR work, schedule, budget, consultants, sharing of information and articles, status of EIR recommendations and finalizing report, planning of meetings with Bank senior staff, country visits and itineraries, advisory group member selection, and withdrawals of EIR process. There is also correspondence between Salim and Bank Group President Wolfensohn, Director Kaldany, Mining Director James Bond, and IFC officials, discussing EIR activities, meetings, and an amendment to the EIR TORs.

Record types consist of: EIR executive summary recommendations draft outlines; meeting minutes or summaries; lists of participants; hard copies of slide presentations; draft and final EIR TORs; aide-memoire; consultation reports; testimonial reports and transcripts of regional and informal consultations; background papers including one on Bank Group activities in the extractive industries by COCPO; hard copies of slide presentations; handwritten notes; draft and final OED approach paper Evaluation of World Bank Group Activities in the Energy and Extractives sector; external reports, brochures, and articles regarding extractive industries; and more.

A smaller volume of files concerning Salim's project field visits (2000 - 2003) to Asia and Africa (Chad Cameroon oil pipeline project) include a briefing book, and planning records such as: email hard copies of travel arrangements discussion of case studies, outreach and workshops, and Bank group oil, gas and mining investments data; agenda and itineraries; EIR project sheets; country briefs; and external reports, press clippings, and other reference documentation on oil spills and pipelines.

Records are mostly in English with some correspondence and press clippings in French. EIR official reports and stakeholder letters are also in French, Russian, and Spanish.

Committees, task forces, and working groups

The series also contains records of energy sector management and senior staff participation in various external and Bank-wide committees. Most records relate to the International Gas Union (IGU) Council meetings and committees (1988 - 1994) that energy division chiefs participated in, on behalf of the Bank. Energy Development Division Chief Gunter Schramm (IENED) presented in 1989 on the Bank's work in hydrocarbons and future liaison with Bank-IGU. Included in the records are council agenda, minutes, reports, background papers, study proposals, BTORs following meetings, and mostly routine correspondence regarding administrative arrangements.

There are also files relating to the Energy Sector Board (1992 - 1996) created in 1993 and its sub-committee on staffing including meeting announcements and lists of participants, occasionallyagenda and minutes focusing on project updates, reports, position descriptions, and All-in-1 notes regarding board membership, energy policy strategy. Other files relate to the sector's participation in the Multilateral Development Bank Task Force (1995 - 1997), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 1995) and smaller files on Finance and Private Sector Development Vice Presidency (FPD) task forces, advisory committee, working groups on quality enhancement of projects and on large dams (1993 - 1997).

Trust fund program management

A small set of records relate to IENDR, its divisions, and successors' management of trust funds to support energy sector programs and activities in member countries. Three files document the establishment of the Danish Trust Fund for Rural and Renewable Energy and subsequent activities financed by the Government of Denmark (1997 - 2003) including the Africa Rural and Renewable Energy Initiative (AFRREI). Correspondence is filed with Bank-authored progress reports, financial statements, presentation slide hard copies, and other items. There is also an individual file related to an agreement and financial support between the Government of Israel and the Bank for a gas strategy study for Israel (1995).

Knowledge and learning events and products

Series consists of records related to conferences, symposia, seminars, workshops, roundtables, and similar knowledge and learning events that were developed and hosted by Industry and Energy Department (IEN) energy units or attended by sector directors and staff. A portion of files also relate to sector staff's participation in preparatory work for events such as conference steering committees and the vetting of papers submitted. The series also contains newsletters as well as published and unpublished articles and reports authored or co-authored by sector staff. The earliest records dated 1984 are copies of externally authored discussion and presentation papers. Records were created and maintained by various units such as: Industry and Energy Office of the Director (IENDR), Natural Gas Development Unit (IENGU), Power Development, Efficiency & Household Fuels Division (IENPD), and ESMAP Operations Division (ESMOD).

Conferences, seminars, and similar events that were organized as Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) technical assistance or relating to other ESMAP projects are not included in this series if there was a clear distinction. See the related units of description note below for more information.

Conferences, seminars, other knowledge and learning events

Records reflect IEN Director Richard Stern's attendance and or participation including as a panel member at various international conferences and symposia such as the World Energy Council Congress (1995) and World Economic Development Congress Power Project Finance Summit. Stern also maintained records of World Bank seminars conducted by his division chiefs and staff as reference (Seminar on Technical and Economic Nuclear Issues, 1994). There is also a small volume of files containing papers presented by IENDR Adviser Dennis Anderson on the Bank's solar initiative experience to date at the International Symposium on the Grand Solar Challenge (1995) with other event records. Also included are a draft and three computer disks relatedto Anderson's paper "Energy, Environment and Economy". Knowledge and learning event records were largely maintained by IEN divisions. The whole of the records of IENDR and divisions cover the period 1988 to 1998.

Records consist of facsimiles and letters sent to participants or organizers covering invitations to the event and preparation of the agenda, and internal memoranda between IENDR, division management, and staff discussing the organization of speakers, selection of panels and topics, administrative arrangements, and follow-up to various events. Memoranda are often in the form of Terms of Reference (TORs), back-to-office-reports, and summaries of discussions, together with an attached event program, drafts and final agenda, presentation slide hard copies, or the paper presented at the event, some of which are externally authored papers. Additional record types in the series include: conference session papers; lists of participants and speakers; program and presentation outlines and notes; papers prepared by sector staff or consultants; working papers and reports produced by participants or external authors; transparency slides; biographical sketches of presenters; and press clippings or articles.

Specific topics represented in the knowledge and learning events include, but are not limited to: seminars concerning power sector regulatory issues; structure and pricing; energy policy; power system planning; natural gas; electricity and gas trade; financing energy; roundtables on energy efficiency; independent power projects; or power supply in low- and lower-middle income countries; International Gas Trade Roundtable; and workshops on renewable energy; oil and gas; commercialization of natural gas; and annual World Bank Energy Workshops.

There are also individual files regarding Bank Group and International Monetary Fund Annual Meetings (1994 - 1996), IEN road shows and products (1992 - 1994), Task Managers' Workshop on Global Environment Facility Global Warming Projects sponsored by Global Environment Coordination Division (ENVCG) and partners, Mining and the Community for Asian and Pacific Nations (1998), China Coal Sector Development and Reform Conference World Bank and ESMAP (2003), and various other events.

Speeches, newsletters, publications, and other material

The series contains speeches of the first IEN Director, Anthony Churchill, given at various external conferences and events (1990 - 1993) and speeches on the topic of energy and the environment given at conferences and similar events by Churchill and others including Bank Group President Barber B. Conable and Energy Strategy, Management, and Assessment (IENES) Division Chief Robert J. Saunders at the ESMAP consultative meeting, 1988. A single file containing material for speeches on gas mostly contains papers authored by IENGU chief and draft papers used for the 1992 World Development Report (WDR) related to natural gas benefits to the environment, gas activities of ESMAP, and letters to external peers requesting review and comments.

Series also consists of two files of publications and computer disks maintained by Anderson on various energy and environment topics that he mostly authored and co-authored (1988 - 1996). Files contain an item list of papers, final drafts, final papers published in academic journals and at conferences, and a draft for the new Finance and Private Sector Development Vice Presidency (FPD) series on "Approaches to Private Power". Publication topics include: cost effectiveness in addressing the CO2 problem; cost of nuclear power and fossil fuels; sustainable development; energy efficiency and pollution; industry and the environment; and more. The files also contain some papers by other colleagues including "Transportation and CO2 Emissions: Flexing the Link - A Strategy for the World Bank".

There are also two files containing internally produced newsletters (1994 - 1996), including Oil and Gas, Energy Notes, FPD Notes about the activities of Finance and Private Sector Development Vice Presidency, internal memoranda about the publications, and external press articles about the Bank sectors.

Three training-related files relate to Monitoring Training Program and IEN Support Staff Workshop (1993 - 1995) as well as IENGU gas training (1989 - 1990).

Knowledge and learning events

Series consists of records related to the Industry and Energy (IEN) industry units' participation and attendance at international conferences and other knowledge and learning events. Records were primarily maintained by Industry and Mining Division (IENIM) staff including Economist and Lead Mining Specialist Craig Andrews and Principal Mining Engineer Christopher Wardell and relate to four major events. The records also reflect the role of IENIM in planning and organizing these events.

The Conference on Development, Environment and Mining (Washington, D.C., June 1-3, 1994) co-sponsored by the Bank, United Nations agencies, and the International Council for Metals and the Environment (ICME) addressed the contribution of mining to economic development and management of environmental impacts for sustainable development. Other records relate to: IENIM-organized international roundtable, Mining in the Next 25 Years, on the future of the mining industry and management of risk (1997); Mining and the Community Conference (Quito, 1997 - 1998) to share experiences and research in the mining sector and local communities including indigenous communities, and environmentally sustainable mining; and the Mongolia Investors Conference (Ulanbataar, 1997) organized by Wardell and co-hosted by the Europe and Central Asia Vice Regional Vice Presidency (ECAVP) and Resource Mobilization and Private Sector Development Department (acronym unknown). The purpose of the conference was to promote investment in the areas of oil, gas andmining and to facilitate bilateral discussions between the Government of Mongolia and participants from various countries that included ambassadors, technical specialists and other representatives from the mining, engineering, financial and banking sectors.

Records consist of draft and final outgoing facsimiles and letters to participants or co-organizers covering the development of the conferences or other events, invitations and incoming replies, preparation of the agenda, or requests for funding from government agencies and subsequent financial arrangements for certain events. Internal memoranda between IENIM management and staff discusses the organization of speakers or consultants, selection of panels and topics, and administrative arrangements.

Additional record types that are filed with the correspondence include: agenda; objectives and discussion group descriptions; draft and final list of participants; curriculum vitae (CVs) of speakers; draft session papers; case studies; IENIM staff-authored articles; consultant reports (i.e. mineral resource and petroleum exploration in Mongolia); discussion paper proposals; background reports; conference brochures; printed material of other external institutions; and ?Mining and the Community: Results of the Quito Conference?, EMT (Energy, Mining and Telecommunications) Occasional Paper No. 11 (1998).

Operations support and supervision

The operations support and supervision series consists of records relating to Garcia de Truslow's work in the Latin America and Caribbean regional vice presidency between 1981 and 1987 as an Urban Planner and between 1990 and 1998 as Senior Projects Officer. The series includes records relating to both project support and to sectoral and country research and planning. Records relate to work in countries throughout South and Central America including Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay. Of these, Argentina and Panama are represented the most.

Series consists of records maintained by Garcia de Truslow relating to specific projects. Garcia de Truslow maintained her own binders of records on projects that she was involved in and these are contained in this series. Projects that are represented most abundantly include: Bolivia - Urban Development Project (P006132) Dominican Republic - Project for the Institutional Development of the Municipality of Santo Domingo (P006993) Argentina - Yacyreta Hydroelectric Project (P005937) Ecuador - Mining Development and Environmental Control Technical Assistance Project (P007129) Argentina - Mining Sector Development Technical Assistance (P006055) and Panama - Colon Urban Development Project (P007810) Project records include: copies of official loan documents (including drafts); project briefs (including revisions); back-to-office reports;internal memoranda; correspondence with external parties, including government officials; Terms of Reference; mission notes, itineraries, and other records collected while on mission; project status reports; newspaper clippings; environmental assessment reports; and aide memoires.

Country operation records are also included in this series. These records relate to project identification and preparedness, mission travel, and the preparation of Country Economic Memoranda (CEM) and other papers. In some instances, country operation files include records related to ongoing projects for which Garcia de Truslow provided support. Research and reference materials are also included. Note that country operation records from the 1980s were created and collected during Garcia de Truslow's time as an Urban Planner and, as such, records related to urban planning and housing are numerous. Many of the country operation records were contained in black binders. Record types include: country and country sector reports; investment reviews; aide memoires; back-to-office reports; correspondence between Garcia de Truslow and parties external to the Bank including country officials; Terms of Reference; project briefs; and Bank- and external-authored reports related to the country's economic development and lending operations.

The operations support and supervision series also contains country-focused subject files. The majority of the country subject files are general in nature. A small number relate to the specific sector of a given South or Central American country, such as science and technology or urban development. Country subject files contain small amounts of internal memoranda related to project support, research, and mission travel. Correspondence with external parties, including country officials, is also included. However, the majority of the country subject files consists of reports, background papers, and reference materials. Some of the reports and papers are drafts that had been sent to Garcia de Truslow for comment.

Liaison, partnerships and program collaboration

Series consists of records related to partnerships and collaborative activities between external organizations and the Industrial Projects Department (IPD) units and successors between 1979 and 1985 and 1995 to 1999. Records provide information about common initiatives with partners in the industrial and mining sector, collaborative programs, and senior staff participation on high-level committees or events.

Most of the small set of files that were maintained in the Energy and Information Center (EISIC) document the participation of Division Chief L. Hartsell Cash, Projects, Mining and Heavy Machinery Division (IPDD2) in the United Nations Revolving Fund for Natural Resources Exploration working groups and Joint Operations Group (JOG) meetings (1979 - 1983). Other individual files include the International Labor Organization (1983 - 1986), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Research and Development in Integrated Resource Recovery programme (1984), and Business Partners for Development (BPD) mining cluster (1997 - 2000). Record types include: draft and final reports; minutes of United Nations Revolving Fund working group and JOG meetings; JOG progress and quarterly reports; internal memoranda and letters with representatives of external organizations.

The series also contains four files (1997 - 1999) related to the Bank-led Clean Coal Initiative (CCL) launched at a roundtable in June 1996. Specific records include: letters and facsimiles from IENIM Division Chief Peter Van der Veen to Energy Sector Management and Assistance Program (ESMAP) donors and stakeholders concerning financial support for a pilot "project" based in China; letters with consultants; strategic framework and reform priorities for China; draft articles on the Bank's involvement in coal and CCL; project description (also referred to as study program); Terms of Reference; coal price data; back-to-office-report; and other external reference articles and reports. Records were maintained by Principal Mineral Engineer John Strongman who was later succeeded by Principal Mining Engineer and Task Manager Christopher Wardell

Project lending and operational support

Series consists of records created by the industry units carrying out operational work including project lending, technical assistance, economic and sector work, and support to the Regional Vice Presidency units in the manufacturing and mining sectors. Prior to the Bank-wide 1987 reorganization and creation of the Industry and Energy Department (IEN), predecessors including the Industrial Projects Department (NDP, later IPD) formed in the 1972 reorganization operated as a central operating project department (COPD). The Bank's five COPD departments, including IPD, reported to the Central Projects Staff Vice Presidency. These units, which were too small to decentralize, had full responsibility for managing operational activities. This involved providing planning, direction, supervision, and personnel to the Region, as if it were a regional projects division. IPD and its successor, Industry Department (IND, 1982 - 1987) were specifically responsible for identifying, preparing, appraising, and supervising projects involving direct loans or credits to large-scale industrial enterprises. This function is reflected in the volume of Bank project lending records created in this earlier period from the 1960s to the mid-1980s.

Types of records in this series include: internal memoranda and incoming and outgoing letters, cables, telexes and hard copies of electronic messages between industry units, regional staff and other Bank units, government officials, and other external organizations; Terms of Reference (TORs) of studies, missions, and consultants; aide-memoires; back-to-office reports; project cycle documents such as staff appraisal reports, agreement drafts and copies, and President's Reports; consultants' reports; feasibility study reports; project financial statements and projections; balance sheets; minutes of meetings; data tables and statistics on industrial and mining operations or commodities (refinery revenues and costs, production costs, crude prices, consumption, forecast and actual production); handwritten notes; technical specifications documents; Bank and external newsletters; and other externally-authored reference material on countries in support of projects, sector studies, and reviews. Reference materials created and compiled by staff and consultants also consist of manuals and publications or working papers, United Nations reports, and annual reports including many of member country public enterprises. Lastly, there are an undetermined number of geologic and topographic maps (minerals prospect plans or drilling plans), technical drawings (engineering, construction), flow diagrams (plant extraction, production models) and, less commonly, photograph albums or photocopies of images depicting project sites.

Project lending and Economic and Sector Work (ESW)

Records in the series reflect NDP/IPD and successor IND's project identification, preparation, and supervision of investment, structural adjustment, and other development projects that were financed or cofinanced by Bank loans and credits beginning from the late 1960s. The earliest records are government or other externally produced documents and reports that were kept as reference for projects, including a copy of a private sector company incorporation certificate (1949) and a geological survey regarding lignite mining in Sierra Leone (1951). The series includes records relating to completed and dropped projects.

Among the most common projects reflected in the records are manufacturing of iron and steel, wood processing (pulp and paper), fertilizer, cement, and mining of non-fuel minerals (nickel, iron ore, bauxite or aluminum, phosphate) and fuel minerals such as coal and lignite. Project records also relate to exploration and engineering as prerequisites for mining activities and mining safety. Some of the projects containing the largest volume of records in this series include: Industrial Research Development and Engineering Project - Spain (P032983) (1978 - 1982); Nickel Exploration Engineering Project - Burundi (P000182) (1964 - 1985); Oil Shale Engineering Project - Morocco (P005402) (1975 - 1981 and National Mineral Exploration Fund Project - Bolivia (P006134), (1979 - 1989).

Other lending projects represented in the series in lesser volume, relate to chemicals and petrochemicals, refineries, copper, gold, diamond, alcohol, tin, potash, small scale mining, pharmaceuticals, industrial energy conservation, and trade (export diversification).

Related sectors such as energy, transport, and environment are occasionally represented in the project records, as components of a particular project, or through collaboration and information sharing. One such project that generated a large volume of files is the Bukit Asam Mining and Transport Project - Indonesia (P003811) (1970 - 1985). A small volume of records relate to IND's involvement in petroleum exploration in collaboration with the energy sector units that operated alongside IND under the Energy and Industry Vice Presidency (EIS, 1982 - 1987).

Series also contains a small volume of records (1978 - 1993) created and compiled by industry units to produce the ESW analytical reports that helped direct development programs and project lending. These records mostly relate to the mining sector in African countries and include sector studies and review, privatization technical assistance, mining sector rehabilitation, exploration and promotion of mines and metals, and an industrial restructuring strategy review for Hungary (1985 - 1990).

Operational support

The series also contains project-related material created by the Industry and Mining Division (IENIM) and successor units while advising and reviewing development projects and providing technical assistance. Operational support records cover the period from approximately 1987 to 2007. The bulk of the projects were managed in the regional units supported by IENIM. The files contain standard project documents, as well as correspondence and reports generated by IENIM as part of their review function. Numerous files relate to the [Mining Sector Development and Environment Project, Ghana (P000966) (1990 - 2002), Economic Recovery and Investment Promotion Technical Assistance Project - Zambia (P040642) (1982 - 2001), and Mineral Sector Development Technical Assistance Project - Tanzania (P002812) (1985 - 2003). Other projects supported by industry units relate to coal sector adjustment loans, coal and mining sector rehabilitation, mining sector legal and regulatory reform, environmental management capacity building, steel industry restructuring, privatization and private sector development, cement industry modernization, and industry pharmaceuticals. Records also reflect industry and trade policy, and financial, economic and market analysis for industrial products.

A set of records originally identified as "own financed work" contain a combination of project support and sectoral studies (1988 - 2001). The papers and studies were sometimes conducted in conjunction with external agencies and/or consultants and topics include Latin America Mining Study, Hebei China Gas Study, steel industry restructuring, fertilizer sector study, and others.

Operational support and ESMAP project management

Series consists of records related to the Energy Department (EGY) and successor divisions and units' support to project lending, technical assistance, implementation of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)/World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) projects, economic and sector work (ESW), and other sector analyses. The earliest records in the series are externally produced geological maps (Ghana, 1958), seismic maps, and external technical reports starting from 1959 that were kept as reference mainly for ESMAP energy assessments and petroleum exploration projects.

Related sectors such as industry, forestry, and environment are occasionally represented in the project records, usually in the form of copies of staff appraisal reports, other sector project documents, or memoranda regarding collaboration and information sharing. The series also contains records created in support of mining operational activities primarily during the period of the Oil, Gas, Mining, and Chemicals Department (COC, 2002 - 2010).

The following are three major groupings of records: Energy Assessment Programme (EAP) and ESMAP projects; Bank project lending, cross support and ESW; and general country and topical files. These are described further below. Each grouping represents several different units that maintained the records and these units' separate recordkeeping systems over time.

EAP and ESMAP project records

The largest volume of records in the series (1958 - 2002) relate to energy sector projects to aid low- and lower-middle income countries, particularly oil-importing nations, that were carried out under ESMAP and its precursor program, EAP. In operation from 1980 to 1987, EAP was the technical assistance program co-sponsored by UNDP and the Bank to diagnose a country's most serious energy problems and evaluate options. Assessment missions produced reports for over 70 countries. ESMAP was created in 1983 as a trust-funded program to complement EAP and implement the assessment priorities. After EAP ended in 1987, ESMAP took over assessment work. As the executing agency for ESMAP and EAP, the Energy Department units and successor Industry and Energy Department (IEN) units were responsible for implementing the program and its projects, providing management and budgetary support, recruiting consultants, and preparing reports. From December 1991 to December 1992 when ESMAP was an independent department from IEN, the ESMAP Operations Division (ESMOD) and ESMAP Strategy and Programs Division (ESMPD) carried out ESMAP projects. Since ESMAP's establishment, projects were frequently undertaken in collaboration with consultants who visited project recipients and field sites, researched and collected data, and prepared reports.

ESMAP projects included various activities in the areas of: assessments, project formulation and justification (feasibility and prefeasibility studies), and institutional and policy support (technical assistance, strategies, etc.). Projects were financed or cofinanced by UNDP, theBank, and bilateral and multilateral donors.

The records document the initiation, analysis, preparation, and implementation stages of ESMAP projects in the energy subsectors in collaboration with the Bank's regional operational units, UNDP Division for Global and Interregional Projects, UNDP resident representatives, and occasionally the Bank's Industry Department units. Regional units were involved in the design, review, and dissemination of the country assessments and other ESMAP projects. Although a majority of projects are country-specific, a portion of records relate to regional and global projects. The records also provide insight into the program's evolution to meet the complex demands and diversity of the energy sector.

An early focus of ESMAP was household energy and a study series called ESMAP Household Energy Strategy Studies (HESS) was produced. These were country-based strategies to assist governments to improve capacity to transition from traditional to sustainable energy systems for households in urban and rural locations and establish regulatory reforms. Many, but not all, of the studies were conducted in African countries and published as ESMAP papers (ESM and other numbered reports) beginning in the early 1990s. There are also records from the early 1980s to the 1990s that are related to the Biomass Gasifier Monitoring Program.

Other ESMAP project topics and related research include: electricity; rural electrification; petroleum (oil and natural gas) development and conservation; improved stove; kerosene and liquified gas stoves; environment health and safety; power and gas pipelines; gas flaring reduction; greenhouse gas reduction; clean coal; heat supply restructuring and conservation; wind farm development; photovoltaic systems and technology; waste to energy; women in energy; and energy sector reform. Certain ESMAP project files also relate to the industry sector: industrial energy efficiency; industrial energy conservation (including Sri Lanka and Senegal); interfuel substitution and power generation; and energy efficiency in the fertilizer and cement industries (including Syria and Poland).

Record types include: ESMAP task descriptions; drafts and final Activity Initiation Briefs (AIB); AIB background and project proposals; initiating project memoranda; draft contracts; copies of regional unit back-to-office reports (BTORs) of project missions; BTORs of ESMAP assessment missions, project preparation, and follow-up missions; Terms of Reference (TORs); aide-memoires detailing conclusions of missions; final draft (yellow cover) Activity Completion Reports (ACRs) circulated for review and approval; approved draft (green cover) ACRs; project working papers; energy audit reports; consultant reports; agenda and minutes of internal meetings and with government officials and copies of review meetings prepared by regional units; budget sheets; final and draft ESMAP country assessment reports; assessment status reports; UNDP project documents; data tables, i.e. consumption calculations, conversion factors; handwritten notes and data; press clippings; and external reference material such as discussion and conference papers, government and corporate reports, guidelines, legislation, and equipment brochures. The reference materials were created and compiled by staff and consultants when conducting research work for ESMAP projects such as energy assessments, strategy studies, and surveys.

Correspondence consists of memoranda, letters, cables, facsimiles, or All-in-1 hard copy messages between the energy units and regional units or consultants, Bank resident missions, government officials, or UNDP representatives. Topics discussed in the correspondence include requests for ESMAP assistance, resource allocation, collaboration between energy sector units and regional units, sharing project information and updates, reporting on project issues or field investigations, data collection, financing and allocating resources for projects, dissemination of reports, recruitment and reporting of consultants, and other operational and administrative matters. In addition to textual records, there are also an undetermined number of technical drawings, geological and country maps, and computer disks.

ESMAP project records also relate to the organization and delivery of regional and country-based seminars, workshops, and conferences that were often included as a training component in the technical assistance projects as early as 1983. These workshops and similar events evolved into a knowledge dissemination function likely in the late 1990s or early 2000s. The events were organized by EGY and IEN division staff in coordination with regional staff, and often involved the recruitment of external consultants to develop materials or background papers or conduct the learning events. Specific conference or seminar topics include but are not limited to, energy efficiency, energy conservation, energy strategy for rural and low-income urban communities, reducing electric power system losses in Africa, and a global windmill testing program workshop.

Record types found in the seminar and workshop files are similar in content to other ESMAP operational files and include: draft and final AIB for the seminar or workshop; proceedings; speeches and addresses; conference agenda and program description with lists of participants; BTORs; TORs; aide-memoires; draft and final workshop reports; copies of consultant contracts; and evaluation summaries. Correspondence such as incoming and outgoing letters, cables, facsimiles, and hard copy emails between IEN staff, government officials, private sector, and consultants document administrative and financial arrangements, invitations, selection of speakers, participants and consultants, collaboration with Economic Development Institute (EDI), outreach, and event follow up. The correspondence also covers substantive matters such as roundtable discussions, policy, statistical data provided in support of a study or event, and sharing of country sector information.

Less commonly, ESMAP funds were also used for assistance in organizing energy sector donor meetings for specific countries such as Senegal (1985 - 1986); a very small volume of records relate to these meetings and preparations.

A small portion of correspondence and other records maintained in the Non-Regional Information Center (NRIC) indicate the UNDP project identifier number and are nearly all general files related to ESMAP (1981 - 1987) or assessments (1980 - 1986) and Biomass Gasifier Monitoring Program (1983 - 1987) that were financed, or partially financed, by UNDP under ESMAP. Other project files relating to testing and demonstration of solar pumping systems and renewable energy technologies do not always include mention of ESMAP and may be separate projects.

Project lending, cross support records, and Economic and Sector Work (ESW)

Records in the series also reflect EGY, IEN, and successor energy units' support to project identification, preparation, and supervision for investment, structural adjustment, and other development projects that were financed, cofinanced, or managed by the Bank's regional operations units (approximately 1980 - 2010) with reference material dating from the early 1960s. These include completed and dropped projects. Energy sector units aided project preparation by selecting and recruiting consultants and supporting consultant work and reports. They also reviewed operational documents and provided guidance, advice, or analytical tools to regional offices.

Projects involved, but are not limited to, petroleum exploration (both oil and natural gas), hydroelectric power, power distribution and efficiency, gas engineering, gas utilization, and energy sector rehabilitation. Specific projects supported by the COC mining and energy units that represent the more extensive files include: Mining Sector Capacity Building and Environmental Management Project - Burkina Faso P000283; Mine Closure and Social Mitigation Project - Romania P056337; Sustainable Management of Mineral Resources - Nigeria P086716; Mineral Resources Management Capacity Building Project - Mozambique P001808; Energy Conservation Project - China P003606; Coal Sector Rehabilitation Project - India P009979; and Environmental Management Capacity Building Pilot Project of the Hydrocarbon Sector - Bolivia P065902.

Record types include: memoranda sent and received by the energy units discussing project support, progress, or provision of comments on reports; minutes of meetings; notes for files; briefing papers; BTORs; aide-memoires; white cover reportcopies; supervision reports; project performance audit reports; aide-memories resulting from review missions by regional staff and or consultants; consultant proposals; CVs; draft reports, particularly from the gas industry; copies of loan agreements and related documents; and externally produced geological maps.

From time to time, ESMAP externally funded staff would provide cross support to the Bank's country departments on economic and sector work and technical assistance, as well as lending preparation and appraisal, at the financial expense of the country departments. Cross support records are also reflected in this series and include: ESMAP and consultant feasibility reports and studies; BTORs; curriculum vitaes of consultants; letters and facsimiles and other correspondence (between IEN, consultant, government officials) concerning progress on reports, project status and country energy situation, procurement matters; and internal memoranda or All-in-1 hard copy messages between IEN and regional units.

Series also contains records created and compiled by EGY and successor unit staff to produce the ESW analytical reports that helped direct development programs and project lending. Records span the period from approximately 1978 to 1996 and include: surveys; survey result reports; draft and final study reports, including World Bank Study of multiple country energy topics; working papers; TORs; Board documents; proposals; internal memoranda between IEN divisions and regional units; letters to and from external parties regarding collaboration on studies; statements and speeches of IEN director or Bank Group senior management; and background documents including external reports, national energy legislation, and supporting data such as pricing figures. Numerous files (for which approximate dates follow), relate to reviews of Bank lending for natural gas (approximately 1983 - 1992), petroleum, oil and gas contracts, privatization and other issues (1978 - 1991), Indonesia gas development planning (1988 - 1993), electricity (1989 - 1993), various environment matters (1988 - 1993), ESMAP, and files by country or region.

General country and topical files

General country and topical files in the series (1980s - 2005) are labeled as such and include a mix of reports, correspondence, and other records related to both ESMAP and Bank lending activities in oil, gas, and mining as well as country studies and reports in these sectors. A portion of the mining files titled "development activities" are organized by country. These records describe the status of mining projects, investments, and development activities, as well as discuss government policy in member countries and minerals and mining issues including conflict diamonds and coal. Other country and subject files (1992 - 2004), although fragmentary, contain mostly hard copy emails and related records maintained by Craig B. Andrews (Industry and Mining Division, IENIM) and Jeffrey Davidson (Policy Division, Industry and Mining (CMNPO), later the Policy Division, Oil, Gas and Mining (COCPO). These files relate to operational and project support of IFC/Bank projects in oil and gas and mining and mining activities in Nicaragua, Senegal, Burkina Faso, and Madagascar.

A set of IEN subject files (1987 - 1998) shared by the Power Development, Efficiency and Household Fuels Division (IENPD), Oil and Gas Division (IENOG) broadly cover project management and program support topics. The files were further classified into Country Area Programs (CAP) and Management or Program Support (MPS). There appears to be some overlap between the two. Many of the files relate to ESMAP projects including proposals, assessments, recruitment and reporting of consultants, and arrangement and delivery of ESMAP workshops. Other management or program support files relate to organization and delivery of Energy Week program, global themes such as energy efficiency and renewable energy, clean coal case studies, and country-level activities. Specific record types include many of those mentioned in the above sections.

Chronological files

The series contains chronological records sent and received by the Industry and Mining Division (IENIM), Industry and Energy Department that were forwarded to, and maintained in the IISC.

Many of the files maintained in the IISC are thin, some containing a single piece of correspondence. The IISC presumably implemented a file classification system that organized files by the creator unit code indicated on the physical folders. Files were subsequently titled by country, subject, or sector. Country files are secondarily labeled as subsector (coal, gas, oil, environment, steel, energy, etc.), by project title and loan or credit number, or general. The unit codes identify the correspondence as sent and received by the following: Industry and Mining (IEN IM); IENIM predecessor, Industry Development Division (IEN IN); and IEN DR (Office of the Director). The latter two are smaller in volume.

The majority of records relate to industrial manufacturing and mining activities and support to specific lending or technical assistance projects in various countries. The correspondence includes the division's comments and contributions to project documents (initiating memoranda, audit reports), draft papers and other products, as well as arrangements of missions or project consultancy services. General sector files that do not cover a particular country mostly pertain to industry, mining, minerals, coal, steel, and forestry and also contain IENIM's comments on project reports and other support activities.

A smaller portion of records, mostly individual files, relate to the division budget and work plan, training seminars, conferences, and a file titled "local committee". The training file contains information about Bank seminars organized by other units or external seminars. The agenda and related records of the Industry Sector Board's first retreat are included in the conferences file. The local committee file pertains to IENIM collaboration and sharing information with the International Committee for Economic Reform and Cooperation and its Raw Materials Working Group.

Correspondence consists of outgoing internal memoranda, letters, hard copies of All-in-1 messages, facsimiles, telexes, and attachments. Much of the correspondence is between division staff, regional technical units, and with Central Operations Department Office of the Director (CODDR). Other letters, facsimiles, or telexes are addressed to government officials or representatives of external agencies regarding collaborative activities and meeting arrangements.

The record types occasionally filed with the correspondence include summaries of meetings or seminars, agenda, Terms of Reference (TORs), Initiating Memorandum, aide-memoires, and external reports, some of which are authored by other international organizations.

Subject files

The files consist of correspondence, reports, legal memoranda, briefs, and printed items. The topics to which the records relate reflect issues of personal interest to Nurick or issues that he handled on behalf of his clients. Records relate to the World Bank as an institution, such as the Bank's Articles of Agreement, the Bretton Woods Agreement, sovereign immunity, the International Finance Corporation, immunities and powers of the Bank, and Bank membership issues involving China, the Palestine Liberation Organization, and Iran. Also included are records relating to bond issues and finance, taxation, co-financing, and securities and investment. Some records relate to litigation, such as a Federal Communications Commission case and a case involving university tuition payments. Files on specific World Bank lending projects include records related to the Volta River power projects in Ghana (including photographs), the Shashe projects in Botswana (Shashe Engineering Project and Shashe Construction and Supplementary Loan Project), the Falconbridge ferronickel project in the Dominican Republic, and the Boke UNDP Technical Assistance project in Guinea. Records also relate to personnel issues, such as staff rights and obligations, garnishment, and staff compensation.

Research Project Files Maintained in the Office of the Vice President, Development Policy (VPD) and the Office of the Vice President, Economics and Research (VPERS)

Most of the research projects for which there are files in this series were started in the 1970s to early and mid-1980s The remainder of the series consists of files for other research projects started in the later 1980s, as well as a smaller number of files for projects started after that time that were maintained by the Research Administrator. The series is arranged in four parts. The first three parts cover overlapping time periods from 1969 to 1995. The fourth part of the series is a research project file for the City Project or City Study (1975 - 1985).

The majority of the projects in this series fall into the categories of development policy and planning, international finance and trade, agriculture and rural development, industry, transportation, water, telecommunications, energy, urbanization and regional development, and population and human resources. Some of the projects were conducted in collaboration with bilateral aid agencies, outside research institutions, and government agencies.

The earlier projects were funded wholly or in part from the External Research budget (ERB) and the later projects by the Research Support Budget (RSB). The Development Economics Department (ECD), Development Research Center (DRC) and the Economic Analysis and Projection Department (EPD) were responsible organizations for most of the earlier projects with Sector and Regional organizations bearing responsibility for the remainder. Research project proposals for the later period were forwarded by the Development Research Department (later the Country Economics Department) or another department, a Sector, or Regional unit, or, in the case of jointly sponsored projects, by a department or Sector and a Regional unit.

A typical research file contains: the formal research proposal submitted on a standardized form and sometimes accompanied by a narrative description of the proposed research and methodology; a memorandum establishing the membership of the review panel; comments on the proposal from Regional or sector units; the report of the review panel; replies from the reviewers or from the review panel; minutes of the Research Committee meeting at which the project proposal was reviewed;a memorandum containing the Research Committee's decision for funding and the identification code (RPO number) assigned to the project; quarterly status reports submitted on forms or narrative progress reports; and an abstract of the project that was published in the World Bank Group Research Program that was first issued in August 1972.The abstract described specific objectives of the study and the research method, the organization of the project, the date when final output was expected, and the Bank staff involved in the project. Also part of the project file were Terms of Reference and Back-to-Office reports for missions connected with the project; correspondence between the project supervisors and the Research Administrator that may include requests for additional funding (which were sometimes accompanied by an additional project proposal) or for an extension of the completion date; budget tracking reports; a project completion report on a standard form; and project evaluation reports from internal and external reviewers that accompanied the final project evaluation, or a project evaluation report from an internal panel. Files for some of the earlier projects also include correspondence with evaluators of the project, comments from the evaluators, and the project manager's response to the evaluations. Occasionally, completion reports and evaluation reports for more than one project were combined and some files are without completion reports. Internal and external evaluation reports as well as REPAC evaluation panel reports are in some files. After 31 July, 1984, only projects receiving over $100,000 in RSB funds were required to be evaluated.

Some project files for the mid to late 1980s contain proposals in the form of memoranda or papers for funding from RSB small grants (usually under $20,000) for development of formal project proposals; preparation of papers for colloquia; organization of workshops, seminars or expert meetings to assist in the formulation of a formal research proposal; or for dissemination of papers or other output from previously conducted research projects. The proposals for funding from the small grants program were usually reviewed and approved by the Research Adviser (later Research Administrator). The other research files for this period for projects requiring larger amounts of funding from the RSB vary in content. All of these files contain a completed Request for Research Support Budget (RSB) funding which is often accompanied by a memorandum describing in some detail the proposed research and/or methodology. Sometimes revisions were made to the original proposal and additional request forms were completed. All of the files contain an identification or RPO number.

Among the more widely known of the early files in this series is a project file for what was in 1987 the longest running (18 years) research project in the Bank's history-Road Construction, Maintenance and Vehicle Operating Cost (also known as the Highway Design Study') (670-27). The International Comparison Project (670-68) was begun by the United Nations in 1968, was later funded as an external research project by the Bank, and was closed in December 1984. The Strategic Planning to Accommodate Rapid Growth in LDC Cities (The City Project or City Study) (671-47) project file covers the 10-year period from 1975 to 1985. In addition to the project completion report and evaluation, the file includes a November 1982 narrative report entitled The City Study: A Summary of Results and Policy Implications prepared by Gregory Ingram, Alvaro Pachon, and Jose Fernando Pineda. Another project file for the same project (RPO 671-47) contains manuscripts of some of the project papers and intermediate papers produced. According to the Project Completion Report filed by project manager Gregory Ingram, the intermediate papers were a means of compiling intermediate, mainly descriptive, results and usually resulted from the city study workshops. The project papers were usually more analytical and intended as finished results. These were intended for wide distribution and have mostly been published as World Bank Staff Working Papers or papers elsewhere in journals and books. Paper abstracts are in this series along with the manuscript of the monograph Understanding the Developing Metropolis: Lessons from the City Study of Bogota and Cali, Colombia by Rakesh Mohan, which was published in 1994 and summarized the main findings of the City Study.

Also found with the earlier files in this series is correspondence of Ernest Stern, Senior Adviser, Development Policy with the Ford Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation, the International Development Research Center (IDRC), the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID), and other government offices following the social science research on development conference in Bellagio, Italy, 13-15 February 1974 (RPO 670-92). The correspondence primarily concerns the continuation of international collaboration for development research and planning by holding meetings (referred to as Bellagio Plus meetings) during 1974 and 1975 in the areas of employment, income distribution, rural development, population, and education. Correspondence concerning planning and outcomes of these meetings is in the files along with correspondence of Benjamin King, Research Administrator, and Orville Grimes, Secretary to the Research Committee, with IDRC concerning Bank participation in the Social Science Research (SSR) information system and with Bank officials concerning the issue of Bank participation in DEVSIS, an international information system in the field of economics and social development sponsored by IDRC, ILO, OECD, UNDP, and UNESCO.

The earlier files also include documents brought together for the World Bank's Comparative Study of Poverty (673-73), an overall study and evaluation of poverty, equity and growth in 21 developing countries during the period 1950-1985. Included are unpublished papers concerning Ghana's agricultural commodity prices, political economy, and production costs for food crops; studies of poverty, equity, and growth issues; various development plans and reports, including World Bank reports; study outlines; notes and correspondence concerning project work; and newspaper articles pertaining to Ghana. With these documents is a heavily annotated typewritten timeline of economic and political events in Ghana from 1874 to 1983 that was used in the study, a sample questionnaire, computer printouts, and related correspondence. Research papers on the Political Economy of Poverty, Equity and Growth in Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, Malawi, Hong Kong, Thailand, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia developed for the study and several comparative research papers; printouts of computer data; and a draft introduction prepared for a multi-volume publication of the research papers developed for the study are part of the files.

For the later period the series includes project files for several multi-country Comparative Studies. The Timing and Sequencing of A Trade Liberalization Policy was the first of these studies that was initiated under a Research Policy Council program in 1985. An evaluation of the Comparative Studies was summarized in the FY 93 Report on the World Bank Research Program. A small number of project files for the later period were created for administrative purposes and assigned RPO numbers.

Files are included in the series for projects that extended beyond their authorized duration and never went beyond initial planning stages and projects that were cancelled because no contract was signed or funds expended to carry out the project. The titles of some projects were changed after approval of the research proposal and a few projects were shut down and never completed because of lack of department or division sponsorship or because no work was undertaken after the project proposal was approved.

Operations research and reference material

Series consists of records created and received by the Energy Department units, successors, and consultants in conducting research and analysis in support of operations projects, programs, initiatives, and sector topics. The results of research involving technical, economic, and environmental issues within the energy sector were often disseminated and published in the form of departmental working papers or ESMAP Papers.

Record types include: back-to-office reports (including copies of regional unit BTORs); Terms of Reference (TORs); ESMAP reports; proposals; staff appraisal reports; project completion reports (PCRs); consultant reports; statistical data tables and worksheets; background papers; handwritten notes; United Nations project documents; and external guidelines, reports, brochures, press clippings, and articles.

Research papers and studies

The largest volume of records in the series (1985 - 1992) are those concerning research related to the Electric Power Utility Efficiency Study (EPUES). EPUES was a research study funded by bilateral donors, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and the Bank that was organized in January 1989 to investigate the causes of poor power plant performance in developing countries, to measure related economic and financial costs, and prepare programs and guidelines to improve performance. As the executing agency on behalf of the Bank, records were created and received by Industry and Energy (IEN) unit staff including Energy Development Division (IENED) while managing the study and consultants. Records document the preparation of the study, development of guidelines, multilateral and research collaboration, and communication with donor agencies. There are also records concerning the EPUES Steering Committee such as draft and final minutes, and reports or summaries of UNDP and EPUES missions. The topicsexamined included power system efficiency, power transmission and distribution, power sector rehabilitation, power sector lending, and environmental and efficiency measures for diesel electric power plants. Several files relate to Somalia and general regions of Africa and Latin America.

Another set of records primarily maintained by Shigeru Kubota (Industry and Energy Division, EMTIE), relate to rural development, oil and gas, and energy situation in the Soviet Union and post-Soviet Russia (1991 - 1993).Several of the press clippings, articles, and reports are in Japanese language.

Two files relate to the research fellow program (1990 - 1991) that was launched by the Bank in 1989 to draw development research scholars into research activities. The file contains internal memoranda regarding nominations with curriculum vitae (CV)s, outline of proposed IEN study, and external reference material.

Reference material

Series also contains assorted reference materials maintained by the Natural Gas Development Unit, Industry and Energy Department (IENGU) and its successor, Oil and Gas Division (IENOG) concerning various oil and gas topics and information about Bank energy activities (1987 - 1993). There are several files of press clippings and articles from various international newspapers about the "new" natural gas unit (1989) and the petroleum industry. A portion of files also contain internal and external study papers, Policy Planning Review technical papers, memoranda regarding publication of papers andpeer review, and other items.

Another set of miscellaneous files (1990 - 1995) include worksheets, externally printed material of international oil companies, brochures, World Energy Council 15th Congress technical session bound reports, handwritten notes, and presentation slides of external presenters at the 1994 World Bank energy efficiency roundtable.

NRIC and EISIC correspondence and related records

A small portion of records originally maintained in the Non-Regional Information Center (NRIC) dated 1977 to 1984 are mostly comprised of internal memoranda between EGY assistant directors, division chiefs, advisers, and regional units. Topics include comments on EGY research proposals, internal EGY discussions on proposals, planning and preparation of studies, and research grants. Other records occasionally filed with the correspondence include study TORs and reports. Two of these files relate to a thermal generation study (1980).

Three files maintained in the Energy and Industry Information Center (EISIC) include mostly copies of memoranda between EGY director, division chiefs, and Central Projects Staff Vice Presidency discussing sector research priorities, the Bank's research program, quarterly progress report IDP policy and research functions, research activities on industry and trade, and Research Committee activities (1975 - 1986).

Operations research and policy

Series contains records created and maintained by the Industry Development Division (IENIN) and predecessor units responsible for producing and disseminating sectoral research in industry and trade. Research was conducted to support operational projects as well as regional, country, or specific sector programs and initiatives, to improve the level of sector knowledge in certain areas and support emerging priority areas of the Bank. Records also document collaboration between industry sector units and the Development Economics Vice Presidency (DECVP) units, particularly in preparing research project output papers. Most often, reports such as department working papers or policy papers, were published following the units' research. However, some records described below were not disseminated or incorporated into reports.

Record types within this series include: internal memoranda with industry sector units and regional and publication units; back-to-office reports (BTORs); study proposals; lists of participants; workshop reports; conference background papers or notes by external presenters from university and research institutions; draft and final papers authored by IENIN, other Bank staff, and consultants including working papers, discussion and research project papers (RPOs); questionnaires; Terms of Reference (TORs); invitations; letters between Bank staff and national academic or research institutions; handwritten notes on research and discussions at conferences; minutes of meetings with government officials or other external meetings shared with the Bank; press clippings; government and other external institution reports, publications, and brochures; and copies of national legislation. Within the industrial development research files, there is a substantial amount of data tables, computer printouts and handwritten computations, most of which relate to a 1976 Korean export study that analyzed relative importance of domestic and imported inputs for export production (traditional and modern industries), debt (equity ratio, capital intensity), estimates of imputed rate of return on real value of equity under alternative policy regimes, estimates of trend growth of exporting companies and their profitability during 1970 - 1975. There is also data related to Russian enterprises; both studies are further described below.

Industrial development research and studies

The largest quantity of records comprising the series relate to research and analysis of Republic of Korea industrial development (1970 - 1989). The records were maintained by Economist Yung W. Rhee beginning from his tenure in the Development Research Center, Special Topics Division (DRCST ) followed by Economics of Industry Division (DEDND), both under the Office of the Vice President, Development Policy (VPD). Rhee moved to the Industry Department, Strategy and Policy Division (INDSP) starting mid-1982, then IENIN as a senior economist. Numerous files represent Rhee's work on a survey of over 100 Korean exporting firms conducted with DRCST and INDSP colleague Economist Garry Pursell in 1976. Rhee had a special interest in export incentives and collaborated with the Incentives and Comparative Advantage (INCA) unit, notably his co-author, Pursell (see the related units of description note for more information about INCA unit research records). Rhee and Pursell's survey and research were part of a larger Bank research project under the overall direction of Bank Consultant and Special Advisor Bela Balassa, entitled "Export incentive policies in developing countries" (RPO 671-35). A portion of records reflect Rhee's research and analysis of data and drafting of this RPO paper. The Korea survey was also the basis for Rhee's co-authored research study "Korea's competitive edge: managing the entry into world markets" published in 1984. Some records are in Korean, including the qualitative questionnaires and data. Typed and handwritten draft questionnaires are also in English.

The series also contains research records such as final draft publications and other papers (1975 - 1986) related to the topic of the acquisition of technological capabilities in various industries of newly-industrializing countries that were mostly maintained by Carl J. Dahlman, INDSP. Some material represents analytical comparisons of the economies of Korea, Brazil, India, and Mexico that were likely utilized for the research project, Acquisition of Technological Capability directed by Dahlman and Larry Westphal (DRC) that began in 1982 and continued over three years. There is also reference material maintained by Dahlman related to science and technology in Singapore and Taiwan, and industrial technology development in Malaysia and Brazil (1984 - 1990).

A smaller volume of records relate to science and technology, defense conversion, and industrial restructuring in the recently formed Russian Federation (1991 - 1992) and potential Bank support. Records were mostly maintained by Industrial Economist Dr. Masayuki (Masa) Kondo, IENIN. Records reflect Kondo's research and attendance at conferences and workshops including the International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIAA). Additional files relate to Kondo's research of technology strategy for Mauritius (1992) and a China machine tool sector study (1991). Some of the correspondence and notes are in Russian and Japanese.

Industry adjustment lending research material and database

Series also contains records (1981 - 1992) related to IENIN departmental working papers (also referred to as "pink papers"), sector review, and the adjustment lending conditionality and implementation database (ALCID) that the unit developed to provide data on policy conditionality and implementation in adjustment and other policy-based Bank loans. The majority of records reflect research material and preparation of data primarily kept by Hemamala (Mala) Hettige in preparing departmental working papers and Industry Trade and Finance (ITF) sector review Fiscal Year 1989. Final working papers included Industry and Energy Department (IEN) Industry Series Paper 45 "The Impact of Adjustment Lending in African Countries" published in 1991. Other record types consist of: ALCID user guide prepared by IENIN and ALCID coding sheets;database reports of adjustment loan data, particularly on Sub Saharan Africa countries; memoranda with draft proposal, data tables and graphs representing calculations of Bank project loans and policy areas; lessons learned issue survey and guide (used to prepare the industry sector inputs into the report on adjustment lending and annual sector review); handwritten notes; preliminary draft report excerpts; reference material such as World Bank annual reports; lists of approved projects; FY89 ITF sector review final annexes; final copy of the sector review published November 1990.

SINTIA, SINTIA-T and related software and database material

There are also records related to the development of computer software by INDSP, later IENIN, including Software for Industrial Trade and Incentives Analysis (SINTIA and SINTIA-T) and related packages (1982 - 1988, 1990), for Bank member countries and users, as well as the units' use of an industry database. Specific records include: SINTA user guide, tariff and nominal protection manual on the use of SINTA-T; Introduction to Software for Industrial, Trade and Inventive Analysis (SINTIA) manual (1984); technical notes and software procedure notes, including for calculations and extracting data; SINTIA computer disks and source code; industry database hard copy reports prepared in 1987, including trade value of exports and imports of numerous developing countries, 1966 to 1986; handwritten notes on using the industry database and related country data that was compiled ;and material used as reference or that reflect use of the software, such as technical notes and manual prepared by the INDSP Incentives and Comparative Analysis (INCA) Unit, pre-appraisal mission report, a draft chapter regarding Pakistan trade policy review; and INDSP paper on growth and structural change in world industry data base. There are three individual files containing memoranda from IENIN to regional unit or copies of memos between regional units sharing data on tariff analysis (nominal rate of protection) and attached data tables for Rwanda, Madagascar, and Venezuela (1987 - 1990).

Policy and best practice

The series also contains a small volume of records related to IENIM participation in an energy and environment strategy paper (1996 - 1998). Includes memoranda regarding preparation of the paper and consultation with NGOs, draft note on coal strategy and Bank lending, press release, and draft of "Fuel for Thought: An environmental strategy for the energy sector".

Non-Regional Information Center (NRIC) correspondence and related records

Also included in the series are four files originally maintained in the NRIC (1981 - 1985) that are mostly comprised of internal memoranda to and from IND divisions and outgoing letters and cables between the division and external consultants or corporations. Topics include status of sector studies, review of studies and reports, proposals, evaluation of proposals, and Bank reviews on external research reports.

Subject files

Series contains subject files created and maintained during Qureshi's career in the World Bank Group (WBG). Although the files are most voluminous for the period during which Qureshi was the Bank's Senior Vice President for Operations, 1987 to 1991, the series also includes records accumulated while Qureshi served in his various capacities at the international Finance Corporation (IFC), through his tenure as Senior Vice President of Finance, 1981 to 1987. Subject files were created beginning in 1972 apartfrom a few reproductions of earlier publications and documents within the files.

Records include outgoing memoranda, letters, draft loan issuances, minutes, copies of Qureshi's speeches and articles, press releases and clippings, Qureshi's handwritten notes and comments, and occasionally externally-authored papers and reports. Several of the files contain Board papers presented to Executive Directors regarding a given topic.

Subject file topics include: debt; debt reduction; lending programs; Bank capital increases; co-financing; International Development Association (IDA) replenishments; overdue service payments; economic and social sectors; development of operations policy; Operations Evaluation Department (OED) project performance results; technical assistance; relations with China; relations with the Palestinian Liberation Front; currency pooling; special drawing rights; the Persian Gulf crisis; private sector development; women in development; and cooperation with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the United Nations (UN). Administrative topics include: budget issues, processes, and guidelines; Operations staffing, budget, and business planning; IT support; and managers' retreats.

Incentives and Comparative Advantage (INCA) support

Series consists of records related to the Incentives and Comparative Advantage (INCA) unit and its predecessor's support to operating departments carrying out INCA projects or studies. Most of the unit's resources were devoted to support activities including contributing to long term INCA studies sponsored by, and under the responsibility of, operating departments and short-term studies by Bank or International Finance Corporation (IFC) industry missions. Records are organized by country or study topic anddocument the unit's contribution to developing Terms of Reference (TOR) and methodology for the studies as well as reviewing a developing country's protection system as a condition of Bank lending. Records also reflect general support and advice provided to the Bank's regional units and notes on INCA work shared with IND senior management. Approximately 28 countries are represented within this series. Most files are thin in volume; some files have only one or a few documents.

Internal memoranda are between Economist Garry Pursell or INDSP consultants, IND assistant director, and regional units, particularly the Industrial Development Finance (IDF) divisions. The memoranda contains INDSP comments on TORs for an INCA country study, comments on project protection issues, notes for a regional unit on use of domestic resource cost ratios to help in allocating working capital loans, and more. Memoranda are also in the form of: back-to-office reports (BTORs) including for Structural Adjustment Loan (SAL) appraisal, reform missions or INCA studies; visit or meeting summaries; and TORs for missions, studies or personnel. Draft and final TORs are included. There are also letters to consultants and external academics who collaborated on Bank projects or commented on draft reports.

Other record types included are: draft technical notes (on countries, prices, etc.); notes on effective protection studies; copy of questionnaires, including the 1975 export survey of importing firms in Korea; and handwritten notes. Other topics covered in the records include incentives reform, tariff reform (Cote d'Ivoire), SAL, and trade and industrial policy in individual countries such as Bangladesh, Mauritius, Malaysia.

Incentives and Comparative Advantage (INCA) management

Series contains records related to the organization and management of the Incentives and Comparative Analysis (INCA) Unit, situated in the Industrial Development Finance Department (IDF) in 1981 and later the Industry Department, Strategy and Policy Division (INDSP) from 1982 to 1985. Records were primarily maintained by Economist Garry Pursell who led the unit beginning in 1981. The records consist of internal memoranda and reports documenting the establishment and history of the INCA Unit including the RPO-672-44 "Establishment of an Experimental Unit for Work on Industrial Incentives and Comparative Advantages" preparation of work programs, reporting on unit activities, dissemination of INCA products, and other activities including management of staff and consultants. Record types include: forms and profile sheets regarding consultants and requests; administrative lists of INDSP requests and information products; reports and papers including Pursell's "The INCA Unit at the World Bank", INCA situation and status reports, and INCA Project Completion Report (1985); summary note of activities; work program review report; draft and final work program plans; and data tables including a summary of research activities. Internal memoranda are mainly between Pursell and IND senior management including assistant directors and division chiefs and discusses work program, strategy, budgeting, research and studies, as well as recruitment and organization of consultants.

Photograph library

This series consists of photographs created by or for departments responsible for the external affairs function in the World Bank. The majority of the photographs included here were managed by Information and Public Affairs Department (IPA) staff responsible for the Photograph Library. Photographs were taken by Bank staff or were received from other sources, including contracted photographers, country representatives, among others. The Photo Library loaned or provided copies of photographs to external organizations, including publishing companies, newspapers, magazines, governments, and academic institutions. Photographs were also used in Bank publications and other promotional displays and projects in the World Bank Group headquarters and field offices.

This series contains an extensive collection of country photographs documenting project sites, and loan and credit signing events. The majority of these photos document International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and International Development Association (IDA) projects from 1946 to 2001, but projects financed by the International Finance Corporation (IFC) between 1962 and 1981 (predominant 1978-1980) are also represented. Country photos may also include images of cities, villages, dwellings, people, streets and markets, transportation, and water supply. Photographs documenting membership signings of the IDA and the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) are also included. The majority of these photographs are 8x10black and white prints mounted on cardboard, often with captions on the reverse. More recent images are 35mm color slides often contained in binders. Some of the IFC project images are black and white negatives.

Photographs of World Bank staff, including Bank Presidents, as well as Executive Directors are included in this series. Photographs are generally portraits but, in the case of senior staff and, especially, Bank presidents, images documenting activities, meetings, trips, and other important events are also included. Photographs are 8x10 black and white prints and are, in most cases, mounted on cardboard, occasionally with captions on the reverse.

Photographs of Bank-owned buildings, including those in Washington DC and, in lesser number, Paris, France, are included. Images are of building exteriors and also include building interiors and the office of President Robert McNamara. Photographs date from 1946 to 1982 and are black and white prints of various size, some of which are mounted on cardboard.

Photographs from the Bretton Woods Conference held at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire in July 1944 are also included. Photographs include images of various national delegations as well as notable attendees. A small number of group photos and photos of country representatives signing International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) Articles of Agreement are also included. Note that these photographs were originally taken by press sources and by the Office of War Information of the United States Government. Photographs are black and white prints of various size, some of which are mounted on cardboard with captions on the reverse.

Photographs documenting the Bank's Annual Meetings are also included in this series. These photographs show prominent guests, Bank staff, speakers, and events and are included for every year between 1946 and 1986 with the exception of 1976. Annual Meetings from 1994 to1996 and 1998 are also included. The majority of photographs are black and white prints of various size, some of which are mounted on cardboard with captions on the reverse. Some of the photographs from the 1990s are color prints or slides.

A small amount of textual records relating to the management of the photograph library and procurement of photographs are also included. These records, dating from 1959 to 1968, primarily relate to hiring photographers to travel to Bank member countries and photograph ongoing Bank-funded projects. Many of these contracts are with photographers represented by Black Star Publishing Co., Inc., in New York, New York. Much of the series contains correspondence with Black Star as well as with the photographers themselves discussing contracts, logistics, and related matters.

Textual records in this series also include correspondence between staff in the Bank's Information Department responsible for photograph lending and external correspondents representing publishing companies, academic institutions, international organizations, etc. Correspondence generally concerns requests and logistics related to the loan of photographs from the World Bank photo library. These records date from 1966 to 1968.

The series also contains single copies of the Bank publication "Loans at Work". Included are copies from 1950 through 1967 with the exception of 1951, 1956, and 1966. These publications, which provide country and regional lending information but primarily consist of photographs, were maintained by the Photo Library staff. Some of the publications contain annotations next to photographs indicating where in their library the photograph was stored.

Slides and black and white prints of images used in the 1984 to 1986 World Bank Group Annual Reports are also included in this series. A folder containing prints of diagrams and charts as well as a folder containing notes related to the creation and publication of the reports are are also included.

A small number of Photo Library brochures dating from 1983 and 1984 are also included in this series.

Finance files

The series consists of records related to the management of IBRD, IFC, and IDA funds that were maintained in the Central Files system. The records were predominantly created between 1946 and 1977, except for a single file dating to 1978. Records originated primarily in the Treasurer's Department and its divisions as well as the Office of the Controller that was initially established in the Administration Department in 1948. Records of the Office of the President and Office of the Vice President were also centralized until 1968 and there is some correspondence originating mainly from Presidents John McCloy, Eugene R. Black, and George D. Woods. The correspondence includes internal memoranda mostly between the Bank treasurer or controller and the president or vice president, as well as letters exchanged between these Bank offices and government and corporate bank officials. The records in this series cover the development and maintenance of accounts and accounting systems, reporting of financial information, management of investments, and advancement of overall financial policy of the World Bank Group. This series does not contain records of the World Bank units responsible for donor-based resource mobilization functions related to cofinancing and trust funds or program and budgeting.

The general subject files (1946 - 1974) comprising the series contain mostly internal memoranda to and from the treasurer and controller. Incoming and outgoing cables, draft and final Board of Executive Directors resolutions and reports, Financial Policy Committee reports, Advisory Council notes, data tables, Secretary's memorandum, and other records are also often found within the files. There are also files containing IBRD and IDA monthly financial statements (1946 - 1968) from the Treasurer's Department and a financial statement prepared by Price Waterhouse & Co. dated June 30, 1946 shortly after IBRD began operations. Bank press releases are also attached to some of the financial statements. Other financial statement files arein the form of memoranda regarding the translation, printing, and proofing of financial statements in other languages (1952 - 1969).

Also among the general subject files, capital stock records provide information about the Bank's earliest financial operations and policy decisions. These files contain mostly internal memoranda regarding various capital stock subscription issues such as calls for payment of subscriptions and delays in payment, enquiries about exchange rates, data regarding Bank and Fund member subscriptions and quotas, and procedures of payment with gold. Early records also relate to potential income of the Bank and establishment of the fiscal year. Memoranda is occasionally filed with: data tables such as a comparison of subscriptions or capital structure; excerpts of resolutions of Advisory Council or Board of Directors; draft circulars, some with handwritten annotations; final printed circulars and revised copies, such as the instruction to depositories on the establishment and maintenanceof accounts for IBRD; draft letter to government officials notifying of subscription payment written in June 1946 prior to the Bank's operations; draft and final first reports and second report (both dated May 1946) of the Committee on Capital appointed by the executive directors and chaired by Bank Treasurer Daniel Crena de Iongh; and the Committee on Interpretation 1946 report and note on interpretation of the Articles on Agreement.

Finance subject files also relate to general investment and pension fund investment management, also referred to as staff retirement plan (1948 - 1977), portfolio sales and participation (1972 - 1978), audits and appointment of auditors (1946 - 1974), and overdue service payments (1987). The investment files cover various matters including the development of policy and procedures, interpretation of the Articles of Agreement, and discussions and decisions about investment of Bank holdings in various countries, investment returns, the sale of gold, and audit of investments. Data tables occasionally filed with the memoranda detail schedules of investment securities, U.S. government bonds owned by IBRD, and other financial data.

A set of individual files for each IBRD account according to bank name (1946 - 1974) contains mostly correspondence relating to opening of accounts and policy regarding transactions. The earliest institutions represented in the files include the United States Federal Reserve Bank and American Security and Trust (from 1946), Bank for International Settlements (1947), Banque National Suisse (1948), Chase Manhattan Bank (1949).

IBRD general currency files (1946 - 1974) include correspondence and other material concerning local expenditure and local currency loans, devaluations of currencies on loans, convertibility, exchange rates and risks, repayment of non-dollar currency and supplying non-dollars under dollar loans, losses as a result of devaluation, maintenance of value, and Bank policy material on clauses in loan agreements and denomination. The series also contains currency files by country of origin (1951 - 1971), several which are thin in volume, and cover a variety of topics including currency proposals and problems, loan transactions, and revaluations. Correspondence is filed with financial data tables and forecast reports.

There is also correspondence and statements relating to time deposit investment accounts (1959 - 1972) held in various commercial banks. Files are arranged according to bank.

Records related to IFC finance include general accounts management arranged by bank (1956 - 1971), and time deposit files (1961 - 1971) also organized by bank name. Among the earliest account files (1956) are Federal Reserve Bank and American Security and Trust. Other files (1956 - 1971) relate to financial statements, investments, audits, forecast on income, interest on late payments, reserve against losses, stock options and equity holdings, consultants, and two files concerning borrowing (1969 - 1971).

IDA finance files contain correspondence and other records related to general accounts and opening of accounts by bank (1960 - 1977), several of which relate directly to transactions with the US Federal Reserve and depository statements (1960 - 1971). There are files related to financial statements (1961 - 1971) and related correspondence, time deposits (1960 - 1971), currencies (1960 - 1971), and audits (1961 - 1971). From 1972 to 1977 there are only files titled "Miscellaneous IDA" and a "general" file (1987) and these cover the various aforementioned subjects. There is also a small volume of records related to the fourth, fifth, and eighth IDA replenishments (1971 - 1977, 1987) originating mostly from the Controller and Legal Departments as well as the Office of the Vice President of Finance. Also included in the IDA files is a transcript of proceedings of the IDA meeting on criteria for country allocation of IDA resources, June 3, 1977.

Borrowing and bond issues

Series consists of records maintained in Central Files and semi-centralized filing stations that relate to the formation and management of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) borrowing operations in international capital markets, between 1946 and 1974. The records detail the development of bonds, or debt securities, as a method of financing Bank lending operations, the marketing of bonds, and issuance of the first IBRD bonds and others that followed. The first two bond issues totaling $250 million were sold on the New York Stock Exchange on July 15, 1947. The first issue of bonds in a currency other than United States dollars was a Swiss franc private placement with the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) in 1948, and the first public bond offering outside of the United States was a sterling issue on the London market in 1951. Records in the series also cover the selling of securities from the early 1950s through 1974 in the capital markets mainly concentrated in Canada (first issue in 1952), western Europe, Japan, Kuwait, and other countries.

The records originated in the units whose files were centralized over a period of time and whom worked closely together on borrowing, including Treasurer's Department, Legal Department, Marketing Department based in the Bank's New York office, and Office of the Controller. Records of the Office of the President were also centralized until 1968 and there is correspondence originating mainly from Presidents John McCloy, Eugene R. Black, and George D. Woods.

General and background records

Bond records contain general correspondence files (1946 - 1968) and background material (1946 - 1947) related to the establishment of borrowing operations. Other general files in the series relate to matters concerning bond holders, quotations, inquiries, purchase contracts, printing, prospectus, cancellations, cremations, taxes, and other subjects. There is a smaller volume of files concerning a price study by G. Holzman regarding the sale and repurchase of securities (1947).

Borrowing records

A large volume of files relate to approvals for borrowing are arranged according to banking or financial institution and specific bond issue. Records are predominantly created from 1946, apart from a few files with background documents dated 1937 to 1945; these include copies of the United States Department of the Treasury regulations governing the destruction of United States securities. There are original incoming and outgoing letters, including letters of approval from Bank president or vice president to country ministers or central bank executives, and letters to and from Bank secretary and general counsel with country officials outlining proposed changes to related legislation. Correspondence between the Bank chief, Securities Division of Treasurer's Department and the chief, Accounting Division of Controller's Department to the banking institutions document the underwriting and offering arrangements with information about the percentage, account, details of purchase transaction, and any settlement of amounts. Correspondence is often filed with copies of country legislation regulating the trade of securities and terms, as well as receipts, cables, copies of certificates, draft and final Board resolutions authorizing proposed borrowings, handwritten notes, data tables, and external records such as the United States Security and Exchange Commission and US Treasury press releases. Internal memoranda periodically details the Bank's operations in the lending country, condition of markets, and summaries of Bank senior officials' visits to the country.

Bond issues

The series also contains a large volume of bond issue files arranged by country and specific issue. Several bond issue files are further arranged into 'general', 'printing', 'prospectus', 'purchase contracts', 'registration' and 'redemption'. Most of the records originated in the Treasurer's Department and Legal Department and relate to bond arrangements and transactions with international banking institutions and trust companies.

The general bond issue files mostly contain internal memoranda and letters that detail the proposed bond issues and terms of conditions for purchase, arrangements with international banks to list bonds on the stock exchanges and publish advertisements, regulatory and tax status of bonds, meetings with country officials, and other matters. Correspondence is often filed with: Bank press releases; draft and final Board resolutions detailing bond issues and attached purchase agreements, temporary stock certificate, and form of definitive bond (or coupon); memorandum of sale; and meeting summaries and minutes including those of the Staff Loan Committee. There are also copies of correspondence between the Bank president and country finance minister related to the approval for proposed borrowing. Certain bond issue files provide information about the relationship between the Bank and country, particularly in the case of the early Switzerland files.

Printing files contain letters between the Bank's Legal Department or others, and corporations regarding the approval of specimen bond certificates and printing of bonds. Correspondence in the United States files is primarily with the American Bank Note Company. Other records in the files include specimen bond certificates and press clippings from international newspapers.

The prospectus correspondence concerns the distribution of the prospectus to dealers, comments on preliminary drafts and registration statement, primarily between Legal and Secretary's Departments and government officials.

Bond registration records contains correspondence to and from the Bank's general counsel to the secretary and others, with attached copies of the registration statement, Bank Articles of Agreement and By-Laws, loan agreement, and preliminary prospectus in accordance with legal requirements under United States Securities Act and other national legislation.

The redemption records relate to various matters including payment of redemption price, draftBoard resolutions authorizing redemption, letters from the Bank treasurer to fiscal agents authorizing payments on principal, interest, and redemption premium, other cables and letters with private banks regrading refunding operations of bonds, publication of redemption notices, and sinking fund payments.

Purchase contract files contains primarily letters concerning the purchase of bond issues outlining terms of contract and payment details, mostly between the Bank's chief of Finance Department, the director of Marketing Department, and commercial banks.


The series also contains a substantial quantity of records regarding marketing of bonds arranged by country (1947 - 1974) and include: internal memoranda and incoming and outgoing letters, many sent and received from the Marketing Department based in New York City and the director of Public Relations; copies of public releases and newspaper advertisements inviting tenders on bond issues, several of them notarized as certification of advertising. There is also internal memoranda from Bank secretary to president and outgoing letters from Presidents Black and McCloy to executive directors and alternate directors proposing expanding marketing of World Bank bonds. Memoranda from 1947 discusses a program of advertising for World Bank securities and the benefits of advertising.

Fiscal agents

Records comprising the series also include fiscal agent files (1946 - 1974) representing the following institutions from the earliest years of operation (1946 to 1949): Federal Reserve Bank of New York; Chase Manhattan Bank; Bank of Canada; Bank of Mexico; Bank of Paris; and agents in Germany and United Kingdom. Records relate to arrangements and draft agreements between the Bank and fiscal agents performing financial duties such as authentication, registration, and bond redemption.

Records comprising the series are primarily in English, however, some bond advertisement press clippings, prospectuses, and Board documents are in other languages indicated belowin the Language note.

Liaison with external organizations, individuals, and United States government

  • Series
  • 1946 - 1971 (predominant 1969 - 1971)

The series consists of records related to liaison activities of the World Bank Group that were maintained in the centralized files. The records detail the arrangement and proceedings of meetings hosted by the Bank and meetings the Bank attended that were organized by external organizations, as well as exchanges of information and collaborative programs. Records were predominantly created between 1969 and 1971 and originated in departments who records were centralized including (but not limited to): The Technical Assistance and Liaison Department (TAL) and successor, Development Services Department (DSD); Economics Department; and Projects Department and its sector divisions. A very small volume of correspondence is authored by the Bank president or vice president, field office representatives, country departments, and IFC departments.

Organizations covered in the files include, but are not limited to: International Monetary Fund (IMF); United Nations (UN); United Nations Development Programme (UNDP); United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC); United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD); United Nations Educational, Scientific, Cultural Organization (UNESCO), United Nations Administrative Committee on Coordination (UNACC), United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), and other UN bodies. UNDP files (1969 - 1971) mostly contain correspondence relating to UNDP representatives on assignment and detailing country activities. There are also numerous liaison files with economic commissions, private foundations, academic and scientific institutes, industry and professional associations, religious organizations, international organizations such as Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), World Health Organization (WHO), and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) containing correspondence to and from the Bank President McNamara, director of Development Services Department, and others. The correspondence is general in matter regarding meetings, visits, conferences, information sharing, ideas for development assistance and occasionally, Bank projects and operations. A portion of the alphabetical files (1972 - 1974) also include individual correspondents external to the Bank such as ministry and central bank officials and heads of corporations, business organizations, or academic institutions, mostly addressed to Bank president. Outgoing replies are from various country departments, Economics Department, Projects Department and sectors, development finance companies director, and others.

Internal memoranda are occasionally in the form of briefing notes, back-to-office reports, and terms of reference. Other records found in the external organization files include external reports and concept papers, and conference and meeting agenda.

The series also contains a smaller volume of records regarding the Bank's early relations with the United States government executive and legislative branches and federal agencies (1946 - 1971). Most of the records are in the form of internal memoranda and incoming and outgoing letters regarding support for foreign aid and operations. Many letters are between senior White House officials, congressmen, and the Bank president, vice president, or US executive director, and between independent US executive branch and federal government agency representatives and Bank senior staff. Bank staff correspondents include the Loan and Economic Departments, Technical Operations and Treasurer's Departments, Information and Public Affairs Department (IPA, initially under DSD), in collaboration mainly with the US Export-Import Bank (EXIM), US Agency for International Development (USAID), and US Department of Agriculture. Some correspondence is filed with proposals, meeting summaries, minutes, financial statements, data tables, Board, Economic and Staff Loan Committee documents, press clippings, copies of US legislation, agency speeches and press releases, and other records. There is also a preliminary draft paper by Carl B. Fritsche titled "The Role of the World Bank in Global Development" (1949).

Records cover routine information exchange and attendance at seminars and roundtables in addition to more substantive subjects such as: the role of the Bank in the European Recovery Project (also known as the Marshall Plan); the establishment and activities of the Bank interdepartmental committee drawn from Research Department and Loan Department to study the Marshall Plan; cooperation with the House Committee of Foreign Affairs and economic policy subcommittee; loan operations of the Bank and US Export-Import Bank and credit applications to countries, also discussion of disbursement rate, joint financing, private capital flows, and proposed US legislation; the Bank's involvement in the missions and hearings of the Committee on Banking and Currency chaired by Senator Homer E. Capehart. The Capehart Committee commissioned a study of IBRD and the Export-Import Bank operations and their relationship to expansion of international trade in 1954. There are several memoranda authored by DSD Senior Policy Planning Adviser Shirley E. Boskey reporting on the proceedings of the committee hearings and comments on draft Bank presentations to the committee.

Operational sector files

  • Series
  • 1944, 1946 - 1987 (predominant 1969 - 1986)

Series consists of records concerning the formulation of policies, guidelines and standards, and advisory support for lending as well as economic sector work of the International Bank for Reconstruction of Development (IBRD). These records were maintained in the centralized files from 1946 to 1987. The 1987 records in this series are very few. The remainder of 1987 files were likely handed over to the functional departments following the closure of the NRIC in July 1987. The offices and non-regional departments whose records were centralized over time and are represented most prominently in this series include (but are not limited to): Office of the President and Vice President (beginning 1946); Research, later Economic Department (1946 - 1952); Technical Operations and sector divisions (1952 - 1965) and its successors Projects Department (1965 -1972), Central Projects Staff (1972 - 1982), and Operations Policy Vice Presidency (1982 - 1986).

Records in the series predominantly cover the period 1946 to 1986, apart from a file on pulp and paper that contains a copy of an external report dated 1944. The 1987 records are limited to a single file concerning urban development. Records are mostly in the form of internal memoranda or incoming and outgoing letters that are sometimes filed with cables, project data reports, evaluation reports, commodities notes, study reports or concept papers written by staff or consultants, private sector proposals, external publications and reports from governments and agencies, press clippings, external articles, conference and meeting invitations, list of participants, and booklets. Draft and final case studies, back-to-office reports, terms of reference, and progress reports are often in the form of internal memoranda.

The series contains a substantial quantity of records concerning the Bank lending policy and guidelines as well as economic sector work in the form of projects and studies for operational sectors including (but not limited to): agriculture; education; industry; rural and urban development; housing; energy; ecology; environment; population and family planning; health and nutrition; trade; transportation; water supply and waste; public utilities; and public finance. Specific industries covered in the files are mining, forestry, construction, ports and shipping, tourism, and science and technology, among others.

Sector lending policy and guidelines files consists mostly of internal memoranda originating in the Economic Department (1946 - 1952) and its successors later under the vice president then senior vice president of operations including Central Projects, its sector departments, and Operations Policy Vice Presidency. Correspondents outside of the Bank include consulting firms, assorted United Nations agency officers, country and university officials, and private industry representatives. The records contain general policy formulation and discussion on the following subjects: project evaluation; studies to support consideration of Bank loans and terms of reference for the studies; comments on concept papers and on industry guidelines; Bank staff visits to the field and missions; project performance audit reports; unit activities and work program; participation in seminars, conferences or other events; and requests for technical information from international industry experts regarding pulp and paper management, seed processing machinery, animal breeding, and other specialized topics.

Also included in the series are several files, many originating from the Projects Advisory Staff and units, concerning procurement (1978 - 1986), consultants and consulting services (1980 - 1986), cofinancing (1983 -1986), and feasibility program files which concern project and sector studies of the Development Service Department (1960 - 1965). There is also a single file dated 1978 regarding the Consultative Group on Food Production and Investment in Development Countries (CGFPI), and three photographs depicting a World Bank display of publications and posters for an environment sector event in the 1970s.

Project and study files also include the Bank's research and policy analyses on numerous commodities as well as commodity prices stabilization, development aid, economic data and reporting, capital markets and capital mobilization, imports and exports, Bank financing, and other subjects. The commodities files include several on coffee which provide information about statistics on prices, production, distribution and export, project participation with the International Coffee Organization and ICO meetings in which the Bank participated as observers, and the International Coffee Agreement (1969 - 1971). Other commodities included among the files are oil, gold, metals, sugar, jute, livestock, and several others.


The contents in this series were possibly given to Rosen when he retired from the World Bank Group (Bank Group) in 1969. It contains photographs, as well as newspaper clippings, that cover Rosen's career and activities at the World Bank and International Finance Corporation (IFC): signing of IFC?s and IDA?s Articles of Agreement by various countries; signing of IADB (Inter-American Development Bank) and IFC investment agreement to assist the program of Compania Manufactura de Papeles y Cartones in Chile onNovember 26, 1962; Rosen?s visits to various corporations and factory sites in Japan and Korea; annual meetings in the 1960s; meeting of Bank Group?s Executive Directors with President McNamara on April 11, 1968; and many more.

Knowledge and learning

Series contains records related to the preparation and participation at workshops, training courses, conferences, and other events facilitated or attended by Debrework Zewdie primarily during her tenure as director of the Global HIV/AIDS Program Team (HNDGA). Records include: agenda; list of participants; working papers; correspondence and copies of agreements on funding inter-agency workshops with the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) or World Health Organization (WHO); and hard copies of emails from HDNGA operations adviser regarding organization and participation in events, some attended with Zewdie. A portion of the records pertain to administrative matters such as transfer of funds to external conference organizers, travel, and accommodation.

Workshops and courses include: Monitoring and Evaluation of National HIV/AIDS response (2006); Dissemination of the World Bank Procurement Guide Publication "Battling Aids" (2004); and HIV/AIDS Workshop for Faith-Based Organizations and National AIDS Councils (no date). Other events include, but are not limited to: Consultative Meeting on Improving Access of Faith-Based Organizations to Funding from National HIV/AIDS Programs (2003), and the Global HIV Monitoring and Evaluation Team (GAMET) retreat (2005).

The series also contains a briefing book compiled for the Chief Economist Advisory Council (2002), in which some of the contents mention HIV/AIDS activities.

HIV/AIDS program management files

Series consists of various records maintained by Debrework Zewdie while managing the Bank's HIV/AIDS program and developing its strategic direction. Records included in the series are: reports on Global HIV/AIDS activities and work program (1999- 2003); summaries of internal meetings regarding the Bank's HIV/AIDS portfolio and minutes of a briefing to Bank President Wolfensohn by Zewdie and colleagues on portfolio implementation (2002); action plan on accelerating implementation (2002); draft papers submitted to the Development Committee (2002); and regional AIDS sectoral strategies (2001 - 2002).

The series also contains a small volume of records related to evaluation of the United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and UNAIDS Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group (2002), World HIV/AIDS Campaign strategy (2002 - 2003) as well as comments on HIV/AIDS project design and other records regarding projects in Brazil (2002), Guinea (2003), and Sri Lanka (no date). There are also individual filesregarding HIV/AIDS treatment projects in Africa (2003), telemedicine (2002), lending numbers (2002), and partnership for social justice with faith groups (2002).

Chronological files

Series contains chronological files of Debrework Zewdie that cover her various activities related to managing the Bank's HIV/AIDS programs and partnerships. Three files date 1999 to 2001 and cover the period when Zewdie led the AIDS Campaign Team for Africa (ACTAfrica) in the Africa Regional Vice Presidency (AFRHV). The 1999 chronological file contains only a single letter. The records reflect Zewdie's collaboration with external organizations, attendance at externally organized events, and peer review of reports, and include: hard copies of emails to World Health Organization (WHO) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) colleagues, including comments on a UNAIDS/WHO working paper; invitation letters to external meetings and conferences; letters from development organizations; and letters from country officials addressed to Bank President James Wolfensohn regarding concessional funding and the World AIDS campaign. There are internal hard copy emails addressed to colleagues of the Africa Region AIDS Campaign Team and director of the Human Development, Health, Nutrition, and Population Team (HDNHE) on meetings of common interest or participation. Correspondence is filed with provisional agenda and reports, internal and external working papers and guidance documents sent for Zewdie's review, and UNAIDS press releases and meeting papers.

Chronological files dated 2002 to 2004 cover Zewdie's tenure as director, Global HIV/AIDS Program (HDNGA). Files contain mostly hard copy emails and facsimiles between Zewdie and her reporting unit, Human Development Network Vice Presidency (HDNVP), and Zewdie's responses to requests addressed to the Bank president or HDN vice president. Topics covered in the files include program audit, relations with The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, HIV/AIDS research, Bank-organized consultation workshops, partnership between the Global HIV/AIDS unit and AIDS Campaign Team for Africa Region, and administrative matters. Other record types found in thefiles are external newsletters, conference booklets, project proposals, a unit progress report (2002), and financial reports to UNAIDS on use of funds.

Staff and consultant reports

Series consists of reports created and accumulated by Commission staff and consultants. Reports broadly include working papers prepared by Commission senior staff, studies produced by consultants that were recruited to conduct research for the Commission, and external papers, addresses, and other reference material.

Although most of the records are from 1968 there are a few reports used for reference that date from 1961. The reports contained in this series investigate a wide range of development related issues as well as country-specific information that were discussed by the Commission members and incorporated into their final report delivered in 1969. Each senior staff employed by the Commission was responsible for investigating one of the specific topics under study, such as trade, aid importance, or debt relief. The work of the consultants meanwhile, concentrated on studies of conditions and prospects in individual developing countries. Consultants also studied the history and structure of opinion toward development aid in the major donor countries.

The files containing external reference material are labeled "Miscellaneous - Non-Staff" and contain copies of UN committee reports and concept or study papers (some published and others presumably unpublished) that were produced by other UN family organizations (such as Food and Agriculture Organization [FAO]), academic institutions, and national agencies such as USAID. There are also transcripts of addresses given by government officials and copies of memoranda and papers authored by individuals.

Specific topics of reports in this series include (but are not limited to): aid statistics; foreign aid policy; population control; foreign aid to Colombia; donor assumptions and expectations in Germany; aid philosophy and mechanisms in Japan; and Pakistan growth and development policies.

Knowledge and learning events

Series consists of records related to a variety of conferences, seminars, and other knowledge and learning events organized or attended by senior management and staff across the sector's units. Records include internal memoranda, incoming and outgoing letters, agendas, presentation slides, course or training materials, and copies of journal articles and papers.

Many records document HDNED Director Ruth Kagia's participation and presentations in various conferences and other external and internal events. There are files containing mostly presentation slide transparencies outlining Poverty Reduction and Strategy Paper (PSRP) training, as well as Kagia's presentation to the Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) Conference on User Fees in Education held 23 April 2001 discussing the World Bank's position on user fees. Also includes Kagia's paper presentation at the 2002 International Conference of the Centre of African Studies under the topic of new approaches to African development that are filed with letters from conference donors, a list of participants, invitations, and copies of papers presented by other speakers.

Records related to Human Development Week 2000 contain talking points and data under the heading of poverty and human development, including an overview of Human Development Network (HDN) goals, immediate indicators, and future indicators. There are also hard copy emails to and from Kagia and other Bank staff including Human Development Poverty Reduction Economist Michael Walton regarding planning and content, course materials, and communications and evaluations for Humane Development Learning Week (2003).

The series also contains records of Bank-hosted and organized learning events. These include the global Early Childhood Development (ECD) Conference hosted by the Bank in April 2000 to address the benefits and challenges of investing in early child development. The records include some administrative correspondence on preparation and planning of the conference. There is also a file related to the Bank seminar on the international development goals for multilateral development partners and member country development institutions, hosted in March 2001 and organized outside of HDNED, but which Kagia attended. Included are the list of participants, agenda, data slides, background papers, and reports.

A variety of other files relate to: briefing materials and key education documents for various conferences and seminars attended by sector staff as well as Bank President James D. Wolfensohn (1997 - 2003); minutes, report of the Knowledge Board and staff learning progress report (2004 - 2005); year-end reports, evaluations, activity initiation report status and course descriptions (1999 - 2000).

There is also a small volume of records pertaining to the Seminar on Public Expenditures that was developed by the Education Policy Division (EDTEP) and held in 1985.

Partnerships and program collaboration

Series contains records related to the partnerships between education sector units and external organizations and global program collaboration that cover the period from 1987 to 2000. The largest portion of records in the series relate to the World Conference on Education for All (WCEFA), an inter-agency initiative that began with a conference to universalize basic education and that launched the Education for All (EFA) program.

World Conference on Education for All (WCEFA)

The WCEFA records document the establishment, governance, and proceedings of the conference convened by World Bank, United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), United Nations and Development Program (UNDP), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). The impetus for the conference was the United Nations General Assembly declaration of 1990 as International Literacy Year. Invitations to the inaugural WCEFA were jointly sent from Bank President Conable and the heads of fellow sponsoring agencies. The conference was held March 2-5, 1990, in Jomtien, Thailand and brought together 155 governments, 33 intergovernmental bodies, and 125 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). The participants adopted the World Declaration on Education for All charter consisting of six goals to meet the learning needs of children, youth, and adults, and a Framework for Action: Meeting Basic Learning Needs that outlined general priority actions for countries.

WCEFA records were mostly maintained by Wadi Haddad, executive secretary of the WCEFA Inter-agency Commission originally based in New York City, and WCEFA Deputy Executive Secretary Nat J. Colletta. For more information about the custody of these records, see the above archival history section. Haddad and Colletta were both senior Bank staff prior to their appointment to the Inter-agency Commission secretariat. Haddad served as the Population and Human Resources, Education and Employment Division chief (PHREE) and Colletta was previously a senior educator in the Bank's India Country Department. WCEFA records were also maintained by Maris O'Rourke who represented the Bank on conference committees during her tenure as senior adviser, Human Development Department (HDD, 1995 - 1996) and director, Human Development Network, Education Team (HDNED, 1998 - 2000). Prior to O'Rourke, other Education Sector senior management or advisers represented the Bank on the various committees and working groups. Adriaan Verspoor, implementation adviser (PHREE, predecessor of HDD), served to represent the Bank on the WCEFA Executive Committee along with Vice President Visvanathan Rajagopalan, Sector Policy and Research (PRE).

The earliest WCEFA records in this series dated 1978 to 1987 are reference items including external reports and a journal article. Most of the early correspondence includes letters and facsimiles between UNICEF and other UN agency representatives and Executive Secretary Haddad. Haddad coordinated the consultations and comments on the draft charter and framework for action from sponsors, co-sponsors, and associates prior to the conference. The correspondence is often filed with background reports from UNICEF and UNESCO and other organizations and consultants, outlines of the basic working documents, some annotated outlines, first drafts of the charter and framework for action, and the final revised papers presented at the 1990 Jomtien conference. There is also correspondence and back-to-office reports of Deputy Secretary Colletta following his participation in partnership or task force meetings and a file that pre-dates his position with WCEFA. This includes an India education sector work file that contains country information, statistics on projects, and initiating memoranda for proposed studies and projects (1987 - 1989).

The earliest WCEFA records in this series dated 1978 to 1987 are reference items including external reports and a journal article. Most of the early correspondence includes letters and facsimiles between UNICEF and other UN agency representatives and Executive Secretary Haddad. Haddad coordinated the consultations and comments on the draft charter and framework for action from sponsors, co-sponsors, and associates prior to the conference. The correspondence is often filed with background reports from UNICEF and UNESCO and other organizations and consultants, outlines of the basic working documents, some annotated outlines, first drafts of the charter and framework for action, and the final revised papers presented at the 1990 Jomtien conference. There is also correspondence and back-to-office reports of Deputy Secretary Colletta following his participation in partnership or task force meetings and a file that pre-dates his position with WCEFA. This includes an India education sector work file that contains country information, statistics on projects, and initiating memoranda for proposed studies and projects (1987 - 1989).

The series also contains a substantial portion of meeting records related to the organization and governance of the WCEFA. These are: Steering Group Meeting (1988 - 1990, first meeting October 1989) including proposals for membership and chronological file, (1987 - 1990); regional consultations (1989 - 1990); Working Group on the Basic Education for All Conference (1988 - 1989); Executive Committee meetings (first meeting in Paris, March 1989 - 1990); heads of agencies meeting (1988 - 1990); sponsors meetings (1989); Regional Conference and International Task Force on Literacy and regional consultations minutesand reports (1989 - 1990). Most files contain agenda, minutes, and correspondence, however others may only contain list of participants and annexed reports or briefing notes.

There are also agreements between the WCEFA sponsors and host government of Thailand, preliminary conference objectives notes, conference programme and roundtable programmes in English and French, and numerous conference workshop files (1989). Workshop files on basic training for out-of-school youth contain the agenda, list of participants, terms of reference, externally authored background reports, case studies, journal articles, and pamphlets. Other workshops on the topics of adult literary and data analysis and presentation include terms of reference, summary record, and correspondence from Deputy Executive Secretary Colletta regarding workshop preparation.

Other WCEFA files are titled "Illustrative" and "Thematic" (1978 - 1990). Illustrative files contain conference pamphlets, abstracts, background papers, case studies, and othersession materials distributed to participants. Thematic files contain guidelines, publications, and special studies booklets for roundtables organized by the secretariat, lists of proposed thematic or global roundtables, draft outlines, notes for the record, and correspondence with roundtable coordinators and attached proposals from sponsoring agency representatives regarding contributions. Some thematic files contain abstracts and background reports as in the illustrative files. Abstracts, or synthes, arecommonly in both English and French. Several reports and publications presented or studied at the roundtable sessions were prepared by Bank education staff. The earliest report is the 1978 World Bank Staff Working Paper No. 298 by Stephen P. Heyneman, Education Department Research Program (EDCRS) and co-authors.

WCEFA subject files (1984 - 1992) relate to topics including: WCEFA partners and participants such as UN agencies, government aid agencies, NGOs, private foundations, and various countries; conference declaration and press coverage; and cultural factors and learning needs.

The 1990 Jomtien conference launched the international Education for All (EFA) program with the financial support of the Bank and the other conference conveners as well as various foundations and international and nongovernmental organizations. As of 2021, the Global Partnership for Education (GPE), formerly EFA, continues to fund projects, activities, and services in the public and private sectors for children, youth, and adults within and outside school. This series contains records concerning the Bank's participation in post-conference EFA initiatives and meetings. These records pertain to the International Consultative Forum on Education for All Steering Committee established to monitor goals and progress towards the Education for All program (1997 - 2000), the G8 Task Force on Education organized with the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) in (2001), Accelerating Action for Education for All, Amsterdam (2002), and Education for All Fast Track Initiative (EFA - FTI) donor meeting and technical meeting (2002 - 2003). FTI was established in 2002 before evolving into the GPE. There is also a general Education for All initiative partnerships file (1997 - 2000).

Other liaison and partnership files

Other partnership records comprising the series (1994 - 2001, 2007) mostly consist of correspondence to and from HDNED Director O'Rourke and other senior staff concerning the sector's collaboration and liaison activitieswith numerous international and national organizations, academic institutions, and private sector education and employment institutions.

A small portion of records were created by Director Ruth Kagia who succeeded O'Rourke as director in 2001. The partnership files document the sector's involvement in high-level meetings including the arrangement and proceedings of meetings, and discussion of shared activities and collaboration. Correspondence consists of all-in-one notes and email hard copies, memoranda, incoming and outgoing letters, and facsimiles. Back-to-office reports are in the form of memoranda. Other record types found among the correspondence include external annual reports, agenda and invitations to meetings or conferences, proposal papers, brochures, and copies of external articles.

Records regarding partnership activities with UNESCO and other United Nations agencies comprise most of the files. There is a single file concerning UNESCO partnership dated 2007 and two files related to the UN Special Rapporteur Katarina Tomasevski which contains correspondence with Director Kagia, Human Development Network Vice Presidency, and others. The topics covered are Bank financing and support to education programs, draft annual report for comment and final annual report to United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), and feedback on an HDNED Education Sector Strategy Paper.

Other partner institutions include, but are not limited to: European Union; Soros Foundation; Japan International Cooperation Agency; International Association for the Evaluation of Education Achievement (IEA); and World Links. There are also individual files concerning the Human Development Professional Mentoring Program (1997), Development Grant Facility (DGF, 1997 - 1999), and various conferences (1996 - 1997).

Staff and consultant reports and documents

The series consists mainly of reports authored by staff and consultants of the Education Research Division (EDTRS) and Education Policy Division (EDTPT). Reports were prepared for internal dissemination, presentation at conferences or seminars, or issued as publications. The records were primarily accumulated between 1974 and 1990, apart from a single 1967 Economics Department report. The series also contains a small number of reports by Bank staff outside of the sector or by external authors.

Record formats include, but are not limited to, internal working papers, discussion papers, research papers and research project outputs (RPO), sector review papers, background papers for Bank seminars, manuals, and copies of articles authored by sector staff and collaborators for external economics or education-related journals. Some papers are Bank-numbered series such as the Education and Training Series discussion papers (1985 - 1987). However, many reports are not numbered. Other document formats include lectures and case studies.

Most of the series consists of files with a single or bound report. The reports are mainly final drafts or published versions; very few rough drafts with annotations are found in the records.

A smaller amount of staff and consultant reports contain one or more different papers and typically consist of internal memoranda and letters regarding the revision of the reports or publication arrangements. Correspondence is between EDTRS Division Chief George Pscharopoulous and other EDTRS staff, consultants contracted to author reports, or from EDT director to the Bank's Publication unit. The files containing reports and related correspondence range from 1981 to 1987.

Reports and documents focus on regions, countries, or specific sector topics. Topics include, but are not limited to: procurement in Bank education projects; effective schools; higher education; informal education; teachers issues and salary; educational planning and change; development of school media services; users charges and expenditures for public education; income benefits of schooling; manpower planning; and review of educational research capabilities in less-developed countries.

Authors that are most prominently represented in the series include George Psacharopoulous, Stephen P. Heyneman, Manuel Zymelman, Dean T. Jamison, Peter R. Moock, Marlaine Lockheed, Jee-Peng Tan, Alain Mingat, and John Simmons (Policy Planning Division).

Many reports in the series are co-authored, such as the "Education and development: Viewsfrom the World Bank" 1983 report by EDT Director Aklilu Habte, Psacharopoulous, and Heyneman. Also included is a first version of a "Handbook for implementation of education projects" (1975) prepared by Education Department, Central Projects Staff.

Operations research

Series contains records maintained by the Education Department (EDP, 1968 - 1972, later EDC, 1977 - 1984) and successor units responsible for producing and disseminating research. Research is conducted by the sectors to support operations projects as well as regional, country, or specific sector programs and initiatives, and to improve the level of sector knowledge in particular areas. Records were primarily created between 1968 and 1991 apart from a set of questionnaires dated 2005 and copy of an externalreport dated 1965 used for reference.

Many of the records were created by George Psacharopoulos during his tenure as education research adviser, Education Department (EDC, 1981 - 1983), manager, Education Research Program (EDCRS, 1983 - 1985) followed by Research Division chief (EDTRS, 1985 - 1987). Other records were created by Senior Adviser Wadi D. Haddad, Senior Sociologist Stephen P. Heyneman, Economist Elizabeth (Beth) M. King, Michael Wilson, and others.

Record formats include, but are not limited to: correspondence regarding collaboration, sharing of information, comments on draft papers, or research conducted for the unit by university professors and other third parties; research proposals; initiating briefs; preliminary outlines; Terms of Reference; back-to-office reports for missions relating to research projects; statistical and other data; operational project audit and completion reports; published and unpublished external reports from governments, external organizations and scholars; working and discussion paper drafts and final versions; surveys; handwritten research notes; copies of journal articles and press clippings; and computer floppy disks containing final papers and research results.

A portion of the material specifically relates to country studies regarding living standards in Peru, higher education in Africa, diversified secondary curriculum (DiSCus) in Colombia and Tanzania, and university education in Pakistan. Other topics include, but are not limited to: economic impact of education; women in education; structural adjustment and education; education and public expenditures; vocational training; education strategy and employment policies; assessments of testing capacities; effects of school conditions and atmosphere on students' performances; informal sector education and employment; education and earnings; and education and environment.

Several of these subject files relate to the preparation of Research Project Outputs (RPOs). The RPO numeric code was assigned to projects throughout the Bank by the Development Economics Department. One such set of files relates to RPO 672-45 Diversified Secondary Curriculum Study (1968 - 1985, not inclusive) prepared by George Psacharopoulos and previously by Wadi Haddad. Records consist of back-to-office reports following missions, internal and external correspondence including with the Research Committee, working papers, questionnaires, research notes and data, and various other record types.

There are also records (1984 - 1986) pertaining to the EDTRS publication "Financing education in developing countries: an exploration of policy options" issued in 1986. Records include working drafts and review draft versions, memoranda from EDT Director Aklilu Habte to Operations Policy Staff Vice President S. Shahid Husain including the initiating brief, correspondence concerning press reaction, and other items.

A small portion of records in the series reflect collaboration between the Research Division and the Education Policy Division (EDTEP) led by Division Chief Dean T. Jamison regarding policy on education in Africa (1983 - 1987). Records include memoranda from Jamison and Psacharopoulos to OPSVP sharing a summary of the Bank-organized Research Priorities in Education in Sub-Saharan Africa Conference proceedings held in Bellagio in 1985, final conference report, agenda and list of participants, papers presented at the conference, and a pre-conference report on workshop research priorities (1984).

The sector policy study "Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: policies for adjustment, revitalization, and expansion" soon followed, issued in 1988. There are three volumes of files (1984 - 1987) pertaining to the preparation of the study. Included are memoranda between Haddad, Jamison, task leader and Senior Economist Peter R. Moock (EDTEP), Operations Adviser Ralph W. Harbison, and other staff discussing the development of the paper, comments on preliminary versions, and budget. Included with the memoranda are the initiating brief with follow-up comments, meeting address of Habte, and background data and papers.

Records originally maintained in the NRIC (1981 - 1982) contain internal memoranda between Haddad and Habte, letters exchanged with external agencies, primarily the International Development Research Center regarding the sector's participation in the Research Review and Advisory Group and other collaborative activities. Back-to-office reports, draft outlines and reports, and other items are also filed with the correspondence. Finally, a small portion of questionnaires maintained by Director Ruth Kagia related to the Ngecha Education Study (2005) also belong to the series.

Most of the records are in English, with correspondence and reports occasionally in French and Spanish, and research data and questionnaires in Swahili.

Knowledge management products

Series contains a variety of records mostly maintained by the HDNED Knowledge Management unit responsible for producing or disseminating education sector information products and responding to client requests. Records in the series take the form of reports; project lesson reports; newsletters; presentation slides; correspondence; and supporting documentation.

A significant volume of records is comprised of Bank reports (primarily Quality Enhancement Review [QER] reports), newsletters, and publications related to country education projects (1999 - 2004). Numerous countries are represented from all regions, particularly European and Central Asia as well as the Middle East and South Asia.

The series also contains records related to presentations and visits of Director Maris O'Rourke including her 1998 visit to the United Nations, presentations to the Human Development Council HDN, and other external presentations on the Bank and education. Several presentation files contain transparency slides, and a small number of these include the hard copy slides with presentation notes. Some slides appear to be prepared as templates for presenters to customize for audiences while others were prepared and used for specific presentations.

Other subject files cover: economics of human resources and economic analysis of education projects (1994 - 1999); the role of the World Bank in education as well as in education research and evaluation (1996 - 1998); structural adjustment and education (1997); knowledge management (1997); education strategy (1999); sector board's work program and budget (1999); and a small volume of conference and workshop papers such as for Quality of Economic and Sector Work (ESW) Workshop (2002).

Records regarding the World Education Forum, Dakar (2000) contain: email hard copies between O'Rourke and Steven Commins (External Relations); attached reports and Education for All (EFA) planning meeting summaries centered around communications and public relations; draft outline for President Wolfensohn speeches; back-to-office reports of O'Rourke and successor Director Ruth Kagia; and draft conference reports.

Operational support

Series consists of records documenting HDNED and previous units support to the Bank's lending and project activities within the education, training, and employment sector. Records are organized into subject files and contain details on Bank loans and credits and interaction with units in the various regions.

The earliest records in the series were maintained by the Project Related Training Program (EDCPT) staff of the Education Department created in July 1983. The unit provided operational support to theregional transportation, public utilities, and agriculture divisions on matters related to project-related training (PRT) which primarily involved developing advanced courses and instructing sector staff on project design and implementation. In February 1985, EDCPT became the Project Related Training Division (EDTPT) under the renamed Education and Training Department and was terminated in July 1986. Records cover the period from 1982 to 1986 and include: preliminary draft guidelines; copies of internal memoranda, many to EDT director; policy notes; discussion papers; and a copy of the 1978 Operation Evaluation Department (OED) Review of Bank Operations in the Education Sector report. Specific topics covered, but not limited to, include: guidelines for project related training components in transportation projects; an approach to manpower development for the transport sector; guidelines for designing training components in agricultural and rural development projects; and United Nations Educational, Cultural, and Scientific Organization (UNESCO) Cooperative Program review. EDPT records were primarily created by Senior Training Adviser Augustin Alberti, Division Chief Lennart Swahn, and Senior Training Adviser H.W. Barker.

The series also contains records related to the Quality Enhancement Review (QER) panel's work on various education projects managed by operational task teams, and a review of the World Bank Institute Education Training program. The QER panel was first instituted for HDN projects in Fiscal Year 1999. QER broadly followed the Quality Assurance Group (QAG) methodology to improve the quality of projects but functioned as an independent group of senior colleagues who conducted the project preparation review with the task teams.

QER records were created between 2000 and 2007 apart from a file containing a 1997 report. Senior Education Specialists Juan Manual Moreno, Yidan Wang, and other HDNED served as QER panel members with typically two or three other colleagues from the region's education units. QER panels were not always represented by HDNED staff but in the case of these records, the panel reviews were jointly sponsored by the Education Sector Board and QAG. Records contain panel Terms of Reference, agenda or interview schedule, draft project concept notes, project appraisal documents (PADs), aide-memoires, issues papers, minutes of review meetings, back-to-office reports, project data tables, country profiles, external strategy papers and reports, previous QER reports, and other reference material collected by the panel to support its review. Most files do not contain a final panel review report. Among the several projects represented in the files are West Bank and Gaza Higher Education (P083767) and Montenegro Education Project (P084597).

There are also files regarding sector plans, sector strategy, and country and lending information. Sector plan files relate to the Fast Track Initiative (2002 - 2005) and include Education for All and Fast Track Initiative (EFA-FTI) proposals and plans produced by member countries across multiple regions. Education sector strategy records (1999) contain an implementation plan, chapters, annexes with data tables and figures and maps outlining education lending, and two hard copy emails between HDNED Adviser Jeffrey Waite and Anja Robakowski-Van Strolen. Finally, there is a file containing country information divided by region with country action plans and supporting data on the status of education and Bank assistance in each country.

Policy and best practice development

Series consists of records related to the development of policy and best practice for projects and sector work in education and employment that were created and maintained by the Education Department (EDT, 1972 - 1977 later EDC 1977 - 1984) and its successor units. The series represents the policy working papers, guidelines, standards, and other instruments prepared by the sector as well as the collection and analysis of guidelines, manuals, and other tools developed by other Bank departments and external organizations such as the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The series also reflects the activities of external advisory panels formed to make recommendations regarding the Bank's education policy. Records were predominantly created between 1972 to 2003, apart from a small number of externally authored reports from the 1960s.

The largest volume of records relate to educational guidelines mostly maintained by the Education Department (EDC) Implementation Advisor David H. Lewis who reported to the EDC director. Files contain guidelines, reports, and internal memoranda between Lewis and Director Duncan S. Ballantine and his successor Aklilu Habte, Senior Advisor Mats Hultin, or regional Education Projects Division architects. Certain records were also created by EDC Educator Clifford W. Gilpin. Guidelines records are organized by subject and cover the topics of operational guidelines, school construction, architectural standards by country, basic learning equipment in education projects, and analytical data. Guidelines were developed for sector staff, consultants, and region staff to maintain and improve the quality of Bank lending and related operations.

Operational guidelines

Records categorized as operational guidelines mostly relate to the discussion and dissemination of guidelines regarding Bank education projects. Guidelines pertain to organizing project appraisal, implementation, procurement practices, preparation of project reports, architectural space and unitappraisal costs, technical assistance, maintenance of education facilities, implementation of construction components and basic equipment in education projects, sector report guidelines, and more. The guidelines are typically in the form of report or sector memoranda prepared by the Education Department but also include jointly prepared user guides, Operations Evaluation Department (OED) guidelines, and "Introduction to the World Bank's Manpower and Education Model" manual prepared by Technical Department,Europe, Middle East, and North Africa Region (1987). Internal memoranda within the files are mainly addressed to EDC Director Habte and contains Lewis' reports on seminars and conferences attended, discussion of changes and approach to the project cycle, and Bank activities in financing educational facilities. Other record types found within the operational guidelines files are charts illustrating project development, job descriptions, and conference papers.

Analytical data

Analytical data records are mostly in the form of internal memoranda, such as from EDC director to EDC staff or to all Regional Education Division staff regarding global data on education enrollment, education and training lending, comparative education indicators, and more. Data tables outlining figures or standard measurements of these data sets are sometimes filed with memoranda.

Architectural standards and school construction guidelines

Records related to architectural standards and school construction contain research reports and guidelines specifying the dimensions and materials for construction of schools as well as for school furniture and equipment. Reports are mostly UNESCO Regional Office design protocol reports shared by Lewis with the other regional architects for projects. However, there are also United States Agency for Aid Development (USAID) and international institutes external reports and guidelines used as reference.

Architectural standards records are organized by country or region. Several files relate to primary school building programs, urban primary schools, low-cost school and housing design, and community development and education centers. Internal memoranda from Lewis to regional staff to share information and details on prototype designs and features, costs, partners, village involvement, progress reported, and occasionally, brief mention of IDA education projects. There are also outgoing letters to UNESCO regional office education officials. Other records within the files include: costing or budget sheets; external reports or manuals, many of which were prepared by the UNESCO Regional Office for Education in Asia and UNESCO Regional Office for Education in Africa, and in Latin America and Caribbean; external reports of country ministries or research institutes; and an architects' brief. The external reports are mostly in English, French, and Farsi.

UNESCO project preparation guidelines

Also included in the series are records related to UNESCO guidelines for project preparation including a 1965 UNESCO low-cost school building report and recommendations, and a 1969 UNESCO report. There is also a substantive briefing note on UNESCO and World Bank relations in the education sector that was prepared by the Education and Employment Division, Population and Human Resources Department (PHREE) in 1988.

Other guidelines subject files

There are numerous other educational guidelines subject files maintained between 1973 and 1983 regarding data collection, project management, educational use of mass media, labor requirements model, education and manpower model, review of education lending (FY1979 - 1983), summary list of projects, and other topics.

The more recent policy development subject files (1990 to 2001) relate to: Education for All Fast Track initiative (EFA-FTI); girls' education; Development Assistance Committee (DAC) goals; Africa Region education action plan and sector overview; and Task Force on Bridging the Digital Divide through Education.

External Advisory Panels

The series also contains records related to the establishment and dissemination of reports from advisory groups between 1978 and 2003. The External Advisory Group on Training for the Education Sector was appointed by Bank President McNamara in late 1977 to review the status of education in the developing world including the Bank's education and training lending and projects and to recommend areas for future action. The panel was chaired by David E. Bell of the Ford Foundation. Records related to the final report of this panel were maintained in the Non-Regional Information Center (NRIC) and consist of a single file (1978 - 1980). The NRIC file contains mostly internal memoranda to and from Director Habte regarding comments on the panel report issued in 1978 and input from the Regions including from R.K. Johnson, chief Education Division, East Asia and Pacific Region (AEPED). There are also letters between Chair David E. Bell and President McNamara regarding completion of the final report and from Habte to panel members announcing the 1979 Education Sector Strategy paper and follow up on the panel recommendations. Also included is a letter from Vice President Willi A. Wapenhans, East Africa Regional Office to the Tanzanian minister of education regarding a requested visit of the recently formed advisory panel to Tanzania.

Records also reflect the establishment and activities of subsequent advisory panels formed annually to advise the Bank on the future direction in education covering the period 1994 to 2003. The 1994 to 1995 correspondence andbackground notes relates to the formation of the first annual panel formed in 1996. Records were primarily maintained by the Human Development Department Education Team (HDDED) Manager, later Director Maris O'Rourke. Correspondence is in the form of all-in-1 notes and email hard copies and facsimiles between O'Rourke, HDD Director David de Ferranti, HDD senior staff, and letters to and from panel members including invitations to annual panel meetings. There are also copies of correspondence between the 1997 External Advisory Panel on Education Chairman Jozef (Jo) M.M. Ritzen and de Ferranti and Bank President James Wolfensohn, including a facsimile on advice to the World Bank addressed to Wolfensohn and follow up thank you letters from Wolfensohn to Ritzen and other panel members.

A variety of records are filed with the advisory panel correspondence including: Terms of Reference for the panels; panel meeting agenda; meeting draft conclusions; preliminary and final panel reports; Ritzen?s speech on reforming education to the World Bank Forum; transcript of the newly formed Human Development Network (HDN) kick-off meeting between de Ferranti and Wolfensohn; agenda and summaries of meetings including sector board meetings and correspondence related to the board's functions regarding the panels; hard copy presentation slides; addresses by Wolfensohn and senior management; issues papers; education sector booklet and other promotional material; external articles and newsletters; two copies of the 1978 panel report, one bound copy, kept by O'Rourke; and agenda with outgoing letters of invitation sent by O'Rourke for the high-level UNESCO meeting on the future of educational statistics and indicators hosted by the Bank. Following O'Rourke?s departure as director in 2000, Acting Director Marlaine Lockheed and HDNED Operations Officer Sobhana Sosale were involved in panel selection and meeting preparations, later under the direction of Ruth Kagia who began her tenure as director in early 2001. There is a small volume of mostly administrative correspondence from this period to 2003, including internal email hard copies and letters to panel members.

Education Sector Strategy Paper

There are also records in the series (1997 - 1999) regarding the preparation of the Education Sector Strategy issued in 1999 to shape policy and practice in member countries. Records were primarily maintained by Director O'Rourke, Adviser Jeffrey Waite, and Projects Assistant Anja Robakowski-Van Stralen. Record types include handwritten notes, concept papers, preliminary outlines and drafts beginning from late 1997, several with annotations, and the draft final report submitted to the Board of Executive Directors' meeting (1999). Correspondence is in the form of hard copy emails and occasionally internal memoranda primarily to and from O'Rourke and Waite containing comments from the sector board, external individuals, executive directors, and other Bank department staff including from the regions and the Operations Evaluation Department (OED). There is also an OED evaluative report and Committee on Development Effectiveness (CODE) informal subcommittee review meeting summaries, as well as correspondence and outlines of plans for strategy development, such as the timeline for implementation of the sector strategy work in the regions. Also included are O'Rourke's memoranda to the Operations Policy Committee presenting the paper and data collected, summaries of meetings with HDNED staff and regional staff to discuss the strategy paper, and summaries of other meetings such as with Wolfensohn regarding the status of education in the regions.

Annual reviews

A small portion of records in the series contains correspondence related to the internal review of Bank policy in the education and employment sectors (1983 - 1986), including copies of the operations annual review, Sector and Operations Vice Presidency (OSP) annual sector review, and Operations Evaluation Department (OED) annual reviews. Among the correspondence are draft reports and papers used for background and reference material.

NRIC policy reports and documents

Finally, there are four general policy files originally maintained in the NRIC that contain various reports and other records produced by Education Department (EDC) senior staff, consultants, and others (1978 - 1980). Included in the files are: OED Review of Bank Operations in the Education Sector (1978); Education Sector Policy Report No. 2680 (1979); Policy Review Committee Staff level review meeting on the Education Department, Central Projects Staff Education Sector Policy Paper (1979) and policy paper discussion drafts (1978 - 1979); Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Bank Cooperative Program "Training Equipment Lists in Food and Agriculture" publication with a forward by Habte (1978); and the publication entitled "Occupational structures of industries" by Manuel Zymelman (1980) containing country tables and industry tables.

Grant and trust fund management

Series contains records of the Human Development Network Education Team (HDNED) and previous units related to the management of funds to support global and regional development initiatives. Records document financial support for various education programs under the Bank's Special Grants Program (SPG) as well as the Development Grant Facility (DGF) approved in fiscal year 1998 which later absorbed the SPG. Most records in this series relate to DGF-supported programs. The programs represented in the records were implemented by the Bank's development partners including United Nations agencies, international organizations, bilateral agencies, foundations, and the private sector. DGF programs consisted of: country-level activities; capacity building; knowledge initiatives such as organization of conferences and training; and collective action across countries on education sector priorities.

Partnerships and programs represented in the files include, but are not limited to: World Education Forum for the Education for All (EFA) program; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Institute for Statistics (UIS) program of education statistics to monitor country-level progress towards EFA goals; Global Development Network (GDN) to support education research; Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA) and knowledge initiatives; Forum of African Women Educationalists (FAWE); and International Programme for the Improvement of Educational Outcomes (IPIEO).

Records were createdand maintained between 1995 and 2005 by various HDNED staff primarily including Shobhana Sosale, senior education specialist and program manager for trust funds, Task Manager and Economist Elizabeth (Beth) King, Adviser Marlaine Lockheed, and Sukai Prom-Jackson. The records reflect the activities of program managers throughout the grant and trust fund cycle, including preparation and review of grant proposals for the sector board, handling communication with partner grant recipients, preparation of the Letter of Approval (LOA) issued by the HDN vice president, arranging disbursement of funds, and the audit and evaluation of programs. Other records reflect participation in Bank and externally organized conferences and workshops on trust funds, and the trust fund learning and certification program.

Files contain detailed information on grant and trust fund-related programs, activities, achievements, and partnerships and contain the following formats: internal memoranda; all-in-1 notes and email hard copies; incoming and outgoing letters; handwritten notes; draft and final proposals; partnership approval and tracking system (PATS) output reports; guidelines; recipients' annual, financial and technical reports; recipient and internal progress reports; expenditure statements; budget reports; funding data tables; agenda and minutes of meetings; background papers, some prepared by the sector; fiscal year education DGF strategy and programs draft paper; letters of representations; lists of program trust funds; and printed material produced by partner organizations.

Internal correspondence is mostly between the responsible HDNED program manager or director, sector staff, and sector board, and HDN vice president. The correspondence covers various matters such as: reviews of proposals including recruitment of external peer reviewers for proposals; survey data for DGF applications; feedback and comments on proposals, including from the Education Sector Board; reporting on priorities for use of trust funds; the Bank's trust funds management reform; and announcements of trust fund agreements from the Trust Funds and Cofinancing Department (CTF). Other correspondence and associated records, such as the draft DGF sector strategy proposal, detail how funding was shaped by the Education Sector Strategy Paper issued in 1999.

Hard copy emails between program manager Sosale and the DGF unit and with HDNED directors concern the disbursement of educational grant program funds and contain general details on proposed individual programs and fiscal year priorities for funding. Attached to these emails are score cards of proposals from DGF manager, submission summary report, and strategy reports.

External correspondence includes the LOA sent by HDNVP to the president or head of the partner and recipient organization, and letters or hard copy emails from the director and program managers about proposal preparation, use and disbursement of funds, and other matters and queries such as categorization of funding.

The series also consists of records related to the Bank Netherlands Partnership Program (BNPP, 1997 - 2003) that contain funding proposals for the Dutch Trust Fund, email hard copies and memoranda outlining prioritized proposals by Marleen Dijkman (HDNHE) and from Education Sector Board Secretary Margaret Amaral to HDN Vice President David de Ferranti. Records document activities, timeline, and costs of regional and global activities in the education sector such as girls education and EFA.

There are also files related to rejected proposals and task managers' meetings (2000 - 2001).

Education Sector Board records

Series consists of various records maintained by the Education Sector Board of the Human Development Network (HDN) that was launched in September 1996. The Education Sector Board was one of the first sector boards to operate ahead of the Bank-wide reorganization in July 1997 that created networks to link staff working in the same sectors throughout the Bank.

The sector board was chaired by the sector director of the Human Development Network Education Team (HDNED). Maris O'Rourke was the first to serve in this position (1996 - 2000), followed by Director Ruth Kagia (tenure 2001 - 2008). The board was comprised of staff drawn from the network as well as representatives from the regions, Development Economics Department (DEC), International Finance Corporation (IFC), and World Bank Institute (WBI) and was managed by a sector manager. Accountable to the HDN Council led by the Human Development Network Vice Presidency, the board was supported by a secretariat. Records in the series reflect the responsibilitiesof the board in setting the strategy for the Bank's work in the sector, endorsing business plans and budget, ensuring the regions and anchor perspectives were coordinated, overseeing the outreach and partnerships for the sector, and vetting grant and trust fund proposals for quality, consistency, and prioritization with sector objectives.

A large portion of the series consists of meeting records including minutes, agenda, and reports from 1996 to 2006. There are records for one 1996 meeting held in December and a gap in the meeting records exists between 2004 and 2005. Some of the minutes contain handwritten annotations. Occasionally minutes are filed with copies of correspondence to the Office of the President or HDN Council, conference invitations and agenda, course outlines, draft and final discussion papers, external reports or newsletters, and other items. The minutes reflect discussion and decisions taken on various initiatives and topics such as: special grant proposals; preparation of reports or sector strategy; data and trends presented by sector staff including decline in education lending; external conferences and other events held by partners; quality assurance; Human Development Week event activities; fiscal year business plan and budget; staff training and development; awards programs; Bank reorganization; and various internal administrative matters. The minutes also specify follow-up actions to be taken.

The series also consists of chronological files of the sector board (1995 - 2000, with agap between mid-1998 and 1999), sector manager chronological file (2001 - 2002), and several correspondence and external correspondence files in liaison with the Office of the President (EXC, 2002 - 2005), specifically Wolfensohn (1996 - 1998), executive directors (1996 - 1997), HD Council (1996 - 1997), and the network's predecessor, Human Development Department (HDD) front office (1996 - 1997). The EXC correspondence files contain the incoming correspondence and log sheet with instructions, the response prepared by HDNED director or staff on behalf of the director, and emails between staff regarding draft responses that were sometimes jointly drafted with the input of other Bank units.

Subject files maintained by the sector board (1995 - 1999) also comprise the series. Files contain internal memoranda, external correspondence, and other records that relate to strategy, budget, funding, personnel, knowledge management, communications for the 1997 Human Development Network launch, Evaluation Learning Group, partnerships with external organizations, Development Grant Facility (DGF), and specific sector topics such as distance education and technology. There are also files related to the HDN Council that contain minutes of the HD Council meetings attended by O'Rourke and correspondence outlining directives from the HDD VP for the action of the sector board and regarding the launch of the networks including staffing matters. Correspondence is primarily between O'Rourke and other education sector senior staff such as Jeffrey Waite and Nick Burnett and includes all-in-1 messages and email hard copies, internal memoranda, and facsimiles. The correspondence is occasionally filed with internal reports such as working group and portfolio performance review reports, strategy papers, Terms of Reference, handwritten notes, and various other records.

An additional set of records relate to sector strategy, quality, governance, and partnerships (2000 - 2003). Strategy files contain draft business plans, Terms of Reference,issues notes, sector board minutes, framework or working papers, concept note reports, guidelines, executive summaries, and other reports. Strategic areas include Education for All Fast Track Initiative (EFA-FTI), HIV/AIDS, user fees in primary education, adult basic education, early child development, science and technology, and other themes.

Quality review records maintained by the sector board relate to the Quality Enhancement Review (QER) process for Bank-financed education projects at entry, quality training, and portfolio monitoring. The QER was initiated by the sector board in fiscal year 1999 and organized by the Quality Promotion Team, HDNED, in close collaboration with the Quality Assurance Group (QAG) and the regions. The purpose of the QER was to provide professional advice for country and task teams to enhance the quality and impact of projects and economic sector work (ESW). The files titled "Quality" contain: QER guidelines and overview documents; list of QERs FY2001 to 2003; QER panel roster; Terms of Reference; reports; and email hard copies regarding requests for QER by task team leaders (TTLs) and provision of quality training courses in collaboration between HDNED and Human Development Network, Health, Nutrition and Population Team (HDNHE) and HDNVP. The records pertaining to portfolio monitoring include quarterly reports, FY2002 retrospective report, and email hard copies between HDNED staff Omporn Regel and HDN Operations Officer Hongu Yang from HDNHE Lead Specialist Christopher Walker. Also included are four QER files related to Water and Sanitation and two related to Environment Sector Board QER that were presumably kept as reference.


This series primarily contains black-and-white and color photographs documenting Martin Rosen's visits to various countries (Korea, Japan, West and East Pakistan, Greece, and India) and International Finance Corporation (IFC) financed projects between the 1950s and 1969. Photographs depict various activities, such as dinner events, visits to the city of Karachi (West Pakistan) and Dacca (East Pakistan), signing of the IFC-FEMSA (Fabrica Espanola Magnetos, S.A.) Agreement in Madrid in February 1962, visits to various corporations in Korea, and many more.

There is also a copy of Hosai Hyuga's Memoir (Watashi No Rirekisho), translated from Japanese to English and published in 1987. The frontispiece has a photograph of Mr. and Mrs. Simon Aldewereld with the author.

UNDP/World Bank Energy Sector Programs management and donor coordination

Series consists of records related to the management of the joint United Nations Development Programme / World Bank Energy Sector Assessment Program (EAP) and the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP). The Bank's Energy Department (EGY) was the executing agency of both the EAP technical assistance program (in existence from 1980 to 1987) and ESMAP, created in April 1983 as a companion to EAP to follow up on energy assessments. Records in the series were created by the Office of the Energy Director (EGYDR) and Office of the ESMAP Manager (ESMMR), positions that were merged after the January 1993 reorganization. Records in the series were also maintained by EGY divisions and successor units. The body of records reflects liaison activities with EAP and ESMAP cosponsor UNDP, organization of ESMAP donor annual meetings, donor coordination, fundraising, and ESMAP governance.

Donor coordination

A substantial portion of records in the series concerns relations with donors, financial contributions, and cofinancing (1981 - 1997) for EAP and ESMAP activities. Donor files represent the energy units' liaison with government development agencies of Australia, Austria, Canada, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Finland, France, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Spain, United Kingdom, and the United States. Multilateral donor coordination files include African Development Bank, Asian Development Bank, Commission of European Communities (EEC), International Labor Organization, and Nordic Development Bank. A small set of records (1994 - 2005) related to the management of ESMAP trust funds indicate the trust fund number and/or Bank project number and are organized by government donor, then name of the specific ESMAP project financed.

Internal memoranda are primarily between the Bank's energy divisions (Energy Strategy and Pre-Investment Division II [EGYS2], successor Energy Efficiency and Strategy Unit [IENEE] and others) and include Terms of Reference (TORs) and back-to-office reports (BTORs) of donor visits and consultations, summaries of meetings, discussions about financing and cofinancing, funding allotments, proposals for activities, eligible countries for cofinancing, and other matters. Letters and cables between EGY and donors communicate contribution amounts, lists of activities financed or cofinanced, special assignment agreements, recruitment of staff and consultants, and other administrative matters. Other records are occasionally attached to the correspondence including: ESMAP project reports such as Activity Initiation Briefs (AIBs), assessment aide-memoires, financial data tables, project proposals, meeting agenda, Memorandum of Understanding and Letter of Agreement drafts or copies, externally printed material of donor organizations, and reports dating from 1981.

There are also several general donor files (1983 - 1992) and individual files regarding cofinancing (1983 - 1987), Consultants Trust Funds Program (1990 - 1991), ESMAP Financial Committee (1992), Energy Education Donors Conference in Cote d'Ivoire (1990) and Energy Research Donors Meeting (1990).

Liaison and coordination with UNDP

Records in the series also reflect coordination with EAP and ESMAP cosponsor, UNDP through the UNDP Division for Global and Interregional Projects and UNDP regional offices (1984 - 1996). Letters and facsimiles between UNDP and the Energy Assessment Division (EGYEA), later Office of the ESMAP Manager (ESMMR) and other successors, cover various management issues of the joint energy programs, such as the distribution of reports, recruitment of personnel, work program and financial support of ESMAP activities, ESMAP country studies, discussion of bilateral donor contributions, and support of the ESMAP governance bodies. Internal memoranda include summaries of meetings and joint UNDP and donor meetings, BTORs, and ex-post evaluation. Records filed with the correspondence are project proposals and reports, task descriptions, draft MOUs, financial reports, and other items.

Annual ESMAPmeeting coordination

Records also relate to the organization of ESMAP annual consultative meetings (1987 - 1991) that were mostly created by the Energy Strategy, Management and Assessment Division, Industry and Energy Department (IENES) donor relations manager and IEN Director's Office. Included are: draft and final summary of proceedings sent by the director to IEN staff; statements by IEN and UNDP directors; transcripts and aide-memoires for certain meetings; invitations and post-meeting follow up letters to donors and recipient representatives sent by the IEN director; letters, facsimiles, telexes regarding responses of invitees and administrative arrangements for meetings; provisional and final list of participants and agenda; background discussion reports (some authored by UNDP); and internal memoranda in the form of BTORs outlining donor relations manager and IEN senior management missions to ESMAP donor countries and multilateral donors. Other memoranda from IENES donor relations manager to IEN divisions and UNDP outline discussions with donors and multilateral meetings.

The series also contains records related to the ESMAP in the Nineties Commission set up in 1990 and the subsequent formation of a structured governance body in the form of the ESMAP Consultative Group (CG) and the Technical Advisory Group (TAG) in 1991. Files include agenda and minutes of the first meeting of the commission in May 1990 as well as position papers, background material on work program and donors, proposal for the committee, and internal memoranda. Memoranda concerns internal and external peer review, nominations of the Natural Gas Development Unit (IENGU) chief for individuals to serve on the panel, notes for a second commission meeting prepared by IENEE, and meeting preparations.

ESMAP governance relations

ESMAP CG and TAG meeting records were maintained by the executive secretary for the ESMAP secretariat, former donor relations manager, until around 1992 when the executive secretary position was eliminated. They were also kept by ESMAP manager and IEN Office of the Director. CG records (1991 - 1996) include letters of invitation from CG Chair and Vice President V. Rajagopalan and responses with discussion of agenda, reports distributed for meetings, agenda, list of participants, minutes, transcripts, and communiques distributed to ESMAP staff. Technical Advisory Group records (1991 - 1992) relate to planning the inaugural TAG meeting in July 1991 and subsequent meetings and contain draft and final Terms of Referencefor TAG, list of members, agenda, position descriptions, a briefing note on the genesis of ESMAP, and letters from the CG Chair, FDPVP to TAG members with attached meeting documents and pre-meeting notes, and letters from ESMAP Manager, later IEN Director Richard D. Stern regarding involvement in ESMAP activities. Internal memoranda, mostly between Finance and Private Sector Development Vice Presidency (FPD) and IEN, covers topics such as the status of implementation of the commission's recommendations, meeting arrangements, and TAG membership with attached biographical notes and curriculum vitae.

Reports and other program management records

The series also contains a set of ESMAP Annual Reports (1987 - 1997), audit report with related correspondence (1992), evaluation report jointly authored by the governments of Canada and the Netherlands (1988), commission report on ESMAP (1990), and periodic Information and Status Reports (1987 - 1990) that describe current and prospective activities and priorities and provide statistical data.

The series also contains a set of various reports (1984 - 2002) likely collected for reference, including: proceedings and reports of ESMAP workshops and seminars and jointly organized workshops between ESMAP, sector and regional units; final and draft ESMAP country proposal numbered reports; ESMAP technical working papers; Energy Development Information Note reports; Board reports; regional sector unit reports; internal discussion papers on financial and trust fund matters; meeting files; external reports; and reprint of the 1960 International Development Association (IDA) Articles of the Agreement.

Chronological files

The series contains chronological records created by the Industry and Energy Department (IEN) and its subordinate units and predecessors, including those forwarded to the IISC.

Many of the files maintained in the IISC are thin, some containing a single piece of correspondence. The IISC presumably implemented a file classification system that organized files by the creator unit code indicated on the physical folders. Files were subsequently titled by country, subject, or less frequently, general. Countryfiles are secondarily labeled as subsector (energy, power, gas, oil, etc.), by project title and loan or credit number, or general. The unit codes identify the correspondence as sent and received by the following: IEN DR (Office of the Director), IEN ED (Energy Development Division), IEN EP (Energy Policy and Strategy Division), IEN OG (Oil and Gas Division). The chronological files also include correspondence regarding the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) when the program was carried out by IEN divisions in the 1980s and when ESMAP operated independently from IEN between 1991 and 1992. ESMAP-related files are organized within the folders of the responsible IEN units designated by the above-mentioned unit code.

There is also a set of IEN general chronological files (1987, 1992 - 1996, predominant 1994 - 1995) that includes correspondence of various IEN units and their activities including Industry and Mining (IENIM), Telecommunications and Informatics (IENTI), and others. This set is organized chronologically by year.

Correspondence consists of outgoing internal memoranda, letters, hard copies of All-in-1 messages, facsimiles, telexes, and attachments. Much of the correspondence is between division staff, and with regional technical units. Other letters, facsimiles, or telexes are addressed to consultants, United Nations agency officials, and other development partners involved in projects or other collaborative activities.

A large portion of the files relate to ESMAP activities carried out by IEN departments, including assessment missions, project reconnaissance and identification missions, pre-investment studies and ESMAP program liaison with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). UNDP files are physically labeled with the alphanumeric project numbers. UNDP files consist of correspondence with the UNDP Division for Global and Interregional Projects, UNDP resident representative, or Bank regional staff related to ESMAP country assessment mission staffing and arrangements including with consultants, bilateral donor trust fund contributions, funding of assessments, comments on reports, knowledge and learning activities, project issues, and project meeting summaries also involving regional staff. Specific topics include household energy, fuelwood pre-investment studies, Arun Hydroelectric Project, coal conversion, coal energy efficiency and specifically in the tobacco and tea industries, energy efficiency and pollution control, national sector power development, natural gas development and import, energy planning and management, and others.

There are also files related to: Bank lending projects including energy efficiency and conservation; gas flaring reduction; gas pipelines and urban transport; environmental management; Bank and IEN reorganizations; work program; budget; special grants and donors; conferences and workshops; dissemination and training; policies and procedures of energy units and products; and local committee files which relate to sector board minutes and correspondence and other IEN committees and working groups. Notable individual files relate to the 1993 Oil and Gas Division, Industry and Energy Department (IENOG) reorganization, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), Overseas Development Institute (ODI), and national development agencies.

The record types occasionally filed with the correspondence include: back-to-office reports; mission and consultant Terms of Reference (TORs); ESMAP Activity Initiation Briefs (AIBs) authored by energy sector units; ESMAP final draft (yellow cover) review reports; ESMAP conference reports; conference or training seminar agenda; draft and final aide-memoires detailing summary of issues and recommendations; post-mission issues papers; project status reports; revised and final budget sheets; proposals; and Bank technical reports.

The series also contains incoming and outgoing correspondence (1987 - 1990), mainly telexes and facsimiles, that were predominantly created and received by the Energy Efficiency and Strategy Unit (IENEE), Household Efficiency Unit (IENHE), and successor units including Energy Department (EGY) units. These records largely reflect ESMAP activities and include correspondence with government ministries, bilateral and multilateral donors, Bank resident offices, and UNDP officials regarding matters such as: ESMAP projects; notification of submission of studies or reports; notification and status of assessment missions and follow up plan; status of UNDP-financed projects and UNDP contributions to energy assessments; financial contributions from donors; donor representatives participation in workshops; status requests from consultancy agencies; meeting arrangements; and routine administrative matters.

Budget management

Series consists of records maintained by the front office of the Education Team of the Human Development Network (HDNED) related to fiscal year business planning and reviews in preparation for budget allocation and monitoring. Business plans were developed by the sector director and advisers and were subsequently endorsed by the Education Sector Board on which the director served as chair. Records were predominantly created between 1997 and 2001 by Directors Maris O'Rourke and Ruth Kagia and other senior staff including Bruno LaPorte, Jamil Salmi, and Sukai Prom-Jackson. The records provide contextual information about the organization of HDNED teams, the sector's thematic activities, strategic objectives, support to Bank regions, partnerships, spending, and lending.

Record types within the series include memoranda, hard copy emails, budget sheets, staffing lists, cost and expenditure tables, guidelines, hard copy presentation slides, HDN issues notes, and draft and final reports concerning the sector'sbusiness plans, mid-term review of work programs, and retrospective reviews. These records, particularly the reports that are in table form, detail the sector's various work programs, such as early childhood education, under which the program's various themes, activities, projects and outcomes, and regions of focus are outlined.

Correspondence is between HDNED director or other senior staff and the Human Development Network Vice Presidency (HDNVP), Human Development Network Operations (HDNOP), and Strategy, Finance, Risk and Resource Management (SFRRM) regarding the planning process and budget matters, and allocation of funds to the regions and HD anchor.

Series also includes a file from 2004 containing records related to global partnerships and programs, specifically preparation of the Development Grant Facility (DGF) work program, budget, and Global Program and Partnerships (GPP) portfolio review. Among the records are a hard copy presentation on DGF and proposed DGF budget FY05 to executive directors, hard copy emails attached to DGF summary information with budget requests and allocations, DGF work program task outlines, draft report, and DGF Council correspondence and reports on allocations for HDN. Correspondence is mainly between HDNED staff and DGF manager.

Administration and organization

Series consists of records related to the internal administration and organization of the International Bank of Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and International Development Association (IDA) maintained in the centralized filing system from 1946 to 1980. Records related to the International Finance Corporation (IFC) are less voluminous and were created between 1956 and 1974.

Records originated in the departments and offices whose files were centralized over time including, but not limited to: Administration; Organization and Planning; Development Services Department; Controller's Department; Program and Budgeting; Information Solutions; and the Office of the President and Office of the Vice President whose files were centralized until 1968. Although Secretary's Department records were considered specialized according to the Administration Manual and were decentralized beginning from 1947, there is a significant volume of correspondence between the Secretary's Department and other centralized departments in this series. The types of records comprising the series include internal memoranda occasionally filed with accompanying Board or committee reports and other internal reports and drafts, as well as cables, incoming and outgoing letters, minutes of meetings and proceedings, copies and drafts of contracts and agreements, press releases, press clippings, external reports and articles, and architectural plans and drawings.

The series contains records related to the organization and procedures of theBank as well as the establishment of its departments and subordinate offices. A small volume of files related to the President's Office and Vice President's Office (1947 - 1971) document general and personal activities and congratulatory letters, as well as two files regarding the organization of the President's Council (1969 - 1968) and subjects for discussion at the council meetings, together with organizational charts and bulletins. The records also document Bank-wide reorganizations as well as work programs, budgets, staffing requirements, internal relations, and activity reports of various Bank departments and divisions from 1946 to the 1970s including: Administration, Economic Department, Loan Department, Legal Department, Development Services and its successor Information and Public Affairs, Technical Operations and its successor Projects Department, Programming and Budgeting, Technical Assistance and Planning Staff, Secretary's, and Treasurer's. Several files relate to the organization of the Bank's early economic research program as well as meeting summaries and monthly progress reports of the Loan Department and Economic Department and its' sector division staff. These department files mostly contain memoranda that is occasionally attached to administrative circulars announcing staffing assignments and organizational changes, press clippings, or other records. A few files in the series relate to Economic Development Institute (EDI) administration, inquiries, and library project (1969 - 1971). Field offices files document administrative procedures for the setting-up and operations of offices. Correspondence is mostly between the Bank's representatives or field office staff, and senior management and staff at headquarters. The more substantive letters in the representative files describe the economic situation in the countries. Field offices files include the following record date ranges: Paris Office, also referred to as the European Office, first opened in Europe (1947 - 1979), New York (1947 - 1971), Beirut (1952 - 1954), London (1956 - 1979), Geneva (1965 - 1968), Copenhagen (1969 - 1971), and Treasurer Department's various offices in Europe (1947 - 1949). A small number of resident mission files (1969 - 1980) mostly relate to the offices' functions, leasing of premises, and other administrative matters.

Other records in the series document policies and operations of the Bank's administrative and support services such as: records management and the maintenance and disposition of World Bank records and official documents; Joint Library and Legal Library; internal audit; translation and document printing services; communications; the use of devices and computers; and data processing.

Series also contains records related to the Articles of Agreement and By-Laws of IBRD and IDA (1946 - 1971). Included are: internal memoranda; cables; copies of the Articles including in French and Spanish; printed by-laws; drafts and official Board documents and decisions; reports of the Committee on Interpretations and Committee on Procedure; and correspondence concerning the interpretation and amendments of these instruments as well as the IFC Articles of Agreement and Charter; and voting of countries on the articles and by-laws. Other files concern the IBRD, IDA, and IFC budget (1948 - 1971) language (1950 - 1968), and seals (1956 - 1965).

There are records such as internal memoranda and reports, United Nations resolutions and minutes, UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) reports, press clippings, and speeches related to the history and inauguration of IFC (1956 - 1974), history of the Bank, and history projects such as the Brookings Institution publication and oral history planning (1942, 1944, 1947 - 1974). There is a single file related to the origin of IDA, labeled as General Counsel "Mr. Sommers' working file on IDA" including legislation, summaries of President Black's meetings, statements of Board of Governors, and country member notes on the IDA proposal (1959 - 1960). Also included is a list of bibliographic sources from pre-Bretton Woods period. The 1942 and 1944 documents are copies of outlines and draft "Proposal for a Bank of Reconstruction and Development of the United and Associated Nations" by the United States Treasury research department. Also includes correspondence regarding the planning of anniversary celebrations (1956 - 1971), draft statements, and press coverage booklets of the tenth and twentieth anniversaries of IBRD (1966).

Donations and organizational membership records in the series (1956 - 1968) relate to policy discussion about Bank financial contributions to international and local institutions, professional societies, as well as club memberships and membership dues.

Series also contains records of various Bank meetings and the functions and procedures of committees beginning from 1946 to 1977. Includes correspondence and minutes of professional staff meetings (1951 - 1968), senior staff meetings (1969 - 1971), department heads meetings outside of Washington, or "lost weekends" (1952 - 1968), Administration Department staff meetings (1947 - 1968), and other department meetings (1966 - 1968). Committee records include minutes or reports of: the Board Committee on Administration and Administrative Policy (1946 - 1957); Board Committee on Interpretation and Procedure (1946 - 1949); Joint Bank-Fund Committee on Integrated Services and Functions (1949 -1953); Joint Library Committee (1946 - 1947); Committee on Bank Organization (1952); Committee on Staff Utilization (1955); PublicationsCommittee (1969 - 1971); and others.

The series contains a substantial volume of records concerning the preparation and amendment of directives and manuals that set out the policies, procedures, and standards for the overall management and administration of the World Bank from 1946. Includes correspondence and statements regarding the preparation of the Administrative Manual, Organizational Bulletin and Policies and Procedures Statements (1947 - 1966), IFC Administrative Manual (1956 - 1966), Basic Documents Manual (1961 - 1971), and Organizational Manual (1966 -1971). There are also sets of the Administrative Order and Information Circular (1946 - 1947), Administrative Circulars (1947 - 1974) and Weekly Bulletins (1965 - 1971), and related memoranda. The Weekly Bulletins replaced the Information Bulletin in December 1952 and were prepared successively by the Administrative Planning Division, the Organization and Procedures Division (1970), the Administrative Services Department's Document Services Division (1972), and Information and Public Affairs (1973). There are also copies of the Development Services Department newsletter (1969 - 1971).

The series contains memoranda and other records concerning agreements (1949 - 1975) of an administrative nature such as cost-sharing between IBRD and IDA, Bank and IFC, and between the Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF). Other agreements pertain to library services of the Joint Library and the Legal Library, United Nations and the Bank, and leasing of space and office rentals. There are also records related to authorized signatures for written instruments.

Series contains correspondence, copies of contracts, building and floor plans, technical drawings, and other records relating to the acquisition, construction, and maintenance of World Bank Group buildings and management of premises in Washington, Paris, London, and New York (1949 - 1977). There are several files documenting the construction of the Bank "D" building at 1809 G Street, Washington. Also included are New York office plans dated 1963 and reproductions of 1937 plans.

Series also contains records related to Bank assets such as vehicles and apartments and facilities for Economic Development Institute (EDI) participation, insurance coverage of buildings and vehicles, as well as other administrative files on office services, conference rooms and cafeterias, maintenance contracts, office space and security, parking facilities, and the creation of the Bank-Fund Credit Union.

There are also records related to general staff services and policies, financial assistance, privileges and immunities, taxation including Bank staff exemptions, travel policy and travel services, retirement plan, staff health and welfare, insurance coverage, and the Staff Association. Includes privileges and immunities files for IFC (1955 - 1968). Other files deal with contributions to charity, allowances for official entertainment, and policy regarding the acceptance of gifts, civil defense, and other matters.

Series also contains a small portion of reports, correspondence, and other records relating to varied topics including: studies of the Bank's organization and procedures conducted by General Counsel Davidson Sommers (1962 - 1966) and Vice President Mohamed Shoaib's Study Committee (1966 - 1967); the Bank's involvement in the establishment of the Washington International School (1969 - 1971); public relations (1972 - 1974); and copy of the report "The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 1946 - 1953".

Report preparation and President's memoranda

Series consists of records related to the preparation, publication, and follow up of the Commission's final report, titled "Partners in Development" issued in September 1969. The series includes: draft outlines of the report produced in 1968 and 1969 including an outline prepared by Chairman Pearson; internal memoranda regarding comments on the report outline and discussion about content between Commission Executive Secretary Edward K. Hamilton, Deputy Executive Secretary Ernest Stern, other Commission staff, and World Bank staff; preliminary drafts and final version of the Commission's report; and correspondence pertaining to the report's publication. Also included in the series is World Bank President's Memoranda on Report Recommendations, the 1970 official Bank response to the findings of the Commission initiated by President Robert S. McNamara.

Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research planning files

Series contains records documenting the origins and first year of operation of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) that were maintained by Central Files and created primarily by the Development Services Department (DSD) between 1969 and 1971. A single item dated 1968 is a copy of the by-laws of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture. Co-sponsored by the World Bank Group, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), CGIAR was established in May 1971 as an informal association of countries, international development agencies, and private foundations to support a network of international agricultural research centers.

Records in this series consist mostly of correspondence between Bank staff assigned responsibility for implementing proposals for CGIAR including DSD Director Richard H. Demuth and Arie Kruithoff and their counterparts at the Rockefeller Foundation, Ford Foundation, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the individual research institutes to be financed through CGIAR, and senior managers of the Bank principally Warren C. Baum and Vice President, Operations J. Burke Knapp. A smaller volume of correspondence is from L.J.C. Evans of the Bank's Agriculture Projects Department, concerning agricultural research summary of meetings.

Other records included in the series are summaries of meetings of agricultural research institutes including the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, speeches, and study papers and reports produced by the initial agricultural research institutes funded by CGIAR including annual and financial reports. The series also consists of a set of documents on the first meeting of the CGIAR held in January 1971.

Membership files

Series contains records maintained in Central Files and semi-centralized filing stations from 1946 until 1977 that relate to membership of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), International Finance Corporation (IFC), and International Development Association (IDA). The records originated in the departments and offices whose files were centralized over a period of time including, but are not limited to: Offices of the President and Vice President; Treasurer's Department and its Cashier's Division; Office of the Controller; Legal Department; and others. Records also originated from the Secretary's Department responsible for coordinating the membership process. The department distributed certain correspondence and related documents to the Central Files while likely maintaining its own official files.

Records include internal memoranda, letters, cables, drafts and final Board resolutions, Secretary's memoranda, financial statements, handwritten notes, press releases, press clippings, external reports, national legislation documents, and other records. Informal meeting notes and summaries of discussion during visits to countries are in the form of internal memoranda. There are also summaries of annual meeting discussions between regional staff with delegations prepared as internal memoranda. Letters are primarily between the Bank president, vice president, Secretary's or Treasurer's Departments and government officials such as ministers, central bank authorities, and ambassadors.

Individual country membership files were separately maintained for IBRD, IFC, and IDA. The files document early discussions of membership, changes in membership status, and occasionally refers to the political situation of the country interested in membership.

Within the IBRD membership records (1946 - 1977), country files are subdivided into membership, capital, depository, governors and alternates, and withdrawals of membership for certain countries. Correspondence specifically relates to: notifications of interest or intention for membership; acknowledgement of applications and updates on membership process; opening and closing of accounts; payments of contributions by central banks; revaluations and devaluations of contributions; problems of interest due and unpaid subscriptions; bearing demands; audit and policy questions; monthly statements of transactions; procedures for maintenance of accounts in the name of IBRD; and adjustments of loans.

IFC country membership files (1954 - 1971) contain correspondence regarding background material for Bank/IFC/International Monetary Fund membership, discussions on projects financed by IFC, payments required from each country on its pending capital subscription to IFC, statements showing the balance of accounts, IFC loans, and a file concerning United States budget contribution to IFC. There is a smaller volume of files related to general IFC membership matters, IFC capital, and replenishment resources. General membership correspondence covers issues such as pending increases in member's capital subscriptions, holdings of non-convertible currencies in member countries as of June 1971 and matters relating to China's membership. Other files concern IFC capital stock and capital increase, subscriptions of member countries, replenishment of IFC capital, correspondence from IBRD to IFC concerning the use of Bank funds loaned to IFC, financial statements, schedules of projected subscriptions adjustments of IFC capital subscription. IFC replenishment resourcesfiles include correspondence documenting IFC needs for additional loan, increase of IFC equity resources, or capital stock, and new projection capital invested in equities.

IDA membership correspondence (1960 - 1977) concerns requests for the maintenance of accounts, additional subscriptions under IDA replenishment resources and payment process, requests for opening accounts in IDA books, balance of accounts, and maintenance of value due on initial subscription.

Operations policy and procedures

Series consists of records related to the formulation of policies, guidelines, standards, and advisory support for lending, economic sector work, and other operations of the International Bank for Reconstruction of Development (IBRD), International Finance Corporation (IFC), and International Development Association (IDA) that were maintained in the centralized files. Records date from 1946 to 1986. There are no records from 1987 in this series, likely because files were handed over to the functional departments following the closure of the NRIC in July 1987. The offices and non-regional departments whose records were centralized over time and are represented most prominently in this series include, but are not limited to: Office of the President and Vice President; Treasurer's Department; Office of the Controller; Research, later Economic Department (years of operation between 1946 - 1952); Technical Operations and divisions (1952 - 1965) and its successors Projects Department (1965 - 1972), Central Projects Staff (1972 - 1982), and Operations Policy Vice Presidency (1982 - 1986); Technical Assistance and Liaison Department (1951 - 1967) and successor, Development Services (1967 - 1973).

Records comprising the series include internal memoranda, incoming and outgoing letters, cables, copies of Board records and committee documents, legal document drafts, concept and strategy papers, external reports, summaries, minutes or excerpts of senior staff and other department or external meetings, and published articles and press clippings. Back-to-office reports and Terms of Reference are often in the form of internal memoranda.

Development and debt policy

A significant volume of records relate to general development and foreign aid policy, strategy, and activities for developing countries. Records cover the period 1947 to 1977 and contain internal memoranda and Bank-produced reports or comments on reports on development including the Tinbergen Report (1953 - 1958), Horowitz Proposal (1964 - 1968), Machado proposal (1963 - 1968), and an article by Hollis B. Chenery entitled "Effectiveness of Foreign Assistance". Also contains original letters sent to and from Presidents Woods and McNamara, and memoranda between the president, vice president, president's Economic Advisor Irving Friedman, with directors or advisors of Economic Department, Development Services, Area Departments, general counsel of the Legal Department, and IFC. There is correspondence regarding President Woods' proposal for a grand assize on development assistance and responses from government officials, and correspondence related to the Bank's support to the Commission on International Development (or Pearson Commission) formed in 1968 at President McNamara's request. There is also correspondence to and from McNamara and senior Bank staff following the Pearson Commission's findings as well as proceedings of the Bank's Committee of the Whole on Pearson Commission Recommendations. Other development topics covered are: development finance trends and outlook; Bank's role as aid coordinator; coordination of bilateral project financing; multilateral financing; Bank study of aid results; use of leverage in development aid; land reform; and the Brandt Commission (1976 - 1983) also known as the Independent Commission on International Development Issues. Development correspondence is often filed together with external reports, copies of Economic Committee papers, published articles and press clippings, and excerpts of senior staff meetings.

Series also includes correspondence, reports, and other documents relating to the Bank's policy on indebtedness (1947 - 1977), debt information compiled for the Annual Report, communication with regional development banks on joint debt, and the Foreign Bondholders Council (1946 - 1971).

IDA operational policy and procedures

The series contains a set of IDA general operational policy and procedure files (1960 - 1971) and files regarding credit regulation, creditworthiness, and Statements of Credits (1966 - 1968). General IDA policy files include reports from the Staff Loan Committee, Board of Directors meetings, IDA Financial Policy committee, and a draft of the Report of the Working Group on IDA policies by Benjamin B. King (1968). Other records concerning IDA policy and guidelines are found throughout this series filed according to the subject matter.

Lending and non-lending policy and procedures

A large volume of records comprising this series relate to IBRD, IFC, and IDA lending policy (1948 - 1986) including specific topics such as: loan regulations and agreements; loan administrative reports; procedures for handling loan applications; lending forecasts including Five-Year Program; structural adjustment lending; Special Project Preparation Facility; Third Window loans; cancellation of loans and credits; and consultative and negative pledge clauses in loan agreements. There are also files on colonial lending (1948 - 1952), effective date, determination of loan grace periods, and amortization payment and maturity.

The series also contains records related to the Bank's technical assistance function from 1946 to 1977 and includes material on the UN Technical Assistance Board, correspondence with technical research institutes and training centers, and quarterly reports.

Project policy and procedures

A sizable portion of records also relate to the development of standards and policy surrounding Bank projects (1946 - 1977) such as appraisal of proposed projects, preparation and costs of projects, supervision of Bank and IDA project loans, project monitoring and identification of problem projects, performance audit reports, and origin of supply particularly for civil works projects.

Also included are records related to the creation, development, and review of Bank Group-wide and divisional procurement and consultant policies (1947 - 1986). Procurement policy issues and advice cover topics such as: assistance to borrowers in procuring materials needed for a project; contract bidding; selection of consultants; sector project contracts; review visits and discussions with governments; and comments on Bank procurement guidelines.

Specific files regarding consultants and contractors selected for Bank projects include correspondence on bidding, bonds, contractual arrangements, and international industry federations. There are also contractor files for certain member countries as well as the 1956 Colquhoun consultancy report.

Mission policy and procedures

Mission files comprising the series (1947 - 1971) relate to the establishment, administration, and functions of economic and sector missions, project supervision missions, technical assistance missions and special missions undertaken primarily by the Area Departments and Projects Department. Correspondence containing mostly internal memoranda, details practices and procedures for the collection of data and reports, scheduling and staffing for missions, cooperation with United Nations other international organizations and financial support of missions, and country updates. Memoranda is occasionally attached to lists of missions, tables with comparative data, Economic Committee reports on missions, and excerpts of senior staff meetings. Also includes a 1947 report on European missions and description of proposed missions. There are a portion of files (1972 - 1974) containing cables and outgoing letters drafted by the Projects Department and its sectors, mostly pertaining to administrative arrangements for missions and meetings and occasionally mission follow up discussions.Also included are correspondence and reports from the Bank's resident offices and missions (1947 - 1968).

Operational committees, working groups, task forces, and meetings

Series also contains the centralized records related to the practices, procedures, composition, and functions of the Bank's committees, working groups, and task forces concerned with operations. Includes memoranda, agenda, minutes, or reports of the Loan Committee (1946 - 1971), Economic Committee (1953 - 1968), Statutory Loan Committee (1947 - 1968), Financial Policy Committee (1949 - 1967), Technical Assistance Committee (1961 - 1964), Committee on Development Projects and Prospects (1975 - 1977), Operational Policy Subcommittee (1982), Advisory Panel on Bank Operations (1966 - 1968) and Working Parties on Financial Aspects of Development Assistance (DAC, 1969 - 1971). The functions of the Technical Assistance Committee that was established in 1961 under the chairmanship of the director of Development Services to review proposals forBank/IDA technical assistance were taken over in 1964 by the Loan Committee. Loan Committee records document committee deliberations, function, structure of meetings, designation of officers, drafting of Operational Memoranda, and subjects for discussion presented by Bank staff. Among the committee records are also files related to senior staff meetings (1963 - 1968).

External aid coordination

The series also contains records concerning the development and implementation of policy and strategies for co-financing covering the period 1975 to 1986 including joint and parallel financing. Records also cover development aid coordination with bilateral and multilateral organizations, aid untying, and guidelines and procedures related to consortia and consultative aid groups sponsored by the Bank (1971 - 1980). Also contains correspondence and documents related to the Consultative Group on Food Production and Investment in Developing Countries (CGFPI, 1974 to 1977).

Arbitration policy and procedures

Arbitration records in the series (1960 - 1971) concern policy and practices for the settlement of differences between member country clients, consultants, contractors, and manufacturers involved in Bank projects. Included is correspondence sent and received primarily by IBRD general counsel and staff and occasionally from operations or sector departments. There is also material concerning the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes (SID), and the establishment of the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) including summary of meeting proceedings (1964 - 1968).

Finance policy and procedures

Financial audit records in the centralized files were primarily created by Treasurer's Department, Office of the Controller, Technical Operations Department, its sector divisions, and successors and relate to external auditing of Bank and IDA borrowers accounts by independent and corporate auditors. Letters and cables to and from government officials, companies, and private banks provide information on balances of loans and loan details, and internal memoranda outlines countries with project loans and contains arrangements and reviews of accounting practices of industrial borrowers.

Records related to the Bank's policy on investment were created between 1950 - 1973 and covers the advancement and protection of private and foreign investments, guarantees, insurance, and the Symington Plan (1953 - 1957). There is also correspondence with international investment institutions and memoranda from Shirley E. Boskey, policy planning officer and senior policy planning advisor in the Development Services Department, concerning the Working Party on International Investment Guarantees.

Portfolio sales and participation records in the series (1947 - 1968) include memoranda to and from Legal and Treasurer's Departments and the Office of the President including President Black. There are also letters, cables, and other material related to the sales of bonds received under loan agreements and participation by outsiders in loans. Includes approvals for borrowing filed by country, certificates of investment, exchange transfers, and statements of borrowers' obligations. Also includes correspondence relating to the Ford Foundation participation (1956 - 1962), German purchasers, and transactions handled by the Bank's New York and Paris Offices.

Development banks and development finance companies

Several files in the series relate to development banks and development finance companies (1951 - 1978) including Bank Group meetings with regional development banks and development finance companies. Other records relate to IFC's appointment of directors to the boards of development banks and of finance companies in which IFC is a shareholder. There are also a few files regarding the Conference of Development Finance Companies (1965 - 1971).

Operations administration

Series contains records concerning Bank operations administration from as early as 1946 and departments' status of projects, reports to andfrom department heads, country assignments, schedules of operations, operational vice president meetings (1978 - 1986), operations evaluation system (1975 - 1977), and operations evaluation reports including the annual report (1978 - 1983). There are also records related to the preparation of Board reports and working papers such as Future Role of the Bank (1977), Possible Improvements in Techniques of Lending - A Study by the Staff of the World Bank (1970), and a review of Bank experience with proposals for the future (1969). Two general reports files (1975 - 1977) relate to the distribution, format, quality of various reports proposals and standards for the president's report, appraisal report, economic and sector reports, annual report, and drafting of confidentiality agreement of contractors regarding Bank records.

The series also includes correspondence and other records related to policies, practices, and preparation for Bank Group operational reports and statements including: Monthly Operational Summary of Bank and IDA projects (1955 - 1971); Semi-Monthly Operational Report to the Executive Directors on Bank and IDA Operations (1967 - 1971); IFC Monthly Report (1966 - 1968); Statement of Loans (1952 - 1976); Status of Loans (1954 - 1970); Statement of Credits (1969 - 1975); World Tables (1969 - 1976); Country Data and Economic Indicators, Country Economic Brief and Country Program Papers (1969 - 1985).

There is also material concerning the planning and preparation of the Bank's operational directives including the Operational Memorandum and Manual (1952- 1986), Central Projects Notes and Operational Policy Note (1981 - 1986) and Projects Department Director's Memoranda (1969 - 1971).

Fellowship and training files in this series (1969 - 1971) primarily originated in the Projects Department and its sectors, particularly the Education Sector, and contain mostly internal memoranda and cables related to: administrative arrangements of member country trainees for operational projects also known as manpower trainees; nominations of trainees; proposed training for Projects Department professional staff; trainee and fellowship recipient reports; and comments on a draft manual on an "overseas" training program.

Board of Directors support and reference

Series consists of records related to the functions of the Board of Executive Directors of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), International Development Association (IDA), and International Finance Corporation (IFC) that were maintained in the Bank's centralized filing system since 1946, originally General Files, then Central Files. The centralized records originated primarily from Secretary's Department as well as the Office of the President. As described in the archival history section, Secretary's Department is the custodian of Board of Directors records and proceedings but distributed certain correspondence and related documents to the Central Files while maintaining its own official files.

Records in this series include general correspondence files (1947 - 1977) concerning IBRD composition of standing committees, statements of directors, board schedules, procedural issues, information on monthly reports, and routine administrative matters. Correspondence is occasionally filed with related Board reports. While the IDA general correspondence file (1960 - 1966) is sparse, the more substantive general correspondence files for IFC (1956 - 1967) contain draft and issued Board reports regarding country membership and rules of procedure, memoranda concerning routine announcements and amendments to rules of procedure, directors' membership, formation of the IFC Board, statements and meeting summary of the IFC Directors, and investment processes. The IFC general correspondence file also contains the Rules of Procedure and By-laws booklets (1956). Individual correspondence files (1947 - 1971) consist of internal memoranda, outgoing cables and letters, and original letters primarily to and from the Bank president, secretary, and government officials regarding appointments and resignations of directors and alternates, their travel, and other administrative issues. Some individual files occasionally include the director's biographical statement.

There are also cables, memoranda, and Board reports relating to elections (1950 - 1971) and salaries and expenses (1948 - 1971), the latter which includes the report of the Board of Governors Ad Hoc Committee to consider provisions of the Articles of Agreement and By-laws relating to duties and renumeration of executive directors (1949 - 1950).

The series also includes meeting correspondence (1950 - 1971), agenda for IBRD and IDA executive director meetings (1966 - 1974), minutes of some IBRD, IDA, and IFC executive director meetings (1966 - 1974) including IFC directors' 1956 first meetings, IBRD special meetings minutes (1964), summaries, and IBRD, IDA, and IFC resolutions (1967 - 1971).

The series also includes a small volume of records relating to: the establishment and proceedings of the Bank Committee on Directors' Administrative Matters (CODAM, 1967 - 1971); agreement and administration of the Bank-Fund Executive Directors' Library (1968 - 1971); establishment of the Joint Audit Committee of the Executive Directors (1969 - 1971); and revisions of the Operational Policy Manual including the section on aid coordination and well as the approach paper on aid coordination (1970 - 1971).

Latin America and Caribbean Projects Department (LCP) chronological files

Series includes Jennings' chronological files relating to his work as assistant director in the Latin America and Caribbean Projects Department (LCP). Records include memoranda related to: training; staffing; departmental budget; the implementation of the Performance, Planning, and Review (PPR) system in the Latin America and Caribbean (LCR) Vice Presidency; procurement procedures; LCR project implementation reviews; and oversight of sector departments reporting to LCP director S. M. L. van der Meer. Chronological file also includes numerous informal "Notes" to Bank colleagues.

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